Top PDF Body image, visual working memory and visual mental imagery

Body image, visual working memory and visual mental imagery

Body image, visual working memory and visual mental imagery

Our purpose here is to focus in more detail on one particular aspect of cognition that has been largely neglected in understanding body dissatisfaction and related issues: visual cognition. The research reported here starts from a simple and relatively uncontroversial position—that there are (at least) two representative codes capable of sustaining imagery in the cognitive system, one verbal and one visuospatial in nature (Paivio, 1991). This dual coding approach underlies the highly influential Working Memory approach (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974; Baddeley, Allen & Hitch, 2011). In essence the working memory approach posits that parallel temporary verbal and visual information storage systems (known respectively as the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketch pad) store information in a passive manner, whilst other multimodal systems can perform operations on or form links to that information. One type of multimodal system is the ‘central executive’—a label reflecting a set of largely active processes that can manipulate the information held temporarily active in the passive stores, whilst the another, termed the ‘episodic buffer’ is more automatic in nature and involved in the formation of cohesive and unified ‘episodes’ (Baddeley, Allen & Hitch, 2011). When looked at from this perspective it seems likely that any representation of body image is likely to contain a visuospatial component alongside a verbal one. There is ample evidence that such visual images can be created and maintained in memory, even in the absence of explicit visual input (e.g., Quinn & McConnell, 1996; Pearson & Logie, 2004). Any task where a participant is asked to consider their own body image should invoke, at least to some extent, a visual representation. Hence, visual imagery ability should be linked to body image. One possibility is that the more realistic and veridical a participant’s internal model of their own appearance is, the more resistant they should be to bias and distortion of body image driven by social and cultural factors operationalized in semantic memory.
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Verbal vs. visual coding in modified mental imagery map exploration task

Verbal vs. visual coding in modified mental imagery map exploration task

Theoretical predecessor of the imagery debate was Dual Coding Theory (DCT), proposed by Alan Paivio. This theory nicely elaborated a group of findings demonstrating a significant gain obtained in reproduction of concrete versus abstract words (Paivio, 1969, 1971; Paivio & Csapo, 1969, 1973). According to Paivio’s theory, cognitive system operates two distinct classes of mental representation (or “codes”): verbal representations (symbolic code) and mental images (analog code). Information obtained through language would be stored in verbal code, while information obtained through various sensory modalities would use visual or analog code. This implies that concrete concepts could be coded in both analogue and verbal code, whereas abstract concepts could only be represented in verbal code. As a result a concrete word presented in a free recall task, would evoke both analog concept and associated image, i.e. the two separate, but linked memory traces, one in each memory stores (verbal and visual). Such dual storing would clearly enhance a chance of recognition and retrieval for concrete words (Paivio, 1986). Subsequent experiments also showed that there are significant differences in cognitive processing of verbal and visual representations, particularly in storing and evoking, repeatedly confirming positive bias for visual material (Beg & Paivio, 1969; Paivio, 1975; Paivio & Lambert, 1981).
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Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

semantic processing engaged by each respective task. We carefully selected materials that were not easily imagined, so that only implementing the instructed visual imagery strategy–using image- able tokens to represent abstract concepts–would be likely to engage imagery processes. However, it is possible, if not likely, that participants engaged in semantic processing during both tasks with the abstract word pairs (e.g., evaluating the meaning of each word while generating images and sentences). Recruitment of semantic processing in both instructed strategies would have reduced the likelihood of finding task-selective effects for the sentence generation condition. Our finding of task-selective effects for only one of our two tasks (imagery) diverges from previous investiga- tions that have found task-selective effects for different types of encoding tasks [10,11]. Otten et al., [11], for instance, identified task selective memory activations during study for both a semantic task (an animacy judgment) and a syllable counting task. One possible account for our discrepant findings compared to Otten [11] is that the tasks used in that study may have involved sufficiently different mental operations (judging animacy versus counting syllables) than the tasks used in this experiment. It should be noted however, that the task-selective masking procedure used to identify task specific memory effects in this investigation was also more conservative (i.e., used a more conservative threshold) than the procedure undertaken by Otten [11].
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Results: the results demonstrated an increase in publications since 2012 with 11 arti-

Results: the results demonstrated an increase in publications since 2012 with 11 arti-

symptoms include two dimensions that may be related to underlying neural mechanisms and different clinical correlations: the psychotic dimension, which compre- hends delusions and hallucinations, and the disorga- nization dimension that compromises behavior and language. Negative symptoms are characterized by disorders of perception, inferential thinking, language and communication, behavior organization, affectivity, speech, hedonic capacity, will, motivation, attention and a decrease or loss of emotions. They also include restrictions on the intensity of emotional expression (affective flattening), on the fluency and productivity of thought and language (alogia) and on the initiation of goal-directed behavior (apathy) 5-8 . Negative symptoms
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Effect of font-size, real-size, and mental imagery on JOLs and memory

Effect of font-size, real-size, and mental imagery on JOLs and memory

When we intend to learn a new material, it is our best intention to memorize as many concepts as possible. However, the ways we ought to learn them might not be the best, like for example, regarding content as really memorable because of any particular cue. One cue that a student might pick to judge the memorability of a content, could be the font-size. When the student would study these larger font-size contents, he probably would, mistakenly assume they are easier to remember (Rhodes & Castel, 2008). This would presumably lead us to study the content in larger font-size for less time, maybe jeopardizing our study to some extent. Additionally, this lesser study time can also serve as another cue for perceived memorability (Mueller, Dunlosky, Tauber, & Rhodes, 2014). The predictions about our learning are called judgments of learning (JOLs) and represent our confidence that we will remember a studied material in the future. We make JOLs when we are studying, so JOLs can be relevant to our daily basis on our education (Mueller & Dunlosky, 2017). Our thoughts, beliefs, and judgments about how our memory works is called metamemory, and if we think a factor affects memory, when in fact it does not, we suffer a metamemory illusion. As Rhodes and Castle (2008) showed, participants would regard larger font-size words as more memorable. However, free recall tests in their studies showed no differences in memory results between large and small font-size words. This serves as a clear example of a metamemory illusion. It is best known as the font-size effect and it has been replicated ever since its discovery (e.g., Mueller & Dunlosky, 2017).
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Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period

Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period

A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Oph - thalmology - Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) and appro- ved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Medical records of 461 patients referred to the Low Vision Service over a twenty year period were reviewed. The data from the first clinical evaluation performed at the Low Vision Service were collected and included age, gender and diagnosis. All patients referred to this Service presented visual impairment, classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO), as a person who has impairment of visual functioning even after treatment and/or standard refractive correction, and has a visual acuity of less than 6/18 to light perception, or a visual field less than 10 degrees from the point of fixation. WHO has published the term low vision as moderated visual impairment combined with severe visual impairment and both are according to the International Classification of Diseases - 10 (15) . According to the Low Vision Service requirements,
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Automatic Classification of Ulcers Through Visual Image

Automatic Classification of Ulcers Through Visual Image

Qualitative assessment based on scales is widely used for its simplicity to create comparable semi-quantitative data (Wannous et al., 2010) and promote better management of resources, how- ever, it depends on visual inspection, being time consuming and susceptible to human errors, having its usefulness limited. In fact, most of the mentioned scales present several limitations, such as: not incorporating subjective symptoms such as pain or pruritus (Crowe et al., 1998; Van der Wal et al., 2012; Flanagan, 1993; Van Zuijlen et al., 2002), not considering nutrition as a risk factor (Flanagan, 1997), not providing descriptions of their risk components (Norton, 1996) and the absence of re- cording the location of the ulcer and foot deformities. The patient self-assessments of CW can be affected by several aspects such as emotional influences, ulcer location (Martin et al., 2003; Powers et al., 1999), age (Singer et al., 2000; Kearney et al., 2001) and gender (Newton-Bishop et al., 2004), thus, the assessment based on patient-related factors should also be included (Oyibo et al., 2001). Furthermore, the resulting notes of the examination process are not always documented consistently and their storage constitute extra clinical work (Malian et al., 2005; Veredas et al., 2010). Additionally, there is not a gold internationally adopted standard scale for each type of wound and because the assessment is based on the observer and its experience, even in the same department of the same hospital, one scale can have its applicability adapted according to the ob- server perception.
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Tarefa N-Back Visual: construção de um instrumento de avaliação de memória de trabalho para crianças = Visual N-Back Task: development of an assessment instrument to working memory for children

Tarefa N-Back Visual: construção de um instrumento de avaliação de memória de trabalho para crianças = Visual N-Back Task: development of an assessment instrument to working memory for children

Sendo assim, essa atividade requer monitoramento online , atualização e manipulação das informações lembradas (Owen, McMillan, Laird e Bullmore, 2005) habilidades cognitivas essenciais para o exame da WM (Baddeley, Eysenck e Anderson, 2009). No modelo apresentado por Baddeley e Hitch (1974), a memória de trabalho aparece como um sistema de memória de curto prazo, envolvido no processamento temporário e na estocagem de informações. Neste modelo, existem três principais componentes: o executivo central, que coordena os processos cognitivos e integra as informações das alças visuoespacial e fonológica além de ser o responsável pela decisão de direcionamento da atenção quando essa precisa ser compartilhada (Coser, Paulista, Macedo, Fialho e Uriona, 2008); a alça fonológica, que armazena temporariamente a informação fonológica no que se refere à compreensão oral e repetição acústica e evita sua perda através de um processo de ensaio, porém tem capacidade limitada (Coser et al., 2008); e a alça visuoespacial, que está envolvida no processamento e manutenção do material visual e espacial (Linassi, Keske-Soares, & Mota, 2005) e tem capacidade independente da alça fonológica, processando cores, formas, informações espaciais e de movimento (Coser et al., 2008). Mais recentemente, foi acrescentado um quarto componente ao modelo: o retentor episódico (ou buffer episódico), que pode ser descrito como a interface entre memória de trabalho e memória de longo termo, combinando toda a informação dos outros componentes em uma única estrutura complexa (Baddeley et al., 2009) já que o modelo anterior não previa um tipo de armazenamento geral, no qual seriam possíveis combinações de vários tipos de informação (Coser et al., 2008). A tarefa N-Back visual está intimamente ligada ao executivo central e à alça (armazenador) visuoespacial, e mais indiretamente ao buffer episódico e alça fonoarticulatórias pelo possível apoio à linguagem no momento de codiicar e de evocar os estímulos.
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Atenção visual: estudos comportamentais da seleção baseada no espaço e no objeto.

Atenção visual: estudos comportamentais da seleção baseada no espaço e no objeto.

Turatto, Benso, Facoetti, Galfano, Mascetti e Umiltà (2000) obtiveram resultados que acrescentaram evidências acerca da característica automática da focalização atentiva. Estes autores utilizaram um paradigma semelhante ao utiliza- do por Benso et al. (1998). Em linhas gerais, esses autores obtiveram resultados que sugerem que o tamanho do foco atentivo pode se ajustar automaticamente ao tamanho de um novo objeto apresentado no campo visual. Os autores suge- rem, então, que o processo de focalização é independente do processo de orientação atentiva, e que este mecanismo auto- mático de ajuste é baseado no aparecimento abrupto de um novo objeto dentro da área já atendida pelo foco da atenção. Em suma, todos estes modelos apresentam uma base comum: a atenção visual seleciona a informação relevante proveniente de representações internas fundamentadas nas localizações dos estímulos visuais. Esta seleção ocorre sob o foco dos recursos atentivos que podem ser comparados me- taforicamente ao “feixe de luz de um holofote que se desloca sobre uma superfície escura”. Este foco tem características mais estáveis no modelo spotlight, proposto por Posner et al. (1980), e características mais flexíveis, quanto ao seu tama- nho, no modelo zoom lens, proposto por Eriksen e Yeh (1985) e Eriksen e St. James (1986). Tanto o modelo spotlight quanto o modelo zoom lens, sugerem uma forma circular ou oval para o foco atentivo, enquanto que apenas o modelo zoom lens prediz uma relação inversa entre o tamanho do foco atentivo e a eficiência no processamento da informação contida den- tro do foco da atenção.
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A psychometric measure of working memory capacity for configured body movement.

A psychometric measure of working memory capacity for configured body movement.

An individual’s span score is typically operationalized as the highest level at which a predetermined quantity of trials or items can be correctly recalled [16]. For instance, the Corsi block span is the highest level at which an entire sequence of block locations is reproduced. On the other hand, because the listening span task does not require sequential recall, listening span scores reflect the highest level at which at least a subset of the total items presented are recalled. By analogy, since the movement span task also involves free recall, an individual’s absolute span score is defined as the level at which at least half of all items were accurately recalled. Because pilot testing revealed that the task of reproducing a series of meaningless body movements was itself quite taxing, additional cognitive loads in the form of a secondary interference task or serial recall procedure were not used. Notably, each item in the task required the coordination of at least two effectors along a variety of dimensions, including location, orientation, and hand shape. Additionally, most items involved a sequential combination of elemental movements (e.g., extending the left arm and then sliding the right hand from the left wrist to the left shoulder). For these reasons, it is likely that remembering the stimuli presented in the movement span task tapped central executive resources in a manner analogous to the serial recall procedure used in the Corsi block task.
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Visual indexing and retrieval

Visual indexing and retrieval

Chapter 6 tries to give an overview of the evaluation process of visual information indexing and retrieval. Some major evaluation periodical campaigns for related tasks are introduced. Data collection, relevance judgments, performance measures, the metrics and experimentation protocols are discussed in this chapter as well. Finally, The detailed performance in recent campaigns (NIS, TRECVID, Pascal VOC, PetaMedia , ImageNet ILSVRC, ImageCLEF and MediaEval ) and the lessons learned from these campaigns are also presented.
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Psychol. Neurosci.  vol.6 número3

Psychol. Neurosci. vol.6 número3

Different emotional reactions can be induced by the presentation of visual stimuli with affective content. Emotional stimuli are processed and linked with cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, and anxiety, and have implications in the mental health field. Previous studies have reported that positive and negative emotions tend to change cognitive processes in individuals, ultimately resulting in better and worse performance, respectively. Many studies have emphasized the crucial role of affect in directing attention to relevant stimuli, enhancing learning and memory, facilitating decision making, selecting goals, and conflict resolution. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of pleasant visual stimuli on memory, focused attention, and anxiety and further understand the effects of emotional induction. The study investigated the effects of presenting a pleasant visual stimulus in a 1.5 min video to a sample of 145 college students on focused attention, working memory (Personnel Selection Testing, memory subtest), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Nonsignificant differences were observed in focused attention, working memory, and anxiety state. Statistically significant differences were found in trait anxiety and the comparison between men and women with regard to memory and anxiety. The positive stimulus was not sufficient to alter cognition or emotion in our research participants. Emotion was found to not be the only factor that influences memory, and other factors appear to be important, such as prior knowledge and cognitive, social, and physiological factors, including personal history, the environment, and culture. Keywords: stimulus, emotion, cognition, neuropsychology.
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PróFono R. Atual. Cient.  vol.19 número4 en a07v19n4

PróFono R. Atual. Cient. vol.19 número4 en a07v19n4

Tema: relação entre o Distúrbio Específico de Linguagem (DEL) e a memória de curto-prazo visual. Objetivo: comparar o desempenho de crianças com DEL e de crianças em desenvolvimento normal de linguagem em tarefas envolvendo a memória de curto-prazo visual. Método: foram avaliadas 20 crianças com DEL (faixa etária de 3:0 a 5:11), e 29 crianças em desenvolvimento normal (faixa etária 2:0 a 4:11) por meio de tarefas de memória de curto-prazo visual envolvendo a identificação através de fotos e a evocação da localização de objetos previamente manipulados pelo examinador. Como o diagnóstico de DEL implica em idade lingüística pelo menos um ano inferior ao esperado para a idade cronológica, o grupo controle foi constituído por crianças em desenvolvimento normal de linguagem também mais novas. Resultados: as crianças com DEL apresentaram desempenho inferior quando comparadas a seus pares de mesma idade, semelhante ao de crianças mais novas ou ainda inferior ao do grupo mais jovem. Conclusão: as crianças com DEL apresentaram déficits em tarefas envolvendo memória de curto-prazo visual, os quais devem ser discutidos tanto para a compreensão da natureza do quadro, como para os processos de intervenção fonoaudiológica.
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Shared visual attention and memory systems in the Drosophila brain.

Shared visual attention and memory systems in the Drosophila brain.

In this study we have thus narrowed the search space for control of visual attention-like phenotypes in the fly. First, it is clear that a proportion of learning and memory mutants found by completely different (olfactory) paradigms have relevant defects here. Therefore, the significant resources required for accomplishing a blind forward genetic screen may be sidestepped by exploring existing memory mutants. Again, a common feature of these mutations is the relevance of the MB to cognitive function. All the memory mutants we have found that compromise attention-like phenotypes target MB function: radish (van Swinderen and Brembs, submitted), dunce, rutabaga, D0067, and D0264. Consistent with this trend, synaptic silencing of the MB attenuates attention- like responses in the brain, which suggests that the MB neurons are ‘‘upstream’’ of the circuits synchronizing to produce the LFPs detected in the brain. Since some Gal4 drivers were able to both rescue dunce 1 as well as attenuate 20–30 Hz responses, this suggests that dunce function overlaps to some extent with neurons causing the LFP oscillations (e.g., in D0264), but not always (e.g., in A0023). Immunohistochemical studies have shown that dunce is primarily expressed in the MB [19], which is consistent with our results showing rescue in these structures. Furthermore, Gal4 drivers such as c309 (which rescued dunce 1 function) are already active during metamorphosis [20], with strong expression in the MB of pupae (data not shown). Thus, we propose that dunce function during pupal development is required to generate the MB wiring necessary for attention-like oscillations. Whether the MB neurons themselves are oscillating (as opposed to causing oscillations downstream) is an open question. For the MBs to be required for generating oscillations while also generating the LFP responses themselves (as suggested by our dunce 1 rescue experi- ments) suggests a feedback system within these structures, as has been posited for other aspects of MB function [21]. Finally, our rescue of dunce 1 phenotypes by expressing wild-type protein in the pupal stage is consistent with a role for the MB here: substantial MB neuronal proliferation and organization occurs during this stage [22]. It is unclear why rescue of olfactory memory phenotypes can occur after this phase in development (albeit, for rutabaga mutants [23]) whereas visual attention phenotypes require pupal development (this study, and [3]). Future experiments investigating both visual attention and olfactory memory while controlling gene expression from pupae to adulthood (e.g., gene knockdowns or combined Gal4/Gal80 experiments [9] allowing for Gal4 induction only in the adult) should begin to unravel the level of overlap between visual attention and olfactory memory phenotypes with regard to mushroom body development and function.
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Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr.  vol.68 número2

Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr. vol.68 número2

ROC curve analysis showed that the statistical difer- ences described above were not suicient to attain good diagnostic accuracy for the discrimination between VaD and AD. Although considering that the evaluation of a larger sample of patients could result in a better discrim- inatory value of the current approach, we may conclude that brief cognitive tests, such as those used in this study, do not diferentiate VaD (especially SVaD) from AD and

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DELTA  vol.26 número especial

DELTA vol.26 número especial

revealed a rather contradictory picture. Statistical results for this experiment suggested that, contrary to Grady’s theory of a link between perceptual and conceptual domains of primary scenes, people, in judging levels of relatedness between source and target domains, do not necessarily provide evidence as to the existence of such a link. As statistical evidence of what has just been stated, mean frequency for unrelated sentences was highest (M = 3.00, F = 9.42; p < 0.05), followed by those for related sentences, (M = 1.92), and highly related sentences, (M = 1.44). This finding seems to contradict the positive result obtained for experiment three, as regards participants’ preferences for highly related metaphorical sentences to given physical circumstances. Possible explanations for the apparent contradictory results between the two experiments, could be linked to factors such as differing degrees of collaborative disposition between the different groups of voluntaries who took part in experiment three and in experiment five, respectively, or the interference caused by inferences possibly made by the participants as he/she read the prompt sentences and the target sentences of experiment five.
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Dement. neuropsychol.  vol.8 número2

Dement. neuropsychol. vol.8 número2

ABSTRACT. With the aging of the population, the possibility of the occurrence of cognitive decline rises. A number of types of intervention seek to attenuate or reverse this impairment. The use of computerized tests helps quantify the effects of interventions on cognitive function in the elderly. The objective of the present review was to analyze studies that have utilized computerized cognitive tests to determine the effects of interventions in the elderly population, describing the batteries and tests employed, the populations studied and reports by authors on the limitations or benefits of employing these tests in older adults. The review was performed on the PubMed database using the descriptors: cognitive computerized test and elderly. We retrieved 530 studies and, following analysis of their abstracts, selected 32 relevant to the subject. The studies utilized 19 different types of computerized tests and batteries to assess the interventions, which were predominantly drug trials. There were no reports on limitations in the use of the computerized tests, suggesting this type of intervention had good applicability, sensitivity, and little or no practice effects in this population.
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Visual Digital Signature Scheme: A New Approach

Visual Digital Signature Scheme: A New Approach

the problems resulting from the pixel expansion, Yang [48] proposed a new visual cryptography method without pixel expansion for various cases such as (2, 2), (2, n), (k, k), and the general (k, n) schemes. He used the abbreviation ProbVSS (Probabilistic Visual Secret Sharing) to denote his method. In this method, a black and white secret image is encrypted into the same size shares as the secret image. In other words, instead of expanding the pixel into m subpixels as used in most visual cryptography methods, Yang’s visual cryptography method uses one pixel to represent one pixel. That is, the size of the original image and shares (shadow images) are the same. Each pixel in the original secret image is represented as a black or white pixel in the shadow images without pixel expansion and the original secret image can be recovered by stacking and aligning carefully the pixels of these shares. ProbVSS method uses the frequency of white pixels in the black and white areas of the recovered image to let human visual system recognizes between black and white pixels. Also, this method uses the term “probabilistic” point out that our eyes can recognize the contrast of the recovered image based on the differences of frequency of white color in black and white areas. The contrast of this method is defined as , where are the appearance probabilities of white pixel in the white and black areas of recovered image. Table II shows Yang’s (2, 2) ProbVSS scheme that a pixel on a black and white secret image is mapped into a corresponding pixel in each of the two shares. The secret image is recovered by stacking and aligning carefully the pixels of the two shares, where every pixel in share 1 is superimposed on the corresponding pixel in share 2; this is performed through the OR operation on the two transparent shares. Fig 5 shows an example of implementing Yang’s (2, 2) ProbVSS scheme.
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Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso  vol.9 número1

Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso vol.9 número1

Heavy metal is widely propagated in printed and audiovisual publications of all levels and ambitions: Books, LPs, CDs and DVDs, magazines, essays, dissertations, theses, fanzines, blogs, websites, documentaries, films, T-shirts and accessories, music videos and encyclopedias. In this study, our analysis will focus on a reading of images and illustrations from album covers in order to seek understanding of the meanings constructed by the musicians and illustrators/designers. Thus, we intend to arrive at a broader judgment of the complete image creation process inherent in this style of music. Bakhtin‟s concept of carnivalization presents a number of components or elements that can facilitate better understanding of the use, and consequent reception, of these visual materials. The study is based on the presupposition that the commercial success of heavy metal is maintained and sustained by its tendency to project outrageous images that inspire fascination, vitality and rejuvenation. The exaggerated figures tend, furthermore, to give off an idea of immortality and the illusory sensation of absolute liberty that squares off against official seriousness (i.e., the Bakhtinian „serious tone‟).
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Trends in Psychology Temas em Psicologia

Trends in Psychology Temas em Psicologia

From an applied point of view, the visual perception of movement, with which DVA is closely related, is essential for the adaptation to the dynamic and ever-changing environment surrounding us. Thanks to the dynamic vision ability, it is possible not only to perform daily tasks such as sports or driving, but also to predict the future location of a stimulus that moves. This anticipatory ability is crucial to intercept a mov- ing object (e.g. a ball) and to predict the spatial location of items of interest. Perhaps this is the main reason why numerous scientifi c studies re- port a greater DVA for elite athletes compared to sedentary population. This superiority has been found at a general level (Ishigaki & Miyao, 1993), in basketball (Beals, Mayyasi, Temple- ton, & Johnson, 1971), in volleyball (Melcher & Lund, 1992), in tennis (Cash, 1996; Tidow, Brückner, & de Marées, 1987) and in water polo (Quevedo et al., 2011). Moreover, differences have also been found when comparing athletes’ Figure 4. Function that represents the highest spatial frequency that a human subject can discriminate
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