Top PDF Body Type, Self-Esteem and Assertiveness among High School Students in Ghana

Body Type, Self-Esteem and Assertiveness among High School Students in Ghana

Body Type, Self-Esteem and Assertiveness among High School Students in Ghana

Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates, (400BC) and Galen, (140/150AD) also classified personality types in terms of four types of humours. Each type was believed to be due to an excess amount of one of four bodily fluids. The personalities were termed "humours". This study would concentrate on the personality theory developed by Sheldon (1940), an American psychologist who proposed that there are basically three body types and each body has a specific personality associated with it. The extreme endomorph has the tendency towards plumpness, they tend to have wide hips and narrow shoulders, which makes them rather pear shaped. Quite a lot of fat spreads across the body including upper arms and thighs. They have quite slim ankles and wrists which only serve to accentuate the other parts. The endomorphic personality is associated with the viscerotonia temperament; tolerance, love of comfort and luxury, extraverted, sociable, relaxed, love of food, good humoured, need for affection, fun loving and even temperament. The endomorph tends to have strong social support networks to which they turn to during critical periods (Sheldon, 1940).
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Sports practices related to alcohol and tobacco use among high school students

Sports practices related to alcohol and tobacco use among high school students

In our sample, fighting, martial arts, or capoeira practice was associated more strongly with tobacco use compared with nonparticipation in sports activities. Sports practice has been previously identified as a predictor of tobacco use 10 and one previous study associated body- building and fighting sports to daily smoking. 32 Tobacco use can decrease aerobic capacity and impair perfor- mance; however, practitioners of fighting, martial arts, or capoeira may not associate tobacco-related impairments with their sport. Adolescents have a lower perception of the risk that certain activities, such as tobacco use, may pose to their health. 33 Moreover, tobacco use may be a characteristic of normative standards normative stan- dards regarding drug use among the fight practitioners in our sample. For example, the approval of tobacco use among individuals in the group can influence the behavior of the other members. However, it is still not clear whether fighting sports are more related to smoking Figure 1 Crude and adjusted a odds ratios for alcohol use in the last month for each sport type (n=13,872). 95%CI = confidence interval. Not a participant of sports as reference (n=4,948). a aOR = adjusted by age, gender and school type.
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Attendance in Physical Education classes and associated factors among high school students

Attendance in Physical Education classes and associated factors among high school students

Binary logistic regression was used to assess the crude and adjusted association between attendance in PE classes (no class/week = 0; one class/week = 1; two or more classes/week = 2) and the dependent variables (physical activity: physically active = 1 and physically inactive = 0; sedentary behavior: < 2 hours/day = 1 and > 2 hours/day = 0; self-efficacy: high = 1 and low = 0; at- titude: high = 1 and low = 0; risks: not perceived = 1 and perceived = 0; benefits: perceived = 1 and not perceived = 0; nutritional status: no excess body weight = 1 and excess body weight = 0; and perceived health: positive = 1 and negative = 0). In multivariate analysis all the independent variables were maintained in the model regardless of p-value. Analyses were stratified by type of school (public vs private), given that this variable exhib- ited significant interaction with the variables sex, age, school grade, parents schooling, economic class, skin color, employment status and perceived health status. Potential confounding factors were: sex, age, economic class, school grade and skin color. Statistical analyses were conducted in Stata 11.0 software. A 5% signifi- cance level was adopted for the two-tailed tests.
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en 1678 4464 csp 32 04 e00024115

en 1678 4464 csp 32 04 e00024115

The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-es- teem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F (9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings
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Rev. Col. Bras. Cir.  vol.41 número6

Rev. Col. Bras. Cir. vol.41 número6

In obese men, the personality changes are related to the greater tendency to alcohol abuse and dependence, and to difficulties in social relations. Women are more prone to compulsive, anxiety, and personality disorders. These factors affect not only the quality of social life, but also reflect negatively on the experience of sexuality, since they can generate physical / organic and emotional disorders in the obese. This may explain the presence of low self-esteem, shame, rejection of the body and social isolation reported by participants prior to operation. The recovery of self- esteem, social reintegration, and the exclusion or reduction of prejudice and discrimination after operative treatment provided better quality of life in organic and psychosocial aspects. Thus, in DSC4 we observed improvement of quality of life, since a new relationship with the body was established, the recovery of health, of their role in the soci- al context and security towards personal relationship, with recovery of pleasure, increased frequency of intercourse, closeness, complicity, intimacy, affection, happiness, security, and freedom between the couple.
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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Depression and Neuropsychological Profiles Among Adults in Ghana

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Depression and Neuropsychological Profiles Among Adults in Ghana

The study showed that there was no significant difference between the depressed (diabetic and healthy control) subgroups on visuoconstructional skills. Likewise, the non-depressed (diabetic and healthy control) subgroups did not also show any significant difference on their visuospatial performance. Though, this study could not observe the reason for these findings, differences were profound in the main stream diabetic and healthy control groups without looking at the role of depression. Since poorly regulated peripheral glucose is significantly associated with the volume of the brain‘s hippocampusз a possible negative influence may be felt on the limbic system which may in turn affects visuospatial navigation, and other memory functions [19].
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The efficacy of a gambling prevention program among high-school students

The efficacy of a gambling prevention program among high-school students

Williams et  al. (2010) developed a school-based preventive program (the “Stacked Deck”) comprising five lessons that target gambling history, problem gambling, gambling fallacies, decision-making, and problem-solving skills. The findings of this study showed that students aged between 14 and 20  years improved their knowledge about gambling, gained better resistance to erroneous cognitions, but also improved problem-solving abili- ties and decision-making skills. Furthermore, after the intervention, participants reported significantly more negative attitudes toward gambling and showed a decline in problem gambling frequency. Similarly, Huic et  al. (2017) developed another school-based gam- bling prevention program with Croatian adolescents, aged 14–17  years, which focused on cognitive distortions, knowledge of the nature of random events, as well as on other skills (such as problem-solving skills, refusal and self-efficacy). The results of the program showed a significant decrease in risk factors, more specifically a better knowledge about gambling and less gambling-related cognitive distortions. However, effects on problem- solving skills, refusal skills, and self-efficacy were not found. Moreover, the authors veri- fied that the gambling frequency did not change in the experimental group as a result of the intervention. Therefore, these findings suggest that it is still unclear if preventive initiatives can improve skills and other characteristics more associated with general risky behaviours, and whether targeting these skills has the potential to protect young people from develop- ing gambling-related problems.
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A Comparison of Self - Esteem of Sports Sciences and Theology Faculty  Students

A Comparison of Self - Esteem of Sports Sciences and Theology Faculty Students

The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in university studentsself-esteem and psychosomatic symptoms in terms of some demographic variables. A total of 660 students- 334 female and 326 male-, who were randomly chosen from the students of Sport Sciences and Theology Faculties studying in Ondokuz Mayıs University during the academic year 2013-2014, participated in the study voluntarily. The data was collected through a “Demographic Information Form” developed by the researcher and “Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale” which was developed in 1963, checked for validity and reliability in 1965 in USA by Morris Rosenberg and checked for validity and reliability in Turkey by Çuhadaroğlu (1986). The data was statistically analyzed by Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Vallis and Bonferronni correction test. The level of significance was taken as 0.05. The finding that there was no significant difference in the self-esteem levels of Sports Sciences Faculty students is in parallel with the findings o f Yüksekkaya (1995:48) who reported that the variable of gender did not cause a significant difference on self-esteem. In the other result, it was seen a significant difference in sport science faculty students‟ scores when studentsself-esteem compared t o the level of the class variables but hasn‟t seen in the faculty of theology. However, as noted in studies similar to our study, students' grade level progresses, levels of self-esteem increased. These findings were discussed in the light of literature and suggestions were made for future studies.
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Physical activity and academic performance in high school students

Physical activity and academic performance in high school students

There are still doubts about the real benefits of physical activity on the academic performance of adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine whether the physical activity (PA) interferes in the academic performance of high school students. The study included 348 adolescents from one fed- eral public school. For information regarding PA, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short-version) was used. For PAL classification the adolecents who had 300 minutes/week or more of physical activity were considered as active. The information related to the participation in sports schools was obtained through a question inserted in IPAQ. For the academic performance, the average grades of the first semester of 2015 were used, within the three major Knowledge Areas, as defined by the National Curriculum Standards. There was no significant correlation between ac- ademic performance and PA (r= 0.06; p= 0.28). Higher minimum scores were found among active high school students and higher average school for areas 1 – Languages, Codes and its Technologies (7.2±0.8) and 2 – Natural Sciences, Mathematics and its Technologies (6.6±1.3) among participants in sports schools, with statistical significance (p= 0.017; p= 0.014). In conclusion, PAL did not relate to the academic performance of pupils in this study and participants of sports schools achieved better academic performance demonstrating that sports activities can cause beneficial effects in their cognitive performances.
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Quality of education and human capital decisions: experimental evidence from Brazil

Quality of education and human capital decisions: experimental evidence from Brazil

Aiming at checking the sensibility of our results we perform two additional exercises. The first is based on the construction of a different panel with more observations. As detailed in section 3, we can only link individuals in ENEM through their unique student identification, and this student ID is absent for at least 30% of the individuals in ENEM’s dataset. We can use an alternative strategy that avoids this specific losing data mechanism. In ENEM’s registration, students may inform the school they belong and also their status: such as completing or not completing high school at the end of the year. With this information we can use ENEM’s information in the last year of each intervention (2012 and 2010) and track senior high school students that belong to the schools participating in the experiment. This procedure allows us to identify more than 27,000 students, among which 19,675 (or 72.2%) are selected. We are increasing the number of observations but losing the initial treatment list in the freshman years in high school. The results are qualitatively the same and are displayed in the appendix D. It is worth to highlight how the overall effect in college attendance is very similar: 3.4 pp instead of 3.5 pp in the benchmarking dataset.
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Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

La investigación generó tres tipos de datos, dos in- dicadores del nivel de ansiedad de los estudiantes y las calificaciones escolares. El primer indicador de ansiedad escolar fue de tipo conductual, y se obtu- vo a partir de la exposición a la prueba de Stroop, aplicada antes y después del primer periodo de exámenes del semestre. Esta medición generó tres datos: índices de interferencia negativa (ineg), la- tencias negativas y aciertos. Se considera que existe sesgo perceptual en la prueba de Stroop cuando una persona se tarda más en identificar el color en que está escrita una palabra con carga semántica, que cuando se tiene que identificar una palabra de la misma longitud y probabilidad de uso lexical. De este modo, si la interferencia negativa es superior a cero, esto quiere decir que hubo sesgo. En caso contrario, si la latencia ante la palabra con carga semántica menos la latencia ante la palabra neutra produce un número negativo, entonces no hay ses- go. Para fines del presente estudio, todos los valores negativos de interferencia fueron transformados a cero, dado que en esta lógica la magnitud de la ci-
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A Kohutian approach to indecisiveness

A Kohutian approach to indecisiveness

The self-psychology theory of Heinz Kohut (1971, 1977, 1984) is a relevant conceptual framework for the understanding of human development and behavior (for a review, see Baker & Baker, 1987; Banai, Mikulincer, & Shaver, 2005; Kahn, 1985; Wolfe, 1989). Kohut developed a psychoanalytical theory of self that departs from the classic psychoanalytical approach. For this author, the self-constitutes the center of the person’s psychological universe, being the psychological structure responsible for the individual’s adjustment and well-being. The process of maturation of the self has roots in infancy, during which the child uses the world around him/her, especially parental figures, as elements that allow him/her to anchor his/her sense of self and develop healthy narcissism. Kohut designates as self-objects the result of the relationships the child develops with others. Self-objects allow the child to develop and maintain self-cohesion and self-esteem, as well as provide feelings of security and emotional stability in his/her relationship with him/herself and with the world. The parents’ response to the child’s self-object needs is never perfect, since it is inevitable that occasional lapses occur. An optimal level of frustration allows the child to progressively incorporate the functions self-objects previously fulfilled through a process of internal psychological structuring that Kohut designated transmuting internalization.
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Einstein (São Paulo)  vol.13 número1

Einstein (São Paulo) vol.13 número1

objective: To evaluate self-esteem and self-image of respiratory diseases patients in a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, who participated in socialization and physical fitness activities, and of patients who participated only in physical fitness sessions. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional exploratory study. Out of a total of 60 patients analyzed, all enrolled in the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, 42 participated in at least one of the proposed activities, 10 did not participate in any activity and 8 were excluded (7 were discharged and 1 died). results: When the two groups were compared, despite the fact that both demonstrated low self-esteem and self-image, the difference between them was relevant (p<0.05) regarding self-esteem, indicating that those who participated in the proposed socialization activities had better self-esteem than the individuals who only did the physical fitness sessions. Regarding self-image, the difference between the groups was not relevant (p>0.05). conclusion: The Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program patients evaluated presented low self-esteem and self-image; however, those carrying out some socialization activity proposed had better self- esteem as compared to the individuals who did only the physical fitness sessions.
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Internet addiction in high school students: prevalence and correlations

Internet addiction in high school students: prevalence and correlations

Abstract: Objective: to investigate the prevalence of Internet addiction among high school students in Montes Claros-MG and the associated Internet usage profile. Methodology: This is a quantitative, analytical and cross-sectional study of a sample of 966 high school students, both public and private. A questionnaire was applied that includes socio-demographic variables, training and Internet usage profile, as well as Internet Addiction Test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test the linear correlation between the characteristics of use and internet addiction, at a statistical significance of 5% (p <0.05). This study was conducted within the standards of the Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Research Ethics Committee under Protocol # 1,520,173 / 2016. Results: The prevalence of addiction was 9.8%, correlated with type of institution (p = 0.005), daily frequency of internet use (p = 0.001), number of days of weekly use (p = 0.014), number of hours of use on weekends and holidays (p = 0.041) and use at night (p = 0.004). No correlation was found to access online games, to perform school activities or for professional purposes, but was found with access to social networks (p = 0,000), e-mails (p = 0,033) and with the purpose of watching movies, music and videos (p = 0,014). Addicted users also demonstrated an awareness of addiction / addictive behavior (p = 0.000). Conclusion: It was concluded that addiction is associated with habits of Internet use and that they are aware of their addiction.
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Prevalence of Depression among High School Students and its Relation to Family Structure

Prevalence of Depression among High School Students and its Relation to Family Structure

physical activities. Pincus et al. (1998) in their article, declared that between 1984 and 1994 patient visits to primary care providers for the treatment of depression are doubled. Furthermore, researches show failure to detect major depression and suboptimal use of antidepressant medications in the primary care settings and disorders remain under diagnosed and under treated (Rouchelle et al., 1996). A study related to patients who receive care at a variety of primary care centers and specialists care offices showed that only 29% of those with high severity depression have received an antidepressant (Wells et al., 1994). Another study revealed that only 45% patients who were high users of primary care services, have diagnosed with depression and in need of treatment, moreover, only 1 in 9 patients have received adequate dose and duration of antidepressant treatment (Kato and Schuberg, 1992).
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Self-efficacy, Adaptability and Intention of Searching for Vocational Guidance in Adolescents

Self-efficacy, Adaptability and Intention of Searching for Vocational Guidance in Adolescents

Regarding the analyses of variance, it can be observed that interesting differences in the groups were observed. Among them, the trends observed particularly in each instrument stand out. In the EAE-EP, it was noted that, consistently, the largest effect sizes were observed among the groups that would like to undergo a VG, although in one group, they already had clarity about their decision (G2) and the other did not (G3). In the CAAS, with the exception of the Concern factor that followed the trend of the previous instrument, the largest differences were observed for the groups that already had absolute clarity of their decision, and therefore did not mention interest in doing VG (G1), of those not decided with need to go through the process (G3). In both instruments, the lowest scores have always been observed for G3. Therefore, it may be noted that, in this sample, lower levels of self-efficacy and adaptability are associated with indecision and with the need to do VG. Previous studies, such as Guan et al. (2009), Lassance, Bardagi and Teixeira (2009), Melo-Silva, Oliveira and Coelho (2002) and Ribeiro (2003) support the results found here, since they report that, on the one hand, better levels of self-efficacy tend to lead to better career outcomes and, on the other hand, interventions in the VG contribute precisely to raising vocational exploration and reducing indecision, characteristics inherent in G3 response. Considering the general objective of this work, which is to relate the concepts of self-efficacy to professional choice and career adaptability and to investigate the possible differences between the groups of students formed from the intention or not to participate in a process of vocational guidance (VG), the results obtained were satisfactory and indicate that the instruments used can contribute to the practice in the field of the VG, since they will allow to identify potential users of services. Therefore, the evaluation of these tests, the process and the results for the VG, can collaborate with strategies directed to Brazilian high school students.
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AUTO-PERCEPÇÃO DA IMAGEM CORPORAL EM ESTUDANTES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA E MEDICINA

AUTO-PERCEPÇÃO DA IMAGEM CORPORAL EM ESTUDANTES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA E MEDICINA

The objective of this study is to identify body image perceptions among students of physical education and medical science from a private university in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The research was conducted on 195 female college students. From this group, 97 were physical education students and 98 were medical science graduates, and the age average was 21.4 ± 3.1 years old. In order to verify body image perceptions, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used. The results indicate that medical science students showed higher scores on BSQ (84.1) than physical education students (70.6) (p<0.003). Furthermore, medical science students were distributed in greater proportions on categories concerning preoccupation with body shape (p<0.03). In that sense, the research initially shows that medical science students are more inclined to develop disorders relating to body shape than physical education students, in spite of the latter suffering pressures to keep their bodies within aesthetic standards considered ideal.
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Association between social support and leisure-time physical activity among high school students

Association between social support and leisure-time physical activity among high school students

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between social support and leisure-time physical activity level in students from the federal network of Rio Grande do Sul, and their rela- tionships with sex and the different types and sources of social support. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to make up a sample of 833 students aged between 13 and 25 years, enrolled from the 1st to the 3rd year in a technical high school from four campuses of the Fed- eral Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Sul (IFsul). Among the respondents, 50.3% (CI 95% 46.9 - 53.7) of the sample was considered physically active during
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Physical activity patterns among high school students of Ponta Grossa, PR

Physical activity patterns among high school students of Ponta Grossa, PR

Physical activity  (PA) during adolescence  promotes  health benefits  and can  be an indica- tor of PA in adulthood. This study aims to identify physical activity patterns in a sample of 1,129 students (58.5% of girls), aged between 14 and 18 years, from High Schools of Pon- ta Grossa, PR. In this study, the following data were collected: sociodemographic informa- tion, weight, height, sedentary behavior, active commuting to school, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and participation in physical education (PE) classes. For data analysis we used ab- solute and relative frequency distribution and the chi-square test for proportions. Logistic re- gression analysis was used to assess the association between different contexts of PA and the independent variables. Statistical calculations were developed by the SPSS 16.0 program and a significance level of p <0.05 was adopted. The prevalence of overweight was 19.1% (CI=14.7- 29.8%), higher among boys (26.3% versus 14.1%: p <0.01). Most of the students are active regarding commuting  to school  (58.8%),  MVPA  (71%) and PE classes  (85.5%),  and  pres- ent sedentary behavior that lasts between 1 and 4 hours (55.2%) per day. There was an associ- ation between participating in PE classes and active commuting to school (p <0.05). Girls and adolescents aged 17-18 years participate less in PE classes. Teenagers who do not work are the ones who least practice MVPA. It is concluded that special attention should be given to these groups, promoting intervention programs and encouraging the practice of PA.
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Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum.  vol.16 suppl.1

Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum. vol.16 suppl.1

he responsibility of paying for, purchasing, and determining guide- lines for sanitizing fruit distribution to afect environmental change was the responsibility of the “Saúde na Boa” research team. However, fruit distribution within the schools was the responsibility of the school directors and coordinators. his strategy was better implemented in Florianopolis. Another environmental change was the installation of bike racks and, in- versely, this was better implemented in Recife. Other items such as changes in schools canteens were found to have a lower implementation score. A literature review shown moderate efectiveness of educational interven- tions on eating habits; however, few multicomponent interventions were tested and inconclusive evidence was obtained regarding environmental interventions among adolescents 12 .
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