Top PDF Brainstorming: Towards a tool for decision-making in the Web 2.0

Brainstorming: Towards a tool for decision-making in the Web 2.0

Brainstorming: Towards a tool for decision-making in the Web 2.0

Web 2.0 to democratize access to information by providing a platform fairly comprehensive, free, open and often gratuitous, which allows players with little technical knowledge to participate and take ownership of the new features of the web. It is in this context where this article is positioned being part of a series of scientific research conducted by our research team, which focuses on Web 2.0 and collaborative decision-making on the net. It aims to propose a new social tool that is based on the method thereby providing a brainstorming technique for generating ideas that stimulates creative collaborative thinking done by users of the web to find the maximum ideas in a minimum time with differed opinion. In this context, we will rely on the participation of users to contribute to the accumulation and sharing of information thereby creating social communities. Our tool combined the features of a blog and a social network in addition to brainstorming techniques, it will be powered by the meeting of a set of investments classified according to decisions themes to achieve the end result in the end with a blog of decisions made in these virtual meetings. For its implementation, we propose a unified modelisation using the language UML to model its various processes.
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ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING UTILIZING A WEB GIS TO MONITOR HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS IN THE VALENCIAN COMMUNITY OF SPAIN

ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING UTILIZING A WEB GIS TO MONITOR HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS IN THE VALENCIAN COMMUNITY OF SPAIN

Since the E-PRTR database is available in Microsoft Access format, the database that adds supports for geographical objects is proposed for design. By posting a database on a server it becomes globally available through the Internet. An Internet-available spatial database is an important step towards interoperability. Then using OGC elaborated standards and specification and by means of GeoServer the database gets shared over the Internet in the OpenLayers format by implementing WMS and WFS standards. Afterwards a light client application, a presentation tier consumes geospatial services, accesses, manipulates and visualizes geospatial data. There were inconsistencies in the initial E-PRTR MS Access database. Consequently, preparing the spatial database involved the following stages: 1) export data sets of interest from Ms Access into comma-delimited files, 2) format and clean the spatial and temporal data, 3) import data into PostgreSQL format, 4) add the spatial component – a point geometry column for every industry based on the geographic coordinates, 5) publish geospatial data in the database and as a standard-based services (WMS and WFS).
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Semantic Web Tools and Decision-Making

Semantic Web Tools and Decision-Making

There is a need for ontologies that are suitable for representing informal Social Web arguments and ontologies that map between the social world and the argumentative world [28]. Nevertheless, Social Media are understood as failing the criterion of “argumentative discussions”, as the argumentation support of general Web 2.0 tools is considered to be peripheral [28]. The writing style commonly used in these platforms has a pattern out of the ordinary that sometimes makes it incomprehensible to those who are not part of the conversation and/or culture/context, thus making it very hard to make it “machine-understandable”[8; 15]. Another problem (described in [19]) is the fact that a dialogue can be written in more than one language (code-mixing 2 ). As users
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Are you experienced? Contributions towards experience recognition, cognition, and decision making

Are you experienced? Contributions towards experience recognition, cognition, and decision making

Evans [ 34 ] shows a clear example of how network effects favor a winner-take-all industrial organization: Google, the market leader, has more pageviews, more advertisers (and hence a greater advertise- ment inventory). By comparing the results of a search for “Germany SIM cards”, for instance, 8 out of 10 of Google advertisement inserts are directly relevant to the search, contrasted to only 2 out of 10 from Microsoft’s system (as of this writing). One is then led to conclude, intuitively, that search-ad platforms with more advertisers will gener- ally deliver more relevant advertisements to the searcher. This should raise the incentive for advertisers to stick with the market leader. No- tice that this higher advertisement inventory effect is not only tied to web searches, but also to inserts placed on webpages. Google’s massive access to web pages tends to increase their advertisement scope and relevance. The work mentions, in addition, that “like mod- ern finance, online advertising relies heavily on advanced economic and statistical methods.” Economic models (such as auctions) deter- mine specific keyword advertisements pricing, while statistical meth- ods are used for the automatic insertion of advertisements.
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Brain and behavior in decision-making.

Brain and behavior in decision-making.

The dominant cognitive theoretical framework for explaining the SAT is ‘‘sequential sampling’’, also known as ‘‘evidence accumulation’’. Accumulator theories explain many aspects of decision-making behavior by assuming that decisions are made by gradually accumulating evidence from the environment in favour of each possible choice. The first choice to accumulate a threshold amount of evidence is selected. Accumulator theories most naturally explain the SAT in terms of changes in the evidence threshold. When a high threshold is set, a lot of evidence must be collected before a decision is made, leading to slow but careful decisions. Conversely, when a low threshold is set decisions are made quickly, but are more often wrong because they are based on too little evidence. Using this conventional parameterization, accumulator models have a long and successful history of providing detailed, quantitative accounts of many different aspects of decision-making, including the SAT [6–10]. In addition, accumulator models now underpin hundreds of applied studies, where the decision-making theory is used as a tool to understand important problems including clinical disorders [11], alcohol intoxication [12], and sleep deprivation [13].
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Intuition and wisdom in decision making

Intuition and wisdom in decision making

Urgent decisions compete with those that are more important. Good managers seek to preserve part of their time for important decisions. This means, generally, replacing improvisation with planning, to act in advance. Problem must be solved before they grow and “burst” into several small ones. It is like the farmer who must exterminate the weed before it releases seeds and spreads out on the field. A good manager is one who makes decisions in advance to prevent future difficulties. Of course, anticipating decisions requires a sense of urgency. It is necessary to balance importance and urgency, and not act as someone who applies corrective measures to urgent, and never has time to manage the really important problems. Matus (1993) analyzed 3,000 decisions taken by a South American ruler, and classified them in four groups, according the importance of the subject. He found that only five of them could be classified as very important, representing 0.2% of the total (Table 1). Most of those decisions (88.3%) could be classified as routine or emergency ones. Emergency may be more time consuming than important decisions. To make things worse, the leader makes poor quality decisions because he does not master the necessary knowledge on those urgent decisions, which may involve, for example, knowledge on the process. Those decisions could be delegated to the lower level employees, specialized technicians who could give more adequate solutions.
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The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

Rapid prototyping (RP) and rapid tooling (RT) systems are increasingly used in the production of casting components. RP systems can be used directly for manufacturing casting moulds [1- 9]. The spectrum of rapid prototyping uses can be expanded by the application of the rapid tooling methods. One of the RT techniques is the direct manufacture of casting moulds using the ZCast technology. The accuracy of gear wheels casts made in printed moulds depends on a variety of technological factors [10- 13]. The accuracy of the cast fabrication quality can be assessed with the use of the coordinate optical measuring technique [14- 16]. Literature describes the methods for manufacturing moulds in
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Sociocognitive processes in ethical decision making

Sociocognitive processes in ethical decision making

the individual level of moral reasoning tends to be adversely affected by the context, that is, there are differences between decisions about hypothetical and real situations. Additionally, Weber (1990) states that people respond differently to different moral dilemmas and that these differences are due to the context. Therefore, the nature of the moral issue may be decisive to the kind of response that people give. This evidence supports the fact that moral thinking patterns not only vary from moral issue to moral issue, but also take into account the proportion of moral intensity. In sum, high intensity moral issues allow more sophisticated ethical reasoning. Specifically, Jones (1991) suggests that intuitively, decision makers tend to save on cognitive effort if they perceive moral issue as having little support, that is, if the process of evaluating the magnitude of the consequences or the operationalization of the social consensus level is challenging. People tend to behave as cognitive misers (Chen & Chaiken, 1999), moderating the relationship between the perception of moral intensity and the level of moral reasoning adopted. Limitations in cognitive capacity promote the demand for quick solutions that are minimally adequate instead of more accurate solutions, that are more time consuming and require greater cognitive resources (Fiske, Gilbert, & Lindzey, 2010). For example, the magnitude of consequences affects the amount of time and information that a person considers in the cognitive processes. People tend to make use of external cues when they perceive that the quantity of damage caused on others as being low and, conversely, invest more in seeking information when they perceive the amount of damage as high (Taylor, 1975).
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INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN DISASTER AND DEVELOPMENT: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN DISASTER AND DEVELOPMENT: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

The information to be analysed should be carefully chosen (i.e. an overlay analysis of seismic activity and population or human-made constructions would not represent an accurate hazard mapping for earthquakes if geological information like unstable soils is not included) (Monmonier 1997). It is also possible to “extend” the model by adding data layers; considering other information. For example an analysis of landslide susceptibility could be performed by the rating analysis of 3 main data layers, 3 critical factors (terrain steepness, soil type and vegetation cover). This analysis could be extended by adding more layers (i.e. extreme weather, historical, manmade disturbance…). And also “road”, “building” or “proximity to” layers to study the associated hazard. If one of the factors has more importance (i.e. vegetation cover) we could use a weighted rating model. The analysis could be extended to risk by weighting road or building c ategories based on their traffic, economic value, population…
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The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part of the four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer of the CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts of the free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
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On the Road to Holistic Decision Making in Adaptive Security

On the Road to Holistic Decision Making in Adaptive Security

Existing cybersecurity approaches based on game the- ory are mostly focused on providing security at the net- work level. The mathematical foundation of game theory can also be applicable to security at a variety of architecture levels such as the database or operating system. Here, we discuss the applicability of game the- ory in providing security at the application level. De- pending on the architecture layer, the source of the data to be monitored is different. To detect a cyberat- tack at the network level, the data to be monitored can be packet data, network traffic, etc. At the application level, a cyberattack can be detected from various data sources. For example, the system can monitor the num- ber of transactions by a specific user or the access rights of a user over a specific window of time. Even though the nature of the monitored data may vary, the problem can still be modelled as a non-cooperative game. The alternative set of actions includes more high- level actions that should align with the system’s spe- cified policies. As an example, the dynamic change to the access rights of a user should satisfy the pre and post conditions specified in the IT policy.
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The samples were remelted on the surface with the electric arc with the use of the FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage of the electric arc I = 100 A, speed of the electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours in the temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) of the tested steels were selected according to the standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made with the Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time of the load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted on the optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.
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Privatization and the decision-making process.

Privatization and the decision-making process.

This article examines the political determinants of privatization of the fixed telephony sector in four countries, based on a neo-institutionalist approach. These countries faced similar pressures by telephone companies in favor of privatization, suggesting an apparent convergence in the sector ’s reorganization. However, although all four adopted some degree of privatization, the process followed different paths and designs in each country. This variation can be explained by the different institutional contexts in which the reforms were carried out. Where there was concentration of power in the Executive, privatization was launched “earlier” and approved more quickly than in countries in which such concentration was less intense. Meanwhile, the existence of multiple veto points and stakeholders with veto power did not impede the reform, but increased the cost of its unilateral adoption by the Executive, forcing the latter to negotiate and form a minimum consensus within the governing coalition.
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Brainstorming reconsidered in computer-mediated communication and group support system context. Proceedings of the Workshop on Information Systems and Design of Communication

Brainstorming reconsidered in computer-mediated communication and group support system context. Proceedings of the Workshop on Information Systems and Design of Communication

More recently, Santanen [29] defended its rejection, since according to the author, they have no effectiveness in the context of electronic communication. Previously Dennis and Vallacich. [5] and Santanen and colleagues [30] used simple instructions like "Read others' ideas and write your own ideas." However, no other alternatives were compared, the reason why it is not possible to discuss the effectiveness of this alternative in view of the classical brainstorming instructions. But Paulus and colleagues [23] verified, in a verbal ideation context, that the performance of groups improved considerably with the use of more rules. These rules instructed the participants not to say foolish things, tell jokes or explain in detail their ideas.
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The volleyball setter’s decision-making on attacking

The volleyball setter’s decision-making on attacking

The aim of this study was to investigate the volleyball setter’s decision- making on tipping, based on spatiotemporal variables of interaction between players and between players and the game environment. The sample consisted of 172 sequences of 20 volleyball games from 6 male and 10 female teams. The actions selected for analysis were 86 tips and 86 sets (control group), both made by the setters. From the players’ x and y coordinates of displacement trajectory, 37 spatiotemporal measures of players’ interaction were calculated as dependent variables, which were analysed by multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that tips and sets differed in terms of (i) final area between opponents, (ii) displacement of setter to reach the ball, (iii) displacement velocity of setter to reach the ball, (iv) distance between setter and net in the initial moment, (v) distance between setter and net in the final moment, (vi) pass velocity and (vii) final distance between setter and blockers. It was concluded that these variables formed a spatiotemporal configuration of the game that influenced the setter’s decision-making on tipping.
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PEDAGOGY FOR ETHICAL DECISION MAKING

PEDAGOGY FOR ETHICAL DECISION MAKING

designed to elicit an exploration into self, taking the students through progressive exercises that lead them to codify their values and beliefs. This proactively enhances their self-awareness and through this awareness they may become mindful of some of the schemas that they might employ. Building on the tools, we introduce the students to a series of discussions in small groups. These discussions allow the students to question and express doubts and concerns in relative safety. They begin to recognize that they are not alone; others also have questions, doubts, and concerns. These exercises can further contribute to an individual’s mindfulness in three significant ways. (1) The individuals may be introduced to additional perspectives that relate to their own values and beliefs. This insight, that others provide, may present an opportunity for expanding their bounded rationality through the new information provided by their peers. (2) The individuals may become more aware of their sensitive line, the line that separates their public persona with that which is held in reserve. (3) The activities may trigger an awareness of some areas in which the individual has been engaged in self-deception, an unconscious belief concerning oneself that does not align with reality. Bringing these elements to the forefront of the student’s consciousness reinforces and adds to one’s mindfulness through greater self-awareness.
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DECISION-MAKING AND AGING

DECISION-MAKING AND AGING

karzy, sposobu leczenia oraz opieki domowej. W każdej decyzji były dostępne dwie opcje opisane na wielu atrybutach (celem badaczy było uzyskanie dużego obciąże- nia pamięci roboczej), których ilość wzrastała w trakcie badania. Za prawidłową de- cyzję uważano wybór opcji, która charakteryzowała się większą proporcją pozytyw- nych atrybutów. Mimo iż w końcowej części badania zostały zebrane dane dotyczą- ce ich subiektywnej ważności, badacze nie uwzględnili różnych wag w ocenie ko- rzystności decyzji. Za wskaźnik „jakości decyzji” uznano proporcję prawidłowych decyzji w próbach. Zaobserwowano istotny spadek jakości decyzji wraz ze wzro- stem obciążenia poznawczego oraz ogólną przewagę osób młodszych nad starszymi (wyniki badania przedstawia rysunek 2). Interakcja między warunkiem (kontrolny; nastawienie na emocje; nastawienie na informacje) a wiekiem okazała się istotna. Osoby młodsze podejmowały najlepsze decyzje, gdy skoncentrowane były na deta- lach (w porównaniu do grupy kontrolnej; grupa nastawiona na emocje nie różniła się istotnie od pozostałych). Natomiast w przypadku osób starszych decyzje o naj- gorszej jakości były podejmowane właśnie w grupie nastawionej na poszukiwanie informacji (w porównaniu do kontrolnej i nastawionej na emocje; między tymi dwo- ma warunkami nie zaobserwowano istotnej różnicy). Gdy porównano wyniki osób młodszych i starszych, dla każdego warunku oddzielnie, jedyna istotna różnica wy- stąpiła, gdy instrukcja nakazywała koncentrację na detalach (osoby młodsze podej- mowały lepsze decyzje), w pozostałych dwóch grupach (kontrolna, nastawienie na emocje) jakość decyzji była porównywalna.
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DECISION-MAKING AT THE FIRST MANAGEMENT LEVEL: THE INTERFERENCE OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

DECISION-MAKING AT THE FIRST MANAGEMENT LEVEL: THE INTERFERENCE OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

design/metodologia/abordagem: Foram entrevistados 50 gestores, por meio da aplicação de uma pesquisa qualitativa exploratória, com a cole- ta de dados realizada por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas e a aná- lise de conteúdo como técnica de análise e tratamento dos dados. descobertas: Conclui-se que a tomada de decisão dos gestores de pri- meiro nível decisório é mais racional e que a cultura organizacional, dentre as variáveis estudadas, é a de maior impacto na forma como esse nível de gestor toma suas decisões. Essa influência da cultura orga ni- zacional traz consigo três elementos importantes: 1. necessidade do gestor em atuar de forma procedimentada, a partir das regras e normas das empresas; 2. uso de ferramentas de apoio à tomada de decisão; e 3. o aprendizado a partir do relacionamento atual, ou passado, com os pares. Como aprofundamento do tema, sugerimos analisar a influência do gênero na tomada de decisão, sob o enfoque da racionalidade ou intuição, no primeiro nível da função gerencial das organizações.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers of the oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance of the oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias of the oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
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Decision making in hyperglycaemia seen in pregnancy

Decision making in hyperglycaemia seen in pregnancy

Abstract: Delay in childbearing, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in childbearing years increases a possibility of glucose intolerance or overt diabetes in pregnancy which may remain unrecognised unless an oral glucose tolerance test is done. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG, 2010) recommended the detection and diagnosis of hyperglycaemic disorders in pregnancy at two stages of pregnancy, the first stage looking for ‘overt diabetes’ in early pregnancy based on risk factors like age, past history of gestational diabetes and obesity and the second stage where ‘gestational diabetes’ at 24-28 weeks with 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Although the one step approach with 75 g of glucose offers operational convenience in diagnosing gestational diabetes, there are concerns raised by the National Institute of Health in the recent consensus statement, supporting the two step approach (50-g, 1-hour loading test screening 100-g, 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test) as the recommended approach for detecting gestational diabetes. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) with well-designed meal plan and appropriate exercise achieves normoglycemia without inducing ketonemia and weight loss in most pregnant women with glucose intolerance. Rapidly acting insulin analogues, such as insulin lispro and aspart are safe in pregnancy and improve postprandial glycemic control in women with pre-gestational diabetes. The long acting analogues (Insulin detemir and glargine) though proven to be safe in pregnancy, do not confer added advantage if normoglycemia is achieved with intermediate insulin (NPH). Current evidence indicates the safe use of glyburide and metformin in the management of Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes as other options. However, it is prudent to communicate to the women that there is no data available on the long-term health of the offspring and the safety of these oral hypoglycemic drugs are limited to the prenatal period.
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