Background. Cadmiumandlead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment andin food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more ofcadmiumandlead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content ofcadmiumandleadindrinkingmilk originating from four selectedmilk pro- ducers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was min- eralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples ofmilk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these ele- ments. Conclusions. Cadmiumandlead content in tested drinkingmilk does not pose a threat to human health.
Cadmium is toxic for human, animal and plants even at low concentrations. Cadmium can enter the soil with different sources including phosphate fertilizers. Kloke (1980) estimated Cd inputs by P fertilization very low - at 3 g/ha/year. Baechle and Wolstein (1984) found range of mean Cd contentsin various rock phosphates from 0.3 to 84.o ppm Cd. Kloke (1973) found that Cd contentsin high plants normally vary between 0.2 and 3.0 ppm. Chaney et al. (1977) found toxic Cd levels of 4 ppm Cd in soybean leaves. Cadmiumand zinc are chemically very similar and Cd is thus able to mimic the behavior of the Zn in its uptake and functions. The basic cause of the toxicity probably lies in much higher affinity for thiol groupings (SH) in enzymes and other proteins. The presence of Cd therefore disturbs enzyme activity. In plants excess Cd may also disturb Fe metabolism and cause chlorosis. Cd availability in the soil decreases as the soil pH increases. Kaferstein (1979) reported acceptable maximum Pb and Cd levels in edible parts or food plants - for cereals these values are less than 0.5 ppm Pb and less than 0.1 ppm Cd. Davis et al. (1978) found Cd and Pb levels in young summer barley plants at tillering (5-leaf stage) with 10% loss of yield as follows: 15 ppm Cd and 26 ppm Pb. Fritz et al. (1977) found less than 1 ppm Cd andfrom 5.3 to 28.7 ppm Pb in fruit, root, tuber and leaf vegetables from "non-contaminated regions".
We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy andin alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced inPoland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg·l -1 . Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg·l -1 ). The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg·l -1 ; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg·l -1 ), and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001
In multielementar solutions, there may be a decrease in the adsorption ability of a specific metal, compared to that of the same metal in monoelementar solutions. This decrease can be attributed to fewer active sites available, i.e., binding sites competitively are divided among metals present in the solution (Sharma et al., 2007), which was observed by the same author in studies using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. in a ternary solution containing Cd, Cr and Ni, whose adsorption values decreased by about 10 to 20% compared to the adsorption using a monoelementar solution.
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs, in which families receive government payments upon fulfillment of schooling and other requirements, are today among the most popular and celebrated social support programs in the world. Various versions of CCTs have been adopted in countries as diverse as Argentina, Bangladesh, Colombia, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Turkey, and the US, among innumerous others. There is substantial evidence from some of these settings on the positive effects of CCTs on enrollment rates, preventive health care, and nutrition (for reviews of the literature, see Rawlings and Rubio, 2005, and Fizbein and Schady, 2009). Brazil, in particular, has one of the first and the largest CCT program in the world, currently named Bolsa Família. It covers over 11 million families and costs close to 0.4% of the country’s GDP. Evidence suggests that Bolsa Família has had substantial impact on enrollment rates, school progression, extreme poverty, and inequality, though there are questions related to its social rate of return and effectiveness in urban settings (Soares and Sátyro, 2009, and Glewwe and Kassouf, 2012).
The metals levels registered in each household are depicted in Table 1. There is no legislation regulating maximum permissible levels for any of the studied metals in house dust. Since a threshold was needed in order to characterize risk of exposure, a comparison with ”Portaria Nº 1450/2007” which regulates the maximum metal contentsin dredged sediment that can be safely deposited in soils was used. Despite being originally destined to evaluate risk from a different source, the basic premise is the same: it represents an action threshold that when transcended presents a high probability that biota and humans will suffer toxic effects, since house dust can enter the human body through dermal contact, inhalation, but mostly through ingestion (e.g., dust settled into food items, hand-to-mouth contact) [3, 13]. Estimation of dust daily intakes varies according to authors with some indicating daily ingestions as high as 100 mg for adults and 200 mg for children .
The ability of S. uberis strains to effectively cause disease has been linked to the presence of specific virulence traits, which might provide an advantage in outcompeting other bacteria, or an improved capacity to invade and survive in the teat environment. In recent years, many of the genes coding for these traits were identified, namely the nisin U operon. This operon is responsible for the production and immunity to a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, which has antimicrobial activity against many lactic acid bacteria (Wirawan et al., 2006). Furthermore, the enhanced growth in the teat environment has been associated with the presence of a plasminogen activator protein, required for the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins (Rosey et al., 1999), and oligopeptide permeases that promote the ability to obtain essential amino acids frommilk peptides (Smith et al., 2002). Efficient colonization and survival can also be attributed to the protein SUAM (Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule), which plays a role in adherence to the bovine mammary epithelial cells (Almeida et al., 2006); to the ability of this species to produce an hyaluronic acid capsule, which confers resistance to phagocytosis and desiccation in the environment (Ward et al., 2001; Field et al., 2003); and to a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) able to bind host proteins and protect against reactive oxygen species (Reinoso et al., 2011). The first fully sequenced genome of S. uberis (strain 0140J) confirmed the presence of several genes consistent with an organism capable of surviving in several environmental niches (Ward et al., 2009) and opened the possibility of using comparative genomic analyses to identify further virulence factors (Hossain et al., 2015).
with increasing citric acid concentration. Correspondingly, the mixed solution (with 100 mg/L rhamnolipids) exhibited increasingly lower solubilization effect compared to rhamnolipids alone. In contrast, at a high rhamnolipds concentration of 1000 mg/L, lindane solubility in- creased substantially when citric acid concentration ranged from 0 to 0.2 mol/L, then reached a plateau although citric acid further increased to 0.5 mol/L. The higher solubilization curve for mixed agents containing 1000 mg/L rhamnolipids than rhamnolipids alone confirms the pro- motive effect of citric acid on lindane dissolution. Furthermore, note that the observed solubili- zation curve for mixed agents (Citric acid & 1000 mg/L Rha) was significantly higher than the theoretical curve (Citric acid + 1000 mg/L Rha, plotting by the sum of lindane solubility in cit- ric acid and rhamnolipids individual solution), which implies a reliable synergistic effect on lin- dane solubilization by the mixed system. Particularly, Table 2 indicates that the absolute and relative synergistic increments of lindane solubilization brought by the combined agents were 3.52–22.8 mg/L and 9.32–69.1%, respectively. Moreover, the synergistic effect was enhanced with the citric acid concentration increasing. Similarly, we previously reported a synergistic percentage of 29–132% on hexachlorobenzene solubilization when cyclodextrin was combined with 30% ethanol.
located in Kahrizak, Iran, in May 2014 and were sent to a Laboratory at Health Faculty of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. In order to avoid any changes in the quality of the leachate, 1.5ml of nitric acid was added to every liter of the sample. Then, the pH level and the concentration ofcadmium were measured. 50ml of the sample was isolated and filtered through Watson filter No. 40. The filtered sample was digested in accordance with the wastewater guidelines  .
Pogorzelska and Wro ński  maintain that intensive fattening of young cattle should lead to higher daily weight gains, lower consumption of nutrients per 1 kg body weight gain as well as better dressing percentage of animals. On the other hand, over intensive fattening results in excessive fat deposition, carcass quality deterioration and lowering of economic results. According to Kaczmarek  in order to avoid this type of negative phenomena, young cattle nutrition should also take into account the rate of animal maturation. He maintains that beef cattle of early maturing breeds, such as for example Aberdeen Angus and Hereford, becomes fat earlier when fed intensively by concentrates and their carcasses are fatter. In the case of late-maturing breeds such as: Charolaise, Limousine, Chianina or Piemontesea a higher capability to accumulate protein than fat can be observed [Litwi ńczuk and Litwińczuk 1998, Pogorzelska and Wro ński 2005]. They are characterised by high daily weight gains and, consequently, are more suitable for intensive fattening [Pogorzelska and Wroński 2005].
Magnesium, copper, and iron are essential elements required for the normal growth and development of the fetus (Ramakrishnan et al., 1999; Raghunath et al., 2000). Copper, iron and magnesium are microelements that are necessary for a lot of processes inside the organism. High or low level of these trace elements may cause many disorders and dysfunctions. Copper is important especially in early life, for the development and maintenance of myelin (Yasodhara et al., 1991). Cu is essential component for many enzymes (Gibson, 1989) and catalyzes a lot of biochemical processes (Pasterniak et al., 1995). High level of this element damages the liver, kidneys and hemoglobin. Deficiency of copper is very unfavorable during pregnancy. This metal can contribute in developing incorrect tissues and organs structure, they are able to change protein metabolism or nucleic acids and also disturb correct fetus growing (Ashworth et al., 2001; Keen et al., 2003). Concentration of this metal must be regulated (Steńczuk, 1990). Lowest content of investigated metal may contribute to early fetal death and respiratory, circulatory or bone systems defects (Fields et al., 1990; Keen et al., 1998).
Gupta (2000) views gender to refer to the widely shared expectations and norms within a society about appropriate male and female behavior, characteristics, and roles. It is a social and cultural construct that differentiates women from men and defines the ways in which women and men interact. Worthy to note that there has been some controversy on the social relationship between the two sexes that make up gender and this has raised a lot of dust and storm. Agriculture is the most assured engine of growth and development and reliable key to industrialization. Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world (Ogbe et al, 2003). It is a very important staple food consumed in different forms by millions of Nigerians. Cassava roots are rich in energy, containing mainly starch and soluble carbohydrates, but are poor in protein. Cassava is once seen as the food for the poor but due to its value addition it is therefore a food for all. These and other features endowed it with a special capacity to bridge the gap in food security, poverty alleviation and environmental protection (Clair et.al, 2000). In many rural areas in Nigeria and several developing countries, women play a crucial role in providing and improving household food security (CTA, 2005).
Still, what is missing in literature or administration is a standardized understanding regarding the optimal dimension as territory and population of jurisdictions on which decentralization can be applied. On the other hand, the economical specialized literature is the one which pronouncing upon the fact that public services have different degrees of optimum between their centralized supply and the option for decentra- lization Oates, . For example, at a territory with a very large surface, a service such as snow clearing cannot have the same decen- tralization optimum as the health services. )n their turn, the areas of jurisdiction cannot be determined without considering the power allocation meant for each level. Specifying the functions per different levels implies, once more, certain assumptions and delegations of power, these matters cannot be separated and the configuration of these functions and power must be predetermined in the case of a decentralized operation. )n these conditions, we must also analyze the spectrum of political situations. Whoever are the institutions involved in decentralization, choosing the existent structures and the conse- cutive process of decision making shall have a powerful political note
The heavy metals were distributed in different organs in the plant in different amounts. The highest heavy metal accumulation was in the roots and the lowest accumulation was in the stem (root > leaf > stem). However, for chromium the order was as root > stem > leaf. There was an efficient negative correlation between the SSM and heavy metal levels in the different parts of plant in each season. The heavy metal bioaccumulation in the plant was maximum in spring, because plant development accelerated in spring and nutrient/metal uptake also increased. Heavy metals’ order for the BCF values were as As > Cr > Pb > Hg > Cd in the Kadın Creek. The plant accumulated arsenic in the water particularly in its roots. Thus, M. spicatum could be used effectively as a bioindicator in monitoring the water quality biologically in terms of heavy metals.
BEHAVIOR OF ELECTROTHERMAL ATOMIZATION OF GOLD, SILVER, BISMUTH, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND TIN IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ANDIN ETHANOL STARTING FROM DIFFERENT ATOMIZING SURFACES. The atomization behavior of Au, Ag, Bi, Cd, Pb, and Sn from pyrolitic graphite coating (L´vov platform) with the use Pd and Mg solutions, and zirconium coated platform with the analytes in nitric acid 0.2% v/v andin ethanol was investigated. In ethanol medium, the sensitivity gain was three-fold for Bi and Cd using Zr as modifier. Without modifier, the ethanol medium is appropriate only for Au and Cd. In nitric acid medium, the Zr coated platform elevates sensitivity at least two-fold for Bi and Cd. The method was applied to the determination of Ag, Au and Bi of certified steel samples, after on-line preconcentration, sorption on a minicolumn filled with C-18 bonded to silica gel and elution with ethanol. The concentrations obtained agreed with the recommended values.
O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a produção de leite nas mesorregiões Central Mineira e do Oeste de Minas do estado de Minas Gerais, quanto à contagem de células somáticas, à contagem bacteriana total e à composição, em diferentes faixas de produção. Os teores de gordura, proteína, sólidos totais e extrato seco desengordurado apresentaram valores médios dentro do limite estabelecido pela Instrução Normativa n°62 (IN-62/2011), em todas as faixas específicas de produção estipuladas no presente trabalho. Os valores de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) também se mostraram dentro do limite legalmente estabelecido de 600.000 células/mL, exceto na faixa de produção acima de 1.000L/dia. Entretanto, valores abaixo de 400.000 células/mL são recomendados para um leite de boa qualidade. A contagem bacteriana total foi o fator de qualidade mais crítico. Os valores médios de contagem bacteriana ultrapassaram o limite atualmente preconizado, e rebanhos com volume diário acima de 500 litros por dia foram os que apresentaram maior número de resultados que não estão em conformidade com os padrões legais.
The fruits from the North and Central regions showed higher values of L* (mean= 70.8) and lower values of a* (mean= 23.7), which indicate lighter coloured and less red fruits. In contrast, the fruits from the East region were darker and redder (Table 1). There was a positive correlation between L* and the parameter a* (p= 0.001). The pequis from the North region showed the highest b* values. The lowest values were observed in fruits from the East and Central regions (Table 1). The variation in this parameter is due to the great amplitude of the yellow colour of the pequi pulp. The parameter C ranged from 75 to 115 and was positively correlated with the parameter b* (p= 0.006). The hue angles of the pequi pulps ranged from approximately 55° to 80°, indicating a fruit colour from orange-red to intense yellow since lower hue angle values corresponded to more orange-red pulps and higher hue angles corresponded to more yellow pulps. There are no studies on the CIE parameters of pequi pulps in the literature.