Top PDF Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the short- age of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenome- non also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.
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Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-

Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-

There are many animals known to feed on GAS or their eggs, including fish, birds, rats, lizards, frogs, toads, beetles and ants (Cowie, 2002). The turtles, including Trachemysscripta, Chinemysreevesii, Mauremys japonica, were first reported to have the ability to consume GAS in aquaria by Yusa et al. (2006). In the present study, preda- tory capacity of turtle, P. sinensis, was also conformed both in laboratory and field conditions, including prefer- ence to younger snails and strong predatory ability. The feeding behavior of P. sinensis was different depending on the body weight of GAS. The adult P. sinensis can swallow the whole apple snails of Class I and Class II because the unbroken snails were found in the gut of P. sinensis and a few empty shells remained in aquarium, and this feeding behavior was much like red tilapia Ana- bastestudineus (Teo, 2006). However, P. sinensis attacked and only ate the softy part of adult snail in Class III and Class IV when the snails sprawled up, and the whole empty shell of GAS remained after turtle attacking in test arena. This feeding behavior was also found in com- mon carp Cyprinuscarpio (Teo, 2006). It is concluded that P. sinensis is one of the most hopeful biological agents for GAS because they not only prey the young snails, but also attack the adult ones efficiently.
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The Association between the Risk of Premenstrual Syndrome and Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium Status among University Students: A Case Control Study

The Association between the Risk of Premenstrual Syndrome and Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium Status among University Students: A Case Control Study

The participants had no differences in demo- graphic data. In addition, they had no differences in disease severity and the duration of periodic cycle. Our study indicates that there are lower serum levels of Ca and Mg in PMS participants than their healthy controls while no difference is evident in terms of vitamin D serum status. Moreover, participants with PMS had lower dietary intakes of Ca and potassium. Based on our findings, nutritional recommendations should be made to improve the quality of diet en- couraging intake of good sources of Ca, Mg and K in subjects with PMS. Regarding the health conse- quences of vitamin D, calcium and magnesium defi- ciencies and wide prevalence of PMS, population studies are warranted to explore the impact of im- proving nutritional status on symptoms of PMS.
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DNA sampling from eggshells and microsatellite genotyping in rare tropical birds: Case study on Brazilian Merganser

DNA sampling from eggshells and microsatellite genotyping in rare tropical birds: Case study on Brazilian Merganser

Of the 27 microsatellite loci tested (Table S1), ampli- fication occurred in seven (MOCC3, MOCD4, MOCF12, MOCH3, MOCH5, Aph08, MM03), with amplicons rang- ing from 110 to 254 bp (Table 1). MOCF12 (allele 194) and MM03 (allele 231) were found to be monomorphic. The loci Aph08 and MM03 were sequenced to confirm the microsatellites. In the pairwise locus analyses, none showed a linkage disequilibrium. Sixty-five percent of the invasive samples and 50 percent of the noninvasive sam- ples were successfully amplified for seven loci, of which five exhibited polymorphisms with two to six alleles. Our results showed lower amplification success for heterolo- gous markers (22.2%) vs. species-specific loci (27.7%). Mutations in flanking regions or disruptions within tan- dem-repeated elements may lead to failure of amplification and reduced levels of polymorphism in cross amplification (Moodley et al., 2015). Accordingly, only one heterolo- gous marker showed success of amplification in Brazilian Merganser, therefore development of specific markers al- lowed access genetic diversity with success. These markers will allow to assess genetic diversity in wild populations and in distinct kinds of samples.
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Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

Alternatively, such as in the case of aquatic snails, characteristics that make them suitable for internal dispersal may be attributed to adaptations likely acquired to survive normal environmental conditions. Both marine and freshwater habitats can be very dynamic, with fluctuating water levels, oxygen and nutrient concentrations and temperatures, requiring adaptations for survival. This requires comparable traits to the ones needed for endozoochory. Prosobranchs snails have a strong shell and operculum (a calcareous or horny lid). These characteristics probably evolved to protect them from predation and desiccation [60], but at the same time protect them from crushing forces in the gizzard and from digestive enzymes and juices entering the shell. Pulmonate snails lack these characteristics, and during our experiments, indeed no remnants of the pulmonate snail B. contortus were retrieved. The relatively weak shells of this species likely dissolved completely during digestion, while for the three operculated snails remains of their shells were retrieved. Malone [61] experimented with two other pulmonate snail species with
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Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab  vol.57 número1

Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab vol.57 número1

The hungry bone syndrome is described after para- thyroidectomy, since correction of hyperparathyroid- ism is associated with rapid bone remineralization, causing severe and prolonged hypocalcemia that re- quires intensive intravenous calcium and oral vitamin D supplementation (10,11). HBS is considered a com- plication of parathyroid surgery observed in 13-30% of cases (18), and some studies advocate the use of bisphosphonates prior to surgery in order to prevent this post-operative outcome (19). The more severe the bone disease before surgery, the more prone the pa- tient is to the hungry bone syndrome after the surgi- cal procedure. Despite being an unfavorable outcome, the hungry bone syndrome state suggests that surgical removal of hypersecretive parathyroid tissue was ac- complished. In this study, HBS was observed in both patients: in case 1 after lung metastasis removal, and in case 2 after surgical resection of the parathyroid le- sion. Both patients presented severe bone disease prior to surgery. Therefore, it is worth highlighting that HBS would be expected post-operatively in successful para- thyroid carcinoma removal.
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Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood concentrations and bone quality of commercial layers

Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood concentrations and bone quality of commercial layers

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood proile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%), into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit). The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% signiicance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was signiicantly inluenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels signiicantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not beneit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the irst laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is suficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.
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The relationship between genetic variability and the susceptibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to Schistosoma mansoni infection

The relationship between genetic variability and the susceptibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to Schistosoma mansoni infection

B. glabrata species were reported to be widespread throughout the Nile Delta. Morphological examination of hundreds of specimens of this type showed that they exhibit features in common with both B. alexandrina and B. glabrata. Therefore, these snails are considered to be a hybrid of the two species (Yousif et al. 1998a). Among the differentiating characters of these snails, it was found that in the case of B. glabrata, the head-foot appears faint greenish yellow in colour, while it is dark grey in both B. alexandrina and the hybrid. Both of these snails show dense black pigmentation on their mantle surface, while B. glabrata presents patchy pigmentation, especially close to the mantle edge. In median-sized snails, the radula pat- tern in B. alexandrina shows teeth numbers of 133-151 × 49 for transverse and longitudinal rows, while in both B. glabrata and the hybrid snails they are (133-146 × 43). The mesocone of the lateral cone is simply triangular in B. alexandrina, while it is arrowhead-shaped in B. glabrata and the hybrid snails. In both B. alexandrina and the hybrid snails, the vergic sheath length is equal to that of the preputium, while in B. glabrata it is 20% longer than the preputium (Yousif et al. 1998a). Based on these data, Yousif et al. concluded that one of the new snail populations consists of hybrids of B. alexandrina and B. glabrata. Since that study, B. glabrata and the hybrids identified in comprehensive morphological and molecu- lar studies have been reared at the Theodor Bilharz Re- search Institute (TBRI), Giza, Egypt. However, in 2005, a molecular survey was performed to identify the species of Biomphalaria present in Egypt. The survey concluded that there was no evidence of the presence of B. glabrata or of a species that was a hybrid of B. alexandrina and B. glabrata (Lotfy et al. 2005a).
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SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE 4A FOR OBTAINING ZEOLITE 5A BY IONIC EXCHANGE FOR FULL UTILIZATION OF WASTE FROM PAPER INDUSTRY

SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE 4A FOR OBTAINING ZEOLITE 5A BY IONIC EXCHANGE FOR FULL UTILIZATION OF WASTE FROM PAPER INDUSTRY

to the Si-O-Al bonds present in metakaolin (Barbosa et al., 1999), which possibly did not completely react, these results confirm the data gathered by XRD analysis. After the presence of the major chemical bonds was confirmed in the zeolitic material obtained, its thermal stability was determined by TGA and DSC analyses (Figure 6). Thermogravimetric analysis showed endothermic weight loss due to dehydration. This loss began at 50 ºC and showed a sharp deflection starting around 85 ºC and stretching up to 170 ºC, reaching its maximum value (17%) at the temperature of 650 ºC. Based on the loss of water of dehydration, proportions of the mineral present in the zeolitic sample can be estimated to be around 83% (Freitas et al., 2011). The zeolite also showed an exothermic peak in the region close to 900 ºC; these peaks are common in zeolites, and refer to the formation of amorphous aluminosilicate by destruction of the structure of the zeolite and its subsequent recrystallization into a new phase (Kosanovic et al., 1998; Maia et al., 2007). By means of scanning electron microscopy, it was found that both zeolites, obtained from sodium (4A) and by ion exchange (5A), have cubic morphology (Figure 7), which is typical of zeolites A (Loiola et al., 2012). The crystals observed in the micrographs are isolated and have a small amount of amorphous material, possibly unreacted metakaolin. Figure 7b and 7d shows the semi-quantitative results for EDX, the extent of exchange of calcium cations with sodium cations in zeolite samples, which resulted in 8.09% Na + and 1.27% Ca +2 for zeolite 4A and 2.16% Na +
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Aphasia and herpes virus encephalitis: a case study

Aphasia and herpes virus encephalitis: a case study

With regard to naming tasks, the patient was able to name only one of the 31 drawings presented. he problems manifested during this task consisted of four paraphrases and 26 instances of anomia. he paraphrasing indicated that he was able to visually recognize the stimuli and access the semantic system but, despite this, the abnormality may have resulted from failure in accessing the lexi- cal bufer. he deicits underlying the anomia could have occurred in any phase of linguistic processing, since the ability to name, in tasks requiring names for drawings, involves analysis and recog- nition of visual elements (lines, bars, points and curves), in order to form a complex visual representation of an object. hrough the subject’s internal recognition process and experiences, the image generates a mental representation. Subsequent to this process, the object gains representation in the semantic system and correct phonological lexicon activation inally takes place. 19
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Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

The detailed questionnaire of the Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields of study. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields of study are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most of the analysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields of study refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.28 número4

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.28 número4

Rheological experiments were carried out on a stress- controlled rheometer (TA Instruments AR-G2) equipped with an environmental test chamber (ETC). The ETC was fitted with a standard parallel plate geometry accessory kit suitable for thermoplastics and rubbers. The composite material was loaded onto the plate equilibrated at 100 °C for 15 min. Subsequently, the gap was then closed to 100 µm using the exponential sample compression mode. The ETC chamber was then opened, and the excess sample was trimmed using a flat-ended tool while the bearing was locked to prevent rotation. Prior to the experiments, a conditioning step was applied to the sample by setting the temperature at 100 °C for 15 min at rest. Initially, a strain amplitude of 5% was applied in all dynamic tests to ensure that the deformation was within the linear viscoelastic regime. The linear viscoelastic region was determined by a strain sweep from 0.1 to 5% performed at a frequency of 1 Hz at 100 °C. Frequency sweeps were run at 100 °C over an experimental range of 0.06 to 628 rad s -1 and the
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Distressed situation and renegotiation plan: a case study

Distressed situation and renegotiation plan: a case study

Regarding the key employees, they consist of: (a) the main partner and CEO of PlywoodCo.; (b) PlywoodCo.’s CFO; (c) PlywoodCo.’s commercial director; (d) PlywoodCo.’s Production Planning and Control manager. Their input was essential to the work because they live the company on a daily basis, and not only know some of the details related to each of their areas, but they know better about the product they sell, the market they are in, the new markets they could enter, their competition and other important information, essential to better understanding the company’s history and to project its future. The justification for choosing these employees as participants is that they were the decision makers of the company, meaning that no relevant decision (decisions important enough to lead the company’s trajectory) was taken by other employees led the company to its current situation.
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Evidence of the Presence of Thyroid Hormones in Achatina fulica Snails

Evidence of the Presence of Thyroid Hormones in Achatina fulica Snails

vertebrates during its complex life cycle. Saule et al. (2002), studying the effects of murine infection with S. mansoni, found that rats treated with thyroxine had an increase in the number and development of giant worms, whereas a diet deficient in iodine reduced the maturation of the parasite and number of eggs laid, and caused liver disease. The idea that neurohumoral systems of definitive or even intermediate hosts play a key role in infection processes of parasites has grown enormously. However, in relation to THs, the importance of the humoral loop is poorly understood in these animals. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that THs are highly conserved during phylogenetic evolution and may have an important role in species conservation.
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a case study. :: Brapci ::

a case study. :: Brapci ::

From the creation of a multidisciplinary Working Group for the elaboration of normative institutional documents “Digital Preservation Plan” and “Digitalization Manual”, aimed at the implementation of actions related to digital preservation in the scientiic and cultural collections of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), it was observed the need to establish minimum standards of descriptive metadata, to integrate and streamline access to the different digital objects that represent the archival, bibliographic, museological and biological collections that make up the institution’s patrimony. Considering the historical character (some dating from the eighteenth century), evidence, informative, and the scientiic and cultural function of these objects, speciic metadata will also be set to support both their long-term preservation and the very descriptive metadata attributed to them. It should be noted that although different objects (museum pieces, bibliographic items, archival documents and biological collections) are treated, the proposal of this communication will be to present the methodology applied for the deinition of integrative metadata based on the use of the Dublin Core (DC) standard and for the deinition of long-term preservation metadata, based on the Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) with the authenticity, reliability and accessibility premises.
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Parasite found in parakeets - Study on 167 birds

Parasite found in parakeets - Study on 167 birds

In clinical studies effectuated at the clinic of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, out of 167 birds, subjected to observation, eimeriosis held 18.56% (31 birds) of all cases presented, followed by feather lice infestation, which in turn held 16.16% (27 cases), ascariosis 1% (1

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Calcium deposits in the cornea: histopathological study

Calcium deposits in the cornea: histopathological study

Objective: To study, through histopathological examination, calcium deposits in the cornea and its different presentation forms. Methods: Observational, transversal, retrospective and descriptive study of corneal buttons from penetrating keratoplasty from 2006 to 2015. Routine staining was performed with Hematoxylin-eosin, and in some cases additional staining was performed: Masson, PAS (Periodic Acid Of Schiff reaction) and reticulin. The tissues were examined with an optical microscope by the authors. We selected only the cases in which calcium deposits were identified in the histopathological examination. After the cases were selected, a chart review was carried out looking for information about sex, age and transplantation etiology. Results: Twelve cases were included. The different forms of corneal calcium deposits presentation found in the histopathological examination were granules, plaques and oval formations or their associations. The main form of deposition were isolated or associated granules in 9 (75%) cases, followed by isolated or associated plaques in 8 (66.66% cases). The most frequent association was granule + plaque in 5 (41.66%) cases, followed by granules + oval formations in 2 (16.66%) cases. From the findings in the histopathological examination, a classification and a possible evolution of the corneal calcium deposits was proposed. Conclusion: Through histopathological examination we demonstrate the different forms of calcium deposits presentation in the cornea and propose a possible evolution for them. Oval formations were described as a new presentation form for these deposits, which remain demanding a better understanding.
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Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) parasitizing birds in southeastern Brazil, with notes on Rickettsia detection

Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) parasitizing birds in southeastern Brazil, with notes on Rickettsia detection

The material was slide-mounted and deposited into the Acari Collection of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil (IBSP). Chiggers were identified based on the original descriptions of all species of the genus Blankaartia (EWING, 1926; FLOCH & ABONNENC, 1941; BOSHELL & KERR, 1942; MICHENER, 1946; FLOCH & FAURAN, 1956; RADFORD, 1957; VERCAMMEN-GRANDJEAN, 1960; TAUFFLIEB & MOUCHET, 1959; BRENNAN & JONES, 1961; BRENNAN, 1965; BRENNAN & YUNKER, 1966; CROSSLEY & ATYEO, 1972; TAUFFLIEB, 1972; NADCHATRAM & GOFF, 1980; BASSINI-SILVA et al., 2017) and by comparison with type and material slides that were deposited at the USNM (Appendix 1), which are housed at the Systematic Entomology Laboratory (USDA-ARS, BARC). Some specimens were also prepared for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) according to WALTER & KRANTZ (2009) with a Digital Scanning Electron Microscope FEI (Hillsboro, Oregon USA), Quanta 250, at the Laboratory of Cell Biology, Instituto Butantan. The terminology of GOFF et al. (1982), with adaptations proposed by STEKOLNIKOV (2008) and STEKOLNIKOV & DANIEL (2012) concerning general nomenclature of larval stages was followed with the terminology for specialized setae using KETHLEY (1990), WOHLTMANN et al. (2006, 2007) and BASSINI-SILVA et al. (2017). Voucher specimens have been deposited at the IBSP collection, under the accession numbers found on table 1.
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CASE STUDY: A NEGOTIATION BETWEEN A SHOPPING CENTRE AND A RETAILER

CASE STUDY: A NEGOTIATION BETWEEN A SHOPPING CENTRE AND A RETAILER

Also, having agendas with multiple issues does not necessarily imply that parties will join forces to seek bigger outcomes. Sometimes, even with package deals, negotiators tend to go issue by issue, exercising maximum pressure with the aim of generating huge outcomes for themselves. Obviously, such actions often lead to failed agreements. In the case study developed for academic purposes the main goal is to let the students realize the importance of exercising pressure selectively, taking into consideration tradeoffs present in both exhibits. For example, a student negotiating in behalf of Soleto should convince the other side to provide lower fixed rents, and more favourable terms of payment. Nevertheless, in order to reach that goal, the student will probably need to concede funds to help the centre promote the renovated 3 rd floor space and agree to maintain their place inside the shopping centre.
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Refugees and the labour market: a german study case

Refugees and the labour market: a german study case

As observed before, the activity sector of Information Technology is, again, the field where the majority of the cases are reported working in (R6, R9 and R10). Cases R2 and R7 work in the areas of Academy and Energy, respectively. In this observation, we had the duration of the contract and the possibility of contracting/renewal when the current contract finished. The duration of the contracts go from a very short period (1 month) until a very long period (3 years). Regarding the possibility of contracting/renewal, 4 of the observed cases said “Yes”, against 1 that said “No”. All the observed cases earn either “Less than the minimum wage” (R6, R9 and R10) or “More than the minimum wage” (R2 and R7). The schedule conditions are equal for cases R6, R9 and R10, since they all work full time for 38h/week from Monday to Friday, have a fixed schedule and are entitled to 30 days/year of vacation time. For cases R2 and R7, their schedule conditions also differ from one another: R2 works part time while R7 works full time; R2 has a flexible schedule while R7 has a fixed schedule; R2 works 20h/week and R7 works 38h/week; R2 also works on weekends while R7 works from Monday to Friday; R2 is not entitled to vacation time while R7 is entitled to 28 days/year of vacation time. In all the observations, refugees are entitled to health insurance and have pension coverage. Regarding the existence of other economic rewards, cases R6, R9 and R10 only have paid vacations, R2 has flexible schedule and R7 has both paid vacations and flexible schedule.
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