Top PDF The Canadian Population Society at age thirty: a retrospective and prospective

The Canadian Population Society at age thirty: a retrospective and prospective

The Canadian Population Society at age thirty: a retrospective and prospective

Thirty years have passed since the beginning of the CPS in 1974. Much has changed since that time: the discipline of demography has undergone major shifts in orientation and approaches to research, as have the social sciences in general. Demography has been moving away from its predominant traditional macro level approach to research, and is shifting increasingly in favor of micro data analysis on a wide variety of topics that far expand the traditional boundaries of the discipline: overpopulation and development; demography transition; fertility, mortality and migration analysis; population estimates and projections. Judging from the contents of the mainstream journals in our discipline (i.e., Demography, Population Studies, Population and Development Review), one now finds a host of additional concerns spanning diverse topics. For instance, there is growing interest in the bio-demographic foundations of demographic action; and in the area of fertility and family planning, researchers are increasingly relying on anthropological approaches to better understand the micro level foundations of fertility decision making. Also important is an emphasis on the analysis of micro longitudinal data sets, which by their very nature, cover much more ground than could be imagined with the use of more traditional sources of data, namely census and vital statistics.
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Clozapine prescribing in a Canadian outpatient population.

Clozapine prescribing in a Canadian outpatient population.

A retrospective chart-review study was conducted by accessing all available active medical records of outpatients attending psychiatric clinics at the Health Sciences Center Schizophrenia Program (Winnipeg, Manitoba) during the time period May-September 2010. This program provides multidisciplinary service to patients with schizophrenia and their families. Patients 18 years of age and older are accepted into the program following referrals from psychiatrists, community physicians and the Health Sciences Centre Emergency Department. The clinical focus of the program is for complex or treatment-resistant schizophrenia and individuals with co- occurring major mental illness and substance abuse or dependence.
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J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.)  vol.31 número3

J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.) vol.31 número3

AbstRACt: Anus neoplasm accounts for 2 to 4% of colorectal tumors, being more prevalent around the seventh and the eighth decades. Females are mostly affected, and the ratio is 3:1. Its increased prevalence amongst the population in the past years is prob- ably related to the higher number of people that are affected by sexually transmitted diseases, mainly human papillomavirus (types 16 and 18, mostly) and/or the human immunodeiciency virus. Diagnosis is based on clinical indings and anatomopathological tests. the treatment of choice is radiochemotherapy, and the rescue surgery with abdominoperineal resection is used for recurrence and persistence cases. A retrospective and prospective longitudinal observational study was performed with 11 patients diagnosed with anal neoplasm from 2004 to 2010. Six (54.5%) were females and ive (45.5%) were males. The incidence was higher in the sixth decade, at the mean age of 54.45 years. the most frequent histological type observed was the epidermoid carcinoma, and the most frequent cell differentiation type was the moderately differentiated. Chemotharapy associated with radiotherapy was used in 81.9% of the patients, and abdominoperineal resection was necessary as a rescue surgery in 18.2% of the patients.
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PDF EN Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 6 12 english

PDF EN Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 6 12 english

who were under regular clinical follow-up treatment at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, and were able to perform the spirometry maneuvers. The variables were analyzed at two different time points: before and four years after the opening of the Multidisciplinary Cystic Fibrosis Outpatient Clinic at the institution (in 2003 and 2007, respectively). At this outpatient clinic, patients were simultaneously evaluated by pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, nurses, physical therapists, nutritionists, psychologists, and social workers. All of the patients included in the present study were submitted to systematic collection of respiratory secretion for microbiological study, every one or two months. The collection was performed by a nurse or a physical therapist on the multidisciplinary team. Samples were collected by oropharynx swab, spontaneous expectoration, sputum induction, or oropharyngeal aspiration.
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Democratizing the access to college education: Brazilian racecolor classification in affirmative action’s debate

Democratizing the access to college education: Brazilian racecolor classification in affirmative action’s debate

rules of origin are more representative to set the color or race of that person (38%) than that used for people in general (28%). Otherwise, political and ideological criteria are more representative of people in general and appear in descending order of importance, more like third criterion, then as a second and less as the first criterion. It is also interesting to note that people use fewer criteria to define their own color or race than what they think people use in general to classify others. This can be verified in the amount of non-responses in the second and third positions declared by the interviewee talks about people in general and when they speak of themselves. We can think of two possible reasons for this: that the respondents consider that more criteria is needed to set the color or race of people in general or that they are trying to represent the thinking of many people about it. Anyway, the fact that most people do use more than one criterion to identify themselves or to identify the other and as a second more frequent criterion is the family origin (even more frequent to identify themselves) may explain why people use this criterion in the first place to identify themselves to be a candidate to affirmative action. In other words, thinking in only one criterion, policymakers think in skin color or “phenotypic features criteria” while candidates manipulate their identities putting family origin in the first place to define themselves. Although in most cases both criteria may be coincidental, people with particular “phenotypic features” have the corresponding descent. But we know that in many cases the criteria for family background have a more flexible scope for manipulating the identity. This also explains why many institutions have resorted to photos, as UnB 8 or
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J. bras. pneumol.  vol.36 número6 en v36n6a10

J. bras. pneumol. vol.36 número6 en v36n6a10

Despite the small sample size, we chose to divide the patients as described above because the evolution of CF varies by age bracket. In addition, it is known that the health status of patients is less affected early in life, when lung damage is not extensive. However, for the analysis of the BMI Z score in relation to the standard, we chose to analyze the sample as a whole, since the reference curve for BMI does not vary between birth and 19 years of age. The data for the comparison between the two time points, as well as those for patients over 18 years of age, were analyzed on the basis of the median. Although there was a significant increase in the BMI in the 6-12 group, the patients remained in the same percentile during the follow-up period. In the 13+ group, the BMI decreased, although not significantly. In the two groups, Z scores also decreased, although not significantly. Although skinfold measurements are highly recommended by international consensuses, they were not used in the present study, because these data were not available for all patients in 2003. The nutritional status of the patients in our study sample remained stable throughout the follow-up period. Preservation of nutritional status is one of the principal objectives of CF treatment, since malnutrition has a negative effect on ventilatory capacity, exercise tolerance, lung size, and pulmonary function, as well as predisposing to infection. (21-23)
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AGE Survey: a tool to support the study and intervention on health and age at work

AGE Survey: a tool to support the study and intervention on health and age at work

The complex relationship between age and work goes beyond the association between the exposure to risk factors and early ageing. Only few studies attempt to encompass this complexity and try to put this discussion in a temporal dimension, considering the developments of health and work over lifetime. This proposal presents some results of a study conducted in Portugal about working conditions, occupational risks and health problems.

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Combined mutation and rearrangement screening by quantitative PCR high-resolution melting: is it relevant for hereditary recurrent Fever genes?

Combined mutation and rearrangement screening by quantitative PCR high-resolution melting: is it relevant for hereditary recurrent Fever genes?

The recent identification of genes implicated in hereditary recurrent fevers has allowed their specific diagnosis. So far however, only punctual mutations have been identified and a significant number of patients remain with no genetic confirmation of their disease after routine molecular approaches such as sequencing. The possible involvement of sequence rearrangements in these patients has only been examined in familial Mediterranean fever and was found to be unlikely. To assess the existence of larger genetic alterations in 3 other concerned genes, MVK (Mevalonate kinase), NLRP3 (Nod like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) and TNFRSF1A (TNF receptor superfamily 1A), we adapted the qPCR-HRM method to study possible intragenic deletions and duplications. This single-tube approach, combining both qualitative (mutations) and quantitative (rearrangement) screening, has proven effective in Lynch syndrome diagnosis. Using this approach, we studied 113 unselected (prospective group) and 88 selected (retrospective group) patients and identified no intragenic rearrangements in the 3 genes. Only qualitative alterations were found with a sensitivity similar to that obtained using classical molecular techniques for screening punctual mutations. Our results support that deleterious copy number alterations in MVK, NLRP3 and TNFRSF1A are rare or absent from the mutational spectrum of hereditary recurrent fevers, and demonstrate that a routine combined method such as qPCR-HRM provides no further help in genetic diagnosis. However, quantitative approaches such as qPCR or SQF-PCR did prove to be quick and effective and could still be useful after non contributory punctual mutation screening in the presence of clinically evocative signs.
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Four new species of Neotropical Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

Four new species of Neotropical Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

Types deposited at the University of Nebraska State Museum (UNSM); paratype deposited in the Henry and Anne Howden Collection at the Canadian Na- tional Collection[r]

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Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

A total of 2661 (84.1%) of the target sample living in the UK and not having previously per- manently withdrawn or lost contact participated in 2006–11 and 1976 of these had complete WEMWBS scores and were included in the analyses. The WEMWBS was not included at the start of data collection (n = 229) and the remaining 456 either did not take part in the assess- ment at which the instrument was administered or did not complete the WEMWBS instru- ment. Compared with those who provided wellbeing data at age 60–64, those who did not had more socioeconomically disadvantaged childhoods, were breastfed, had lower parental interest in their education, had less practical care of the house and child, had more overprotective fa- thers, had mother’s with poorer health, had lower birth weight, and were less frequently happy/ sociable children. There were no differences in parental age at study member’s birth, other in- dicators of parent-child relationship quality, the frequency with which they had experienced parental divorce or separation from the mother, frequency of residential or school moves, mother’s neuroticism, father’s health, or number of childhood illnesses.
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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras.  vol.61 número6

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. vol.61 número6

Breast cancer is currently the most common malignancy among women in developed countries, except for non- melanoma skin tumors. In the United States (US), 231,840 new cases were estimated in 2015, which corresponded to 29% of cases of female cancer in the country. Brazil fol- lows this trend, with an estimate in 2014 of 57,120 new cases, which makes it the most common malignancy among Brazilian women. In terms of incidence, the US saw an increase, between 1980 and 1987, of 4% per year probably due to the intensification of mammographic screening programs. Between 1987 and 2002, this figure continued to grow, but at a lower rate (0.3% annually). Between 2002 and 2003, breast cancer incidence fell by 7.5%, probably due to a decline of 50% in the prescription of hormone therapy for postmenopausal women in that country, after the release of the Women’s Health Initia- tive (WHI) study, remaining stable after 2007. In addition to a high incidence, breast cancer also has a high mortal- ity rate. It is the second leading cause of death due to ma- lignancy among American women, second only to lung/ bronchial cancer. In 2015, it was responsible for 40,920 deaths in the US. However, the mortality rate, which grew between the years 1975 and 1990 at an annual rate of 0.4%, declined between 1990 and 2002, presenting an annual drop of 2.3%, possibly due to early detection and better treatment. In Brazil, it is responsible for the largest num-
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Farmacoterapia sistêmica da dor neuropática.

Farmacoterapia sistêmica da dor neuropática.

CONTENTS: his study has evaluated updated protocols of the Canadian Pain Society, the International Association for the Study of Pain, the European Fe- deration of Neurological Societies and relevant references, being developed an algorithm for systemic drug therapy for neuropathic pain, made up of irst line medications (tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentinoids and serotonin and norepi- nephrine reuptake inhibitors), second line medications (weak and strong opioi- ds) and third line medications (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and other anticonvulsants). Other drugs (anti-inlammatory, steroids and baclofen) and venous drug therapy (lidocaine and ketamine) used to control pain were also addressed. Major pharmacological actions, titration, interactions and relevant adverse efects of drugs indicated in the study were highlighted.
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Trends Psychiatry Psychother.  vol.36 número1

Trends Psychiatry Psychother. vol.36 número1

One of the limitations of our study was the severity of patient disease, as they were followed up in a BD outpatient research department. Therefore, our sample may fail to represent all individuals that have BD. In our outpatient research department, we see seriously affected patients referred by other institutions, as well as patients referred directly after hospitalization. In contrast, a large number of the patients under treatment were excluded from the sample because they did not keep the monthly attendance to visits during the study time. We believe that some of them were patients with more severe disease. Therefore, as this sample excluded a large number of patients that were not able to keep their regular follow-up, the patients selected may not represent the population of interest, a fact that may affect the internal validity of this study. Moreover, the patients excluded from the study had a lower socioeconomic status than those that were included, which may complicate the generalization of our study indings for this population.
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Rev. dor  vol.17 suppl.1

Rev. dor vol.17 suppl.1

CONTENTS: his study has evaluated updated protocols of the Canadian Pain Society, the International Association for the Study of Pain, the European Federation of Neurological Societies and relevant references, being developed an algorithm for systemic drug therapy for neuropathic pain, made up of irst line medications (tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentinoids and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), second line medications (weak and strong opioids) and third line medications (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and other anticonvulsants). Other drugs (anti-inlammatory, steroids and baclofen) and venous drug therapy (lidocaine and ketamine) used to control pain were also addressed. Major phar- macological actions, titration, interactions and relevant adverse efects of drugs indicated in the study were highlighted.
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Sapa And Base Communication Of Sambas Society A Case Of Malay-Madurese Post-Conflict 1999-2014

Sapa And Base Communication Of Sambas Society A Case Of Malay-Madurese Post-Conflict 1999-2014

www.ijstr.org religious and is even called the second porch Mecca after Aceh, want to have a harmonious social order. Meanwhile, in term of the characters, Malay Sambas community are well known with being accomodative (Ansar Rahman et al, 2001: 58). This perhaps Malay culture system constitutes a river‘s mouth society (James T. Collins in the paper, 1999) is highly dependent on the smooth distribution of goods trade -not forest and land like the customs of ethnic Dayak- thus makes them as natives-except Dayak ethnic- Maly Sambas community can accept and live hand by hand with other ethnic groups such as Dayak, Chinese, Javanese, Bugis, Ambon, including Madura. Many of Malay Sambas people married with Madurese ethnic. This happened since the 80s and before it. While Madurese people themselves who do not want to hold a lot of cross-breeding (Edi Patebang, and Eri Sutrisno, 2000: 36). There is another neutral enough opinion about the nature of the Malay society forwarded by Ibrahim Sharif Alqadrie professor at Political and Social Sciences Faculty UNTAN Pontianak in Republika, in addition to skewed impression of the term ―Mala‖ associated with the run away or attempt to avoid themselves from unfair competition, conflict, threat, and even of all that destroys dignity, including Malay myth as ―lazy‖ and ―coward‖, Malay Sambas mobility turns quite high such as government sector, trade, and workmanship. (Republika, 31 March 1999).
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Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

A cohort study conducted among California teachers observed an increased risk in the most highly exposed subgroup of postmenopausal women exposed in adulthood (age 20 years) (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.01–1.56) [18]. Another cohort study observed a 32% excess risk of breast cancer associated with the most extensive exposure to passive smoking among post- menopausal women who had never been active smokers [9]. Other epidemiological studies also showed a statistically significant positive association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women [17, 19, 39, 43]. Consistent with these results, our study also pro- vided strong supporting evidence that passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. One possible explanation for the positive association of passive smoking with breast cancer in the postmenopausal only might be related to the anti- estrogenic effects of passive smoking [44]. Smoking women have an earlier menopause and thus fewer years of menstruation. And cigarette smoking alters estrogen metabolism [45,46], which may contribute to the absence of a positive association of passive smoking with premenopausal breast cancer. However, some reports suggested that passive smoking was associated with an in- creased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women [20, 47, 48] or both pre/post-meno- pausal women [27]. Since this was a stratified analysis, chance findings might arise. More studies with a larger sample size might be needed to confirm this association.
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GLOBAL EDUCATION DIGEST 2007 Comparing Education Statistics Across the World

GLOBAL EDUCATION DIGEST 2007 Comparing Education Statistics Across the World

How the share and absolute number of the primary school-age population will change over time influence the level of resources required to meet demand for education. This is particularly important at the primary level, which is considered compulsory in almost all countries. Basically, rising numbers of school- age children generally correspond to a growing need for school places and teachers. However, a decline in the number of school-age children does not necessarily result in lower education spending, because many governments decide to invest in more targeted efforts to improve education quality or to increase participation among hard-to-reach groups (such as children with disabilities, ethnic minorities, etc.).
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All-cause mortality and serious cardiovascular events in people with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a population based cohort study.

All-cause mortality and serious cardiovascular events in people with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a population based cohort study.

The baseline survey assessed: socio-demographics; living circumstances; smoking; self-reported height, weight and NSAID use; number of troublesome (painful, aching, stiff or swollen) hips and knees using a joint homunculus; comorbidity (participants indicated if they had been diagnosed by a physician and received treatment in the past year for ‘high blood pressure’, ‘hardening of the arteries’, diabetes, and ‘heart problems’); and mental health status (SF-36 mental health subscale; scores ,60/100 indicate probable depression [21]). OA symptom severity was assessed using the reliable and valid Western Ontario McMaster Univer- sities OA Index, WOMAC, pain and physical function subscales [22]. The five-item pain subscale assesses the amount of pain experienced in the hips and knees in the previous week with walking on flat ground, going up/down stairs, at night in bed, sitting or lying, and standing upright. The 17-item physical function subscale assesses the amount of difficulty experienced in the past week performing each of 17 activities ranging from sitting to heavy household chores. Response options are from 0 (none) to 4 (extreme). For each scale, item scores were summed and then normalized to lie between 0 and 100; higher scores indicate worse OA symptoms. Baseline walking disability was additionally assessed using the 2-item Health Assessment Questionnaire [23], HAQ, walking subscale, and use of an aid (e.g., cane or walker) for ambulation (yes/no). The HAQ walking scale assesses level of difficulty in the prior week walking outdoors on flat ground and climbing up five steps, from none (0) to unable to do (3), and use of aids or devices to perform these activities. Higher scores indicate greater difficulty walking.
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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras.  vol.57 número1 en v57n1a24

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. vol.57 número1 en v57n1a24

Hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. here is a signiicant variation in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to the geo- graphic region investigated. hese discrepancies relect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also diferences in methodologies. Although data are scarce, estimates indicate that, in Brazil, the prevalence of HCV infection is inter- mediate, ranging from 1% to 2%. he most important risk factors for HCV infection include intravenous drug use, blood product transfusion, organ transplantation, hemo- dialysis, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Due to lack of vaccine or efective post-exposure prophylaxis, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. In this article, we review the literature on the prevalence of HCV infection, particularly in Brazil. In addition, we discuss the pattern of HCV infection according to the age groups and risk factors.
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Genetic testing vs microforceps biopsy in pancreatic cysts: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Genetic testing vs microforceps biopsy in pancreatic cysts: Systematic review and meta-analysis

study was excluded from quantitative analysis. Although one study was excluded from the meta-analysis, MA with three studies included more patients (953, of whom only 153 in the surgical cohort) than the group of MFB with four studies but fewer patients (148, with only 25 in the surgical cohort). This can represent a surgical selection bias for both tests studied. Moreover, MFB studies were all retrospective, with small sample size, without pathology diagnosis for most benign and pre- malignant cysts, and non-consecutive patients that were selected on endoscopist discretion, which may have led to bias. Another limitation is the time between the index tests and the reference standard, because the final diagnosis could have been made at different time intervals from the tests. If the time between index tests and reference standard is too long, the true disease status of the patient may have changed by the time the reference standard was assessed. Aditionally, the different number of malignant cysts per study, particularly in the MA group, may have led to part of the heterogeneity in sensitivity and specificity. Finally, as MA does not increase the risks of standard EUS-FNA (the analysis is performed in remnant cystic fluid after standard diagnosis) we did not perform a safety analysis of MFB, but the four studies analyzed described only rare non-severe adverse events.
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