Top PDF Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

There is a direct link between gall stones and Carcinoma gall bladder. The link appears to be contingent upon the length of time that the stones reside in the gallbladder. A long duration provides the necessary time for such chronic trauma to the mucosa to initiate a sequence of pathologic changes that culminate in cancer. This would explain the inverse correlation that exists between cholecystectomy rates and gallbladder cancer; socioeconomic issues can delay access to cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, increasing gallbladder cancer rates [6,16]. In patients with Carcinoma gall bladder, the incidence of cholelithiasis ranges from 54% to 97%. Carcinoma gall bladder is more common in patients with Mirizzi’s syndrome and typhoid carriers are a high-risk group. Moreover, porcelain (calcified) gall bladder has a high malignant potential and large, sessile polyps (more than 10 mm) are more likely to be malignant than multiple, small, pedunculated ones [17-18]. Bacterial colonization often accompanies chronic cholecystitis, it has been proposed that bacteria may play an important role in carcinogenesis [19]. There are many other factors which are associated with gall bladder cancer though their exact role in the pathogenesis of gall bladder cancer is not proven such as high concentrations of free radical oxidation products [20]. Some chemicals have been implicated in the gall bladder cancer including methyldopa, oral contraceptives, isoniazid and occupational exposure in the rubber industry [21]. Gallbladder cancer appears to develop from dysplastic mucosa that progress to carcinoma in situ and then to invasive carcinoma [22]. Salmonella Typhi (~6% of carriers develop gallbladder cancer: a 12-fold risk increase) and Helicobacter bilis have been implicated in gallbladder cancer [23,24]. Gallbladder polyps are
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Psychological well-being and health perception: predictors for past, present and future

Psychological well-being and health perception: predictors for past, present and future

used to assess health’s subjective evaluations. The questionnaire includes both physical and mental health. It consists of 32 items, of which 26 measure perceptions of prior health, current and future health, resistance/susceptibility to illness, health concerns, sickness orientation (Table 2), and the remaining six items evaluate rejection of sick role, and attitude toward going to the doctor. High scores on four subscales (current health, prior health, future health and resistance to illness) indicate positive health perceptions and high scores on two subscales (health concerns and sickness orientation) indicate negative health perceptions. Twenty-two of the questions from the HPQ were used to calculate the General Health Rating Index (GHRI) score, ranging from 22 to 110, allowing assessment of health perception over time (past, present and future).
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Drugs against tuberculose: past, present and future.

Drugs against tuberculose: past, present and future.

DRUGS AGAINST TUBERCULOSE: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. Approximately every minute, somewhere in the world four people die from tuberculosis (TB), an infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with about 3 million deaths per year. In spite of these problems, unfortunaly, it is about 40 years that a novel drug was last introduced on the market. Due to the rapid spread of multi-drug resistant TB strains, resistant against all major anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the recent resurgence of the incidence of tuberculosis in association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, we need urgently the development of new drugs to fight tuberculosis. This is covered in the present article.
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Drugs anti-HIV: past, present and future perspectives.

Drugs anti-HIV: past, present and future perspectives.

DRUGS ANTI-HIV: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES. Currently available anti-HIV drugs can be classified into three categories: nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). In addition to the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (1) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120; (2) viral entry, through blockage of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; (3) virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp 41; (4) viral assembly and disassembly through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents; (5) proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors and (6) viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation) process. Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed, possessing different improved characteristics.
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CONSOLIDATION POLICY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF CONTROL

CONSOLIDATION POLICY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF CONTROL

Among other things, IAS 27 prescribes the requirements for preparing and presenting consolidated financial statements for entities under the control of a parent. Under IAS 27 consolidated financial statements should include all subsidiaries, which are defined as entities controlled by another company (parent). IAS 27 defines control as the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. This definition involves the two cumulative criteria (power and benefits) presented in the beginning of this paper. It encompasses both the notion of governance (power) and the economic consequence of that governance (i.e., benefits and risks). Governance is related to the power to make decisions through the selection of financial and operating policies, which does not require active participation or ownership of equity instruments. Benefits may be related to present or future cash inflows either directed to the controlling entity or remaining in control of the controlling entity or may involve non-monetary increases in value to the controlling company. Risks may relate to present or future cash or non-monetary outflows either paid by the controlling entity or through assets controlled by the enterprise (Ashwal, 2005: p. 7).
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On possibilities for action: The past, present and future of affordance research

On possibilities for action: The past, present and future of affordance research

The early work on affordances was focused on, the so-called, body scaled affordances: affordances defined in terms of a geometric relation between the actor and the envi- ronment. However, as later researchers would argue, one's action capabilities are not merely body scale dependent, but are rather a combination of geometric, kinematic and kinetic characteristics. To address this idea, over the years, researchers have come up with experiments following an action scaled approach. For instance, Konzcak et al. (1992) reconsidered the situation of climbing stairs by taking into account not only leg length but also kinematic and kinetic factors such as hip flexibility and leg strength to calculate action boundaries. This action-scaled approach provided a better fit of the actual action boundary of maximal riser height than Warren’s body-scaled measure. Perceived maximal riser height corresponded well with achieved maximal riser height, both in younger and older adults. The older participants were even more accu- rate in perceiving their action boundaries than the younger adults. Konzcak et al. (1992) argued that the reason could be that older people might have to be more accu- rate in order to avoid falling, while younger adults have the action capabilities to cor- rect the results of a miscalculation.
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Scientists<--editors<--scientists: the past, present, and future of PLoS Genetics.

Scientists<--editors<--scientists: the past, present, and future of PLoS Genetics.

concerns of print media—for example, by the number of trees on the planet—but by the science and the genetics communi- ty. The commitment of time and expertise on the part of our hard-working Editorial Board (http://www.plosgenetics.org/static/ edboard.action) and the community of reviewers who support our peer-review process enables us to keep review and decision-making times as short as possible in the face of rising submissions.

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The carbon cycle in Mexico: past, present and future of C   stocks and fluxes

The carbon cycle in Mexico: past, present and future of C stocks and fluxes

all land cover types, whereas climatic variables showed a heterogeneous effect (i.e., positive and negative) on the land cover types, which are differentially distributed over the country. Notably, climate trends have promoted C capture in broadleaf evergreen forests during the past 100 years, but this was overridden by LUC. However, there is no evidence from field measurements to support or disprove this claim. While there are

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Assessing the Threat of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in the Albertine Rift: Past, Present and Future.

Assessing the Threat of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in the Albertine Rift: Past, Present and Future.

In addition to natural spread or anthropogenic introductions of Bd, both of which are docu- mented as contributors to infection and disease transmission, climate change is a factor that may impact the presence, persistence, and transmission patterns of Bd [15,27,34]. A changing climate can significantly alter or or provide new environmental niches for amphibians, other plant and animal species, and microbial pathogens. For example, it is known that amphibians that inhabit high elevations adapt to climatic warming by upward expansion of their range into new habitat [35,36]. As climate change affects host and pathogen range contraction or expan- sion, it may also result in new pathogen-host interactions or transmission of Bd from carrier to naïve hosts that in either case, can lead to disease emergence [35–37]. Additionally, there is evi- dence that Bd outbreaks occur more frequently when the environment cycles to drier condi- tions [38,39], as pools become smaller, streamflow is reduced and amphibians are likely to cluster in higher numbers around fewer and diminished water sources that have increased con- centrations of infective, fungal zoospores [38]. In the Albertine Rift, climatic models predict significant temperature and precipitation increases by the end of the 21 st century [40–42], and recent climate models predict that the worldwide habitat suitability and overall risk of Bd infec- tion could be diminished rather than increased by anthropogenic climate change [27]. How- ever, interpretions of species distribution models are complex, and additional factors should be taken into consideration that influence the epidemiology of Bd such as the virulence of the pathogen or strain type, the host response to the particular strain of Bd, and whether there has been any coevolution of the amphibian species with Bd [43].
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An introduction to the special issue on the past, present and future research on deliberate lookalikes

An introduction to the special issue on the past, present and future research on deliberate lookalikes

al., 2013; Hamelin et al., 2013). For example, many studies find a positive influence of attitude towards counterfeiting on deliberate counterfeit purchase intentions (e.g., Maldonado and Hume, 2005; Wee, Tan and Cheok, 1995) as well as past purchase behaviour (e.g., Nia and Zaichkowsky, 2000) but others find no effects on purchase intentions (e.g., Hoe, Hogg and Hart., 2003) or past purchase behaviour (e.g., de Matos, Ituassu and Rossi, 2007; Walthers and Buff, 2008). Similarly, most studies find a negative effect of subjective norms against counterfeiting and perceived social risk on counterfeit purchase behaviour but some do not (e.g., Shaari and Halim, 2006; Veloutsou and Bian, 2008). Finally, some find a negative effect of ethical and moral beliefs on counterfeit purchase behaviour unlike others (Wang et al., 2005).
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Persistence and change in community composition of reef corals through present, past, and future climates.

Persistence and change in community composition of reef corals through present, past, and future climates.

Considerable effort is being dedicated to elucidating the processes driving shifts in coral community structure on contem- porary reefs, and characterizing the biological and ecological traits of scleractinian corals that are resistant to disturbances [16,17]. Information is still needed to advance this effort, for example, to evaluate whether shifts in coral community structure are a result of reduced coral recruitment, increased mortality of adult corals, or both. These and other processes interact to determine the trajectories of change in the composition of coral communities. For instance, with increased coral mortality driving regional reductions in fecundity and population size, coral recruitment likely will decline and create compensatory density dependence favoring further reductions in coral cover. Such population-level events are also affected by processes such as herbivory, predation, regional oceanography, and climate change, which alter coral reef communities over short periods. Over geologic time, macropro- cesses such as ice ages cause changes in the composition of coral reef communities that are captured in fossilized reefs, where the success of coral species may be discovered based on their retention (or loss) from the fossil record [18]. The fossil record therefore provides a tool through which it is possible to analyze how corals responded to environmental or biological changes in the past, and over much longer time frames than is covered by ecological studies.
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Modelling and forecasting tourism demand in Portugal: past, present and future

Modelling and forecasting tourism demand in Portugal: past, present and future

As can be observed from Table 2, there are only a few studies that apply time series methods. In some cases the purpose of these studies is only to evaluate the forecast performance and not the elaboration of forecasts. However, in other studies these models are used to generate forecasts; see for instance, Gonçalves and Águas (1997) and Fernandes and Cepeda (2000). The main purpose of their papers is to apply the life cycle methodology to tourism in Algarve and in the North of Portugal. The model consists in identifying the phases of the cycle: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and finally poststagnation. This methodology has been applied to explain the evolution of a tourism destination. But it is not a model for forecasting purposes, since some of the destinations do not experience all the phases.
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Neonatal Sepsis: Past, present and future; a review article

Neonatal Sepsis: Past, present and future; a review article

Procalcitonin: Procalcitonin (PCT) is produced by monocytes and hepatocytes which begins to rise four hours after exposure to bacterial endotoxin, peaking at six to eight hours, and remaining raised for at least 24 hours with a half life of 25–30 hours. Several studies have shown that serum procalcitonin concentrations increase appreciably in systemic bacterial infection. In a study done by Cetinkaya M et al median procalcitonin levels were higher in the septic group compared with the non- septic group at the time of the sepsis workup (2.7 vs 0.5 ng/ml, p=0.003), at 1-24 h after the sepsis workup (4.6 vs 0.6 ng/ml, p=0.003), and at 25-48 h (6.9 vs 2.0 ng/ml, p=0.016). Using high cut-off levels, both procalcitonin (2.3 ng/ml) and CRP (30 mg/l) had high specificity and positive predictive value (97%, 91% and 96%, 87%, respectively) but low sensitivity (48% and 41%, respectively) to detect sepsis. The conclusion was procalcitonin >2.3 ng/ml or CRP >30 mg/l indicates a high likelihood for neonatal sepsis, and antibiotic therapy should be continued even in the presence of sterile cultures. However, it is not a readily available diagnostic assay in most institutions. 26 Cell surface markers
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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - PAST, PRESENT AND  FUTURE IN ROMANIA

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE IN ROMANIA

ABSTRACT: Romania's participation in the implementation of EU regional policy means, first opportunity to benefit from a system of values that can be found between economic efficiency, environmental protection, ensuring minimum standards of existence, the definition of a "European lifestyle, urban values, qualified human resources. Moreover, European integration and openness to the EU internal market and the challenge involves increasing competitiveness, which can negatively affect the process of building an economy, like Romania. In this context, structural instruments are the most important resource that Romania will have to face the challenges of change and integration. However, regional development policy can not solely be the key to overall development of a state, especially in terms of its actual effects on growth are difficult to assess. A critical dimension of this is represented on the nature of economic and quality of other public policies that form the core of economic policy mix of a state: the legal protection of property rights and market economy, taxation, antitrust, etc.
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Past, present and future

Past, present and future

is secured, flexible, affordable, energy efficient, and easy to provision, manage, and scale while delivering robustness and acceptable performance [19]. The challenge can be met through promising new solutions to be used as building blocks to meet IIoT challenges. Hence, Low-Power Wireless Access (LPWA) cellular connectivity attracts a tremendous amount of interest as it caters to the needs of a wide range of wireless IIoT applications. Unlike wireless categories detailed in Ta- ble III, LPWA connectivity solutions are developed based on a simple, challenging, set of correlated requirements:efficient signaling and channel access protocols to support massive connection densities, extreme energy efficiency to extend a battery-powered device operation to ten years, ultra-low cost to enable large scale adoption in an economically feasible manner, and extended coverage to enable versatile device deployment with high reliability. LoRa, also refers to Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN), is a long-range com- munication technology and its low power consumption design renders devices batteries to survive 10 years. With an excellent performance on sensitivity, LoRa has a wide coverage (i.e., > 1km coverage) regardless of indoor/outdoor environment. Besides, large amount of nodes can be supported by one LoRa network.In order to reduce the power consumption, the data rate of LoRa is low. Therefore, LoRa might be a candidate solution for long range and low cost applications with low data rate requirement (e.g. industrial control, agricultural monitor- ing, logistics, etc.).
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HEMODIALYSIS MEMBRANES: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

HEMODIALYSIS MEMBRANES: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

Experimenting in dialysis started almost thousands years ago. But dialysis as we know it has its roots in the 20 th century. Dr. Willem kolff, a young Dutch physician is considered to be the father of dialysis. He constructed the first dialyzer in 1943. There had been a remarkable development in the treatment and therapies in the related field since then. There is also a tremendous impact in the research area regarding the renal failure and its cure. This is a medical condition where in the filtration of blood in body doesn’t take place properly leading to accumulation of toxic waste materials. The main reason for this disease is sudden interruption in blood supply to kidney, accidents, injuries, complication in surgeries etc. These patients can either go for organ transplantation or hemodialysis. In hemodialysis the membrane used determines the success of the dialysis procedure. Membranes are of different pore size, those membranes with small size pores are called “low-flux” and those with higher pore size are called “high-flux”. The initially used unmodified cellulosic membranes were highly permeable polyacrylonitryle and polysulfone membranes. Later on they were replaced by modified cellulosic membranes which had a very crucial stage of development 1 . Then on there had been a terrific increase in the use of modified cellulosic membrane in high efficiency and high flux segments. The main characteristics of modified cellulosic membrane include low wall thickness value, (6-15µm) and symmetric structure. Along with this the synthetic membranes were also emerging. Synthetic membranes are made of polymers and may have at least wall thickness value of 20µm 2 . They can be either structurally symmetric or asymmetric. During the last few decades researchers have been focusing on the biocompatibility of artificial membranes and the optimization of removal of uremic toxins by the membranes, because long term treatment may lead to complications such as amyloidosis heart, bone lesion etc 3 . The high-flux dialytic membrane is most recommended in the present days, since it is more biocompatible.
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ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE – PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE – PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

com coloração de Gram, à cultura em meio enrique- cido e seletivo (i.e. Thayer-Martin, incubação durante 48h a 37ºC e 5-10% de CO 2 ,) e/ou a métodos mo- leculares relativamente simples como a hibridização ou mais complexos incluindo amplificação genética [i.e. PCR, tissue microarray (TMA)]. Atualmente, o tra- tamento da gonorreia é realizado de acordo com as guidelines de 2010 do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ou de 2009 da International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections/World Health Organization (IUSTI/WHO) 4,6,7 .
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PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF THE INFORMATION CONCEPT

PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF THE INFORMATION CONCEPT

Información es hoy un concepto clave en sociología, ciencia política y economía. A modo de ejemplo baste recordar las investigaciones de Manuel Castells. 55 De acuerdo a Bougnoux, los conceptos de información y comunicación están relacionados inversamente: comunicación se refiere a previsión y redundancia mientras que información tiene que ver con lo nuevo e imprevisto. No existe una “información en si” sino que siempre hay algún tipo de redundancia o “ruido”. Informar a otros o informarse a sí mismo significa para Bougnoux seleccionar y evaluar. Esto es particularmente relevante en el campo del periodismo y los medios masivos así como también en Internet. 56 Para Alfons Cornella, las empresas son información. 57 La noción de información juega un rol importante en las teorías de la gerencia del conocimiento. Para Nonaka y Takeuchi información es el conocimiento potencial exteriorizado y gerenciable, mientras que conocimiento es un proceso que tiene lugar en el sujeto cognoscente. 58 Estas teorías están relacionadas con la larga historia de la noción de información en el campo de la biblioteconomía y de la documentación que, como indicaba al comienzo, llevó a la denominación “library and information science”. 59
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Choosing between past and future regret

Choosing between past and future regret

which we are referring. Furthermore, regarding their purchase preferences, participants chose more to purchase from an importer connected to a future miss than from an importer that offered a discount in the past. This also remains in sharp contrast to the findings of the previous study. However, a future miss as second information had more influence on changing their mind about their feelings of regret than the new knowledge about a past miss did. This is informative for the strength of the Future Opportunity Principle and fulfills the authors’ prediction that a future miss is more impactful. Regarding the different periods, we found that future misses with a longer time distance did not cause less regret than misses in the nearer future did. One reason could be that the two periods were not large enough to present significant differences in the regret means. Another possible explanation is that the impact of a future miss is so strong that the feelings of regret remain stable regarding the period or are even closed to influence.
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Life designing and career adaptability in management and psychology undergraduate students

Life designing and career adaptability in management and psychology undergraduate students

Constructing a career implies fitting work into life by blending career themes in life themes, thus integrating smaller narratives into as a coherent, continue, meaningful, united and singular life narrative (Savickas, 2005, 2011, 2015). Integrating experiences indicates giving meaning to experiences that are the interaction of life roles and contexts (life-space as proposed by Super 1990). It is strongly influenced by previous, present and future perceptions of experiences related to career (Savickas, 2005, 2015). One of the main ideas of Career Construction Theory is that career construction processes are based on life designing, only possible through the construction of the self since it is posterior to this that career construction will take place - with a three-stage process to achieve this career construction in a counselling setting (Savickas, 2013). Consequently, the individual induces career themes underlying career story which later on allow the construction of a career path and promote better adjustment to work roles and promote career fulfilment (Savickas, 2005, 2011). Career themes allow understanding the reasons behind a stronger presence of certain life and work roles, career themes, and career stories. The individual provides meaning to his overall vocational experiences based on the construction of personal narrative and, consequently, the self (Savickas, 2013). Upon need, and during counselling, the individual is also the author, deconstructor, or co-author, of career reconstruction. Reconstructing the career narrative is usually made in a career counselling context, where past or present micro-narratives are recalled and integrated into a new macro-narrative by the self, restoring the continuity to the career narrative, the sense of meaning and purpose to vocational personality and, consequently, career, through adaptability (Savickas, 2005, 2011, 2013).
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