The most significant recent study to apply the approach initiated by Sinclair and Coulthard (1975, 1992) to classroomdialoguein school mathematics was conducted by Truxaw and DeFranco (2008). This study shares our interest in modelling overarching patterns ofclassroomdialogue, although it does not employ Sinclair and Coulthard’s exchange types. Instead, as well as adapting the elaboration of the original IRF framework by Nassaji and Wells (2000), Truxaw and DeFranco (2008) introduced further codesbased on constructs from pedagogical theories concerning types of interactive talk and forms of verbal assessment. Their study found three types of interactive talkpresent: exploratory talk—more hesitant and tentative exchanges, typically involving ideas being negotiated between speakers rather than presented to an audience, plus two forms of more presentational talk, leading talk—in which the teacher steers exchanges towards a preconceived conclusion—and accountable talk—in which exchanges feature ideas offered for more open scrutiny in terms of their appropriateness, accuracy and cogency. The study also distinguished two forms of assessment: generative assessment—promoting pupils’ monitoring and regulation of their thinking—as againstinert assessment—maintaining an intended instructional flow rather than attending to pupil understanding. Employing these analytic constructs, Truxaw and DeFranco identified a spectrum of instructional dialogue ranging from a deductive model, characterised by leading talk and inert assessment to an inductive model, characterised by a blend of leading, exploratory and accountable talk and by a degree of generative assessment alongside still predominant inert assessment.
The Natural Language Processing (NLP) System is the second system and it is necessary to achieve all the remaining objectives proposed on section 1.4. This system will not only be responsible for the understanding of what the user is saying, but it will also be responsible for translating it into commands and transmitting them to the Commanders or to the System itself. There are a lot of ways to say the same thing and it is not enough to create “if” conditions on a program, otherwise there would be a million conditions just to treat some sentences... It is necessary to deeply understand the written sentence and all its grammar and structure to obtain good results. Inorder to achieve this deep understanding, the NLP System uses the Stanford CoreNLP library [Manning et al., 2014] inorder to make the parsing, through the dependency parser. With this library it is possible to obtain the base forms of words, their parts of speech, mark up the structure of sentences in terms of phrases and syntactic dependencies, indicate sentiment, extract particular or open-class relations between entity mentions, etc.
Question 5 indicates the number of trips and asks the number of adults in the group, without adults repeating trip. The students suggest carrying out the inverse op- erations, but not everyone is clear about what operation to do first. They use an arithme- tic approach, which is natural since they had not yet started the studyof equations. Some divide 27 by 4 but verify that in such case it does not make sense to remove the last trip. During the collective discussion, Joana indicates her response “From 27 one subtracts 1 and then divides by 4” and identifies that this cannot be possible because the value of 6.5 is not a natural number. This question allows the discussion of the adequa- cy of the result and of the response to give taking into account the context and promot- ing the interpretation of the mathematical result obtained. The teacher proposes the analysis of a new situation that is not indicated in the task: trying to verify whether the students understand and solve it and interpret their results. She questions how many adults are in a group that makes 81 trips, keeping the 2 children. The students show that they understand the Joana’s strategy and can use it in new situations.
The studies on the use of ELF are very recent, with pioneering work by Widdowson (1994), Jenkins (2000) and Seidhofer (2001). Since its emergence ELF has been regarded by several authors as a threat both to national languages and cultures as well as to Standard British English. Only very recently ELF has started to be regarded as more than just a simple curiosity but as a serious approach to the implementation of a global language that could help the communication between people with different first languages, after the creation of databases containing a corpora of more than two million words of spoken ELF, aiming to assemble common features of ELF that are intelligible and consequently not impeditive to communication. These databases are English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings (ELFA) and the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE) projects: ELFA 17 is a project of the Helsinki and Tampere Universities in Finland directed by Mauranen while VOICE 18 is a joint project of the University of Vienna and Oxford University Press direct by Seidlhofer. Inorder not to compromise the selection of forms included in ELF by subjugating this language variety to the patterns of Standard English at VOICE meetings only a reduced number of Inner Circle representatives (10%) are allowed.
assignments task on the cores and tolerate processing component failures which could either be rogeneous or heterogeneous. The heterogeneity of the processors implies that they have diverse velocities or transforming abilities. The transient flaw likelihood that may happen in transistors, entryways and even a bit, is called Architectural helplessness variable (AVF) . By averaging over some time, this component can characterize the rate of soft errors that can show up on a core; while it runs a task. This algorithm when compared with other techniques we found that the proposed fault tolerant method outflanks both TMR and DMR methods about 35% in average. In computing most common topologies in N-Modulo Redundancy are TMR and DMR. TMR method is used when reliability of task is important as it can only mask the faults. The problem is that voter can also be faulty. The other method DMR includes two cores running parallel and checks for the similarity in the output thus only indicate the mismatch doesn’t tolerate the fault so have to use separate mechanism for fault recovery . In software based fault tolerance based approach replica of process are used so it is necessary that replicas use same memory addresses. We also need to ensure that leader and follower use same replica copies. Replica can be created using fork system call in which process generates same process as follower process and it works same as leader process. If the result of both leader and follower process is same then we can say that there is no error. But if there is difference between leader and follower process then error is there. We can use check points for efficiency. If after execution of leader and follower process result is same then previous checkpoint is eliminated and if result
Anakinra is a recombinant interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist. In animal studies, no harm to the fetus has been demonstrated. The drug is considered Category B but little has been reported about its safety in this setting (Table 2). Tocilizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IL-6 receptors and capable of blocking downstream signalling. The drug is considered Category C and no teratogenicity has been demonstrated in animal models, although at high dose there was increased risk of abortion (Table 2). Abatacept works by blocking interactions between antigen- presenting cells and T cells via binding to CD80/ CD86 on antigen-presenting cells, with subsequent inhibition of T cell activation. The drug is considered Category C and there are inadequate data to fully comment on its safety during pregnancy (Table 2), although animal studies saw no increased risk when exposed to the maximum recommended human dose. Current recommendations are to discontinue therapy at least 10 weeks before conception. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, depletes B cells. Animal studies are limited but show no teratogenic efect, although B cells have been demonstrated to be reduced in ofspring. 60
Major players in this role are Google and Yahoo. This model is also based on the pay- per click strategy discussed above. The Ad-publishers are supposed to give permission to Search Engine to place advertisements in their website and for every click a user makes on the advertisement the website owner gets paid by the Search Engine. People with creative ideas can get rich relatively quickly by permitting advertisers to piggyback on any web site that attracts a lot of viewers. It has been analyzed that Google pays Adsense publishers 78.5 cents on the dollar as revenue share. Google never officially disclosed details on revenue sharing but it has been observed that, as per rule Google shares 50 cents of every dollar to partners and can range up to the full dollar, depending on the size of the relationship. The study on revenue generated by Website owner’s shows that most of the revenue is generated by Search Engine Advertising Industry e.g. Google Adsense program. The revenue generated by some websites using Adsense has been summarized in Table . Many Indian companies are surviving on Adsense business and many Indian are earning month’s salary just through such pay per click programs. Many companies like ACT Media, Web Techies are specialized for successful Adsense campaign integration to the client’s website. The revenue generated by the program highly depends on the traffic of the website. Amit Aggarwaal (2006), owner of Digital Inspiration has revealed that his blog gets around 1.25 million hits per month with a majority originating from Google followed by direct traffic (like bookmarks, rss feeds, etc). The major traffic comes from four countries - US, India, UK and Australia (in the same order). The maximum site traffic comes from four countries - US, India, UK and Australia (in the same order) and the majority of revenue earned is from Adsense. Priya Shah, an Editor, Editor Http://EbizWhizPublishing.com in her article states that “Google's TOA prevents me from making any disclosures here, but I can safely say that I now make in a day what I used to earn in a month(over a year ago)”.
The second feature of a discursive interpretation of language is the recognition of the action part of language . One finds such a recognition in Wittgenstein’s notion of language games, as playing means action. A more explicit formulation of the action part of language is provided by John L. Austin. 4 He points out that a statement has a locutionary content, an illocutionary force, and a perlocutionary effect. As an example, we can imagine that somebody warns me: Do not to make business with that company! The locutionary content refers to the content of the warning, relating to not making business. The illocutionary force refers to the power of the statements: there is in fact a warning. Finally, the statement has a perlocutionary effect, which refers to the effects that the warning might have: thus, I might feel surprised by the warning. Austin’s point is that any statement includes these three features, and one can think of statements including: promises, proposals, excuses, invitations, demands, critique, etc. We do things through language. The speech act theory was further developed by John Searle, whose book, Speech Acts, was published in 1969. From then on, the speech act theory proliferated, and it became generally acknowledged that language includes actions.
I am by no means without my prejudices or stereotypes, but at the same time, as I was discussing with a friend yesterday, I said, ‘What gives you the right to call somebody “white trash” when you have this piece of clothing on right now—when somebody can look at you and say this is what you are? What allows you to say that about somebody?’ And I think my mom has kind of given me a lot of her passion. You know, I’ve always seen her work with children, and she still works with children to this day in our church, and no matter what an adult could do to her it’s like she has this infi nite love for children and this desire to protect and encourage and to make them strong people. And I see children not in precisely the same way, but in that similar way, that they’re just people who are really striving to become - hopefully - better people. And [what] if they don’t have somebody in their life, like I had with my mom, to show them how to see everyone as beautiful individuals and yet fi nd something similar within them so that they connect with. And I think that’s the most important thing. (SPRING, 2008).
Foregrounds are experienced but far from freely constructed. A foreground might be ruined. Ghettoisation, which is an integral part of globalisation, is one of the main causes for ruining the foreground of some groups of students. Think of the foreground experienced by students from a poor neighbourhood, which might not leave open many possibilities for escape; or of the students from that provincial town in Brazil where the majority have family members in jail. Like anybody else, such students might also search for motives for learning by trying to relate the content presented to them in the classroom to the content of further work situations they might be looking forward to. We should not assume any ready-made answer to what this could mean. Touching a keyboard could have a particular significance. Nevertheless, their search for meaning inclassroom activities might be in vain. Maybe they are only able to relate the classroom practices to situations they do not even dare to imagine might belong in their foreground: studying at a university, becoming an engineer, working in a bank. Ghettoisation could rob them of possibilities to establish motives for learning.
)n the context of the cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training of the people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective of the European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets of the services and of the goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation of the individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
Abstract: This article discusses the impact of inter-ethnic conflict in 1999 to the multi-ethnic community life in Sambas and offers a concept of education as a modified formulation of the local wisdom in the communication aspect that the Malay ethnic community in Sambas have in responding relations between ethnic groups post-conflict of ethnics in 1999. The methodology used is literature review, observation, interview and documentation-based qualitative analysis. The result is that ethnic conflict 1999 in Sambas, West Kalimantan causes a number of problems or moral and social impacts in some small communities of Malay. By gaining the value of local wisdom into a new form of education, an effort to respond the post-conflict negative impact through cultural communication greeting of sapa and base that shows a polite language education in Malay Sambas society and even the culture is believed to be an alternative solution that can deal with inter-ethnic conflicts and prevent conflict to happen again
Hunt, P., Farron-Davis, F., Beckstead, S., Curtis, D. & L. Goetz (1994): Evaluating the effects of placement of students with severe disabilities in general education versus special classes, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, Vol.19, 200- 214.
are some cases with no reference to theoretical framework al all, as in Peterson (2005), Burroughs and Luebeck (2010), and Gurl (2010). In an intermediate position, other studies include some reference to theoretical frameworks but they do not seem to play a very important role, such as Plummer and Peterson (2009) who refer to cultural beliefs about teaching and learning and Elipane (2012) who considers, among others, cognitive and sociocultural learning theories and Habermas’ theory of human interests. In a stronger situation, some studies clearly draw on some theoretical notions, such as Hughes (2006), with the mathematical tasks framework, Mostofo (2013) with self- efficacy and Vygostky space, and Ponte et al. (2015) with levels of curriculum development. At the other end of the spectrum, some studies show a clear theoretical orientation, especially in conduction the lesson studies, notably Ricks (2011) and Radovic et al. (2014) with the notions of reflection and reflective practice and Cavin (2006) and Chew et al. (2014) with the notion of TPCK – Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. The notion of learning community was also very important in the framing of the studies Cavanagh and Garvey (2012), Fernandez and Zilliox (2011), and Gunnarsdóttir and Páldóttir (2011).
decoration in Airtam "the sculpture with the busts of musicians, gift-bearers was subjected to the unified principle of division of the entire space into rhythmic segments" [47, 86].As an example, one may consider the case when the sculpture had a religious or symbolic significance, and was a crucial element in resolving the entire interior ("Hall of Warriors" in Toprak-kale). But on the whole, in contrast to a more constrained medieval sculpture, antique one differed in realistic nature (right arrangement of the figures), expressiveness (the types of faces and their emotions), naturalness (in different curves of the body), through which the aesthetic sides of the structures were emphasized. Monumental characters of the structures, their ideological concepts (for example, the idea of greatness) were emphasized by means of sculpture. And, the most important aspect, the sculpture differed in architectonic manner (Buddhas - under the arches, gandharvas– between the acanthuses), as the determinant factor was still the scale of the monument, the height of the walls, the conditions of observation, the very architectonics of the interior. A high quality performance, especially in the Greco-Bactrian period, testified to the high skills of the artists, in the best traditions of Hellenic arts. "The artist could be acourt master from Seleucid accompanying the king to a distant Bactria" [30, 190]. It is assumed that in Bactria existed at least three sculptural schools; their students were familiar with Asia Minor sculpture schools [48, 125p]. Smooth walls of buildings were divided not only horizontally –by friezes, zofors, but also vertically - through door and window openings, columns and pilasters. The synthesis of architecture and decorative plastic forms, generally typical for later Hellenistic states, could be seen in the ancient Bactrian capitals - Corinthian and composite ones, representing a complete architectural form. Professional masters "were widely using the approach of architectonic
division of territory into 15 hereditary captaincies. In 1549 the Crown sent an expedition to establish a royal government in Brazil. This year a great expedition arrived in Salvador, the first capital of the colony. This expedition included six Jesuits, the first of the regular Catholic orders in Brazil. The Jesuits and the royal government collaborated to firmly establish a centralized government and a missionary church whose primary goal was the conversion of the indigenous population. This proved to be difficult and the Jesuits began bringing "Indians" (Columbus' highly inaccurate term) to live in Jesuit controlled villages designed according to a European model. It was clear by 1570's that the Indian population was not a dependable source of labor for expanding sugar complex, thus African slaves became the primary source of labor in Brazil. By 1600 the transition to African labor in sugar plantations of coastal Brazil was complete and Brazil became the world's leading sugar producer. From 1580 to 1640 Portugal was united to Spain, and, as a part of the Spanish colonial empire, Brazil was exposed to attacks by Spain's enemies. Among these were the Dutch, who had just succeeded in establishing their independence. The Dutch captured the captaincy of Pernambuco and Johann Maurits, graaf von Nassau-Siegen, was the governor of this new possession. The development of the colonial period was the vast expansion in Brazil beyond the line of Tordesillas. This expansion contributed to the huge subcontinent of the country. Another factor of the development of the colonial period was the discovery of gold at the end of the 17 th century in Minas Gerais state. African slaves from sugar plantations and directly from the gold-working regions of Africa introduced many of techniques employed by Brazilian miners. The impact of the gold mines upon the Brazilian economy was largely responsible for transferring the colony capital from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro in 1763. In 1807 Napoleon invaded Portugal. The Portuguese prince regent Dom João, afterward King Dom João VI, decided to take refuge in Brazil with his court in 1808. Until 1821 Rio de Janeiro city was the capital of the Portugal's empire. In the year 1821 Dom João VI went to Lisbon and his son Dom Pedro stayed as regent. Next year, 1822, on September 7 th , he proclaimed the independence of Brazil.
developed during the MIROR Project (www.mirorproject.eu) - provided an interactive musical experience in which the software responded to the player’s ideas. Specifically, the MIROR Improvisation software engages the user in musical dialogues during which the machine plays “what the user could have played” (Pachet, 2016). The system builds a database of these improvisations and stores them for later use. Subsequently, the MIROR Composition software offers the opportunity to build compositions out of musical material originally improvised by the child-user and the system during their musical interactions. So with MIROR Compo, the emphasis is not on improvising various phrases and engaging in dialogs, but on thinking about structure by building a fully-fledged musical piece. The entry point to COMPO is the main IMPRO interface, which allows the user to select a corpus or set of previously recorded sessions with IMPRO, and to launch COMPO from that selected corpus. Composition is performed by selecting in sequence a series of buttons, each corresponding to a specific response type: “statement”, “question”, “answer”, “conclusion”, “repetition” and “rest. COMPO is designed explicitly to engage the user in a reflective act of composition, by which he or she has to focus on a limited set of operations (the response types), with an intentionally limited capacity to edit the outputs (unlike a traditional time-line based music editor). Thanks to these limitations, however, a musical piece can be built in a few seconds, and the user is able to focus on higher-order thinking, while MIROR COMPO carries out the basic tasks of offering optional phrase choices, playing back, notating and recording the work (Pachet, 2016).
In this paper, the semantics of the Portuguese epistemic Future and of the Portuguese modal verbs in their epistemic interpretation were considered. Concerning the epistemic Future, three proposals available in the literature were considered. These proposals were made on the basis of data of other languages, and none of them seems to be extendable to Portuguese. Giannakidou & Mari’s proposal that the epistemic Future has the same semantics as must faces several difficulties when Portuguese data is considered. It does not explain why the epistemic Future and dever (‘must’) are not always interchangeable; it does not account for the fact that the epistemic Future is undetermined for modal force, unlike dever (‘must’), and the fact that the epistemic Future can co-occur with any modal verb is also problematic for an analysis that treats equally the epistemic Future and dever (‘must’). The proposal of Pietrandrea (2005) and Squartini (2010) that in Italian the equivalent of must is inferential and the epistemic Future is not does not seem extendable to Portuguese, a language where the epistemic Future can be used in the expression of an inference. Likewise, the proposal of Dendale 2001 (based on French data) that, unlike the equivalent of must, the epistemic Future signals a careless inference does not seem to be applicable to Portuguese. Examples from Portuguese were provided where the epistemic Future can be used to express a conclusion of a careful reflection. The hypothesis was advocated that in Portuguese the epistemic Future is a mark whose function is to indicate that the evidence on which the speaker sustains his utterance does not correspond to facts available at the context of utterance. The Future is, thus, an evidential, it indicates that the assertion is based on beliefs, not on facts (in other words, it signals a non-realistic, epistemic, modal base).
The way the teacher presents the task is very important. A question, just by itself, cannot generate any investigation. As Mason (1991, 16) puts it: “A question is just words with a question mark”. It is impossible to anticipate all the reactions of pupils. Once the activity begins, the support to give pupils, helping them to overcome certain difficulties is another rather complex aspect of the role of the teacher. Some support has to be granted, but not too much nor too little. The final discussion regarding the work done by pupils is another critical stage. Without such discussion the value of the activity can easily be lost (Cockcroft, 1982). This is the moment to consider the strategies, hypotheses and justifications provided by different pupils or groups of pupils, with the teacher acting as a moderator. The teacher tries to bring to the attention of the group the most important aspects of the work they did and stimulates pupils to question the assertions of their classmates. Thus, the development of pupils’ competence to communicate and argue mathe- matically are two important objectives in this phase of the activity.