More specifically, a single case will be used in this study as Company X is a good representative of a critical case that wants to improve its competitive strength through JIT system . In order to collect data, semi-structured interviews were organized, which is a very common method inthe operations and supply chain management domain . The purpose of interviewing is ‘to understand the experience of other people and the meaning they make of that experience’ [15, p. 3]. The use of interviewing could help researchers gather valid and reliable date form interviewees that relate to research questions and objectives . Interviewees could give their personal experience to the author according their working experience. In addition, the interviewing will be progressed as one-by-one form which is the most appropriate method and relatively easy to arrange . There are five interviewees chosen from thecase company who have professional experiences in managing or implementing JIT systemofthe company. Their background is summarized in Table I.
Nowadays, the quality improvement programs have been adopted by the companies to develop their several processes. The company’s strategic decision making regarding the quality continuous improvement should be supported on customer’s feedback (Pyon, Woo, & Park, 2011). Customer feedback is a source of innovation for the process improvements and optimization. Consumer complaints have an important role in every company, through the insight of customers’ feedback, the organizations get to know the strengths and the improvement opportunities of their products (Zeithaml & Bitner, 2000). Complaints Management System is important to set the quality goals (McAlister & Erffmeyer, 2003). The authors consider that the problems issues concerning the purchased products and the product returns are the main factors that contributes to customers complaints and there are only a few opportunities given to customers to express their satisfaction, which are essential to keep business relationships. The best way to keep a business relationship with a customer is to serve him well from the very beginning. According to Sampaio, Saraiva, & Rodrigues (2011), the organizations have a mixture of motivations to implement the complaint management system, in order to increase and promote marketing and companies competitiveness.
This study will focus on gender segregation in medicine industryin China, where female salespeople are facing the same underrepresentation problem. Industrial salesforce is regarded to be a male-centered domain and professional selling jobs have been labeled as intrinsically masculine (Comer and Jolson, 1991). In recent decades, both the United States and the United Kingdom’s labor market had a trend that increasing female is entering into areas traditionally considered as male’s domains (Jolson et al., 1997). In pharmaceutical industry, the business is largely dependent on the sales and marketing of each drug, its sales job is competitive. According to a report from Cegedim Strategic Data, pharmaceutical sales force levels in China increased more than 17%, with 80,000 sales reps’ equivalents at year 2011- situation that exceeded the U.S. reality for the first time. More than 17,000 sales jobs were newly added into Chinese market during the past five years by world-renowned pharmaceutical multinationals. In Pfizer, the top leading company, the sales force is now over 4,000. Bayer, MSD, AstraZeneca and other direct competitors almost keep the same pace (McKinsey, 2012). However, women in pharmaceutical sales industry still keeps a low representation in China. Among these soared salespeople, women’s proportion occupied approximately one fifths (McKinsey, 2012).
Some ofthe positive effects of standardization most cited inthe literature review are related to: reduction of information asymmetry, reducing transaction costs, economies of scale and spread of technical knowledge. Egyedi (2012), Goedhuys & Sleuwaegen (2013) comment on the effects of standardization in reducing information asymmetry. According to these authors, standards can improve the flow of information between suppliers and consumers about the inherent characteristics ofthe products, thus facilitating market transactions. In general, standardization can reduce uncertainty costs that consumers face to evaluate the quality ofthe product. These costs include thetime and effort that consumers dedicate to research before making the purchase. Also, by restricting the range of product or processes features, rules and regulations can promote economies of scale (Blind, 2004).
Secondly, in face ofthe problems related with the non-accomplishment of functional specifications inthe production unit, some ofthe problems can be traced back to a lack of involvement ofthe suppliers in new product development activities. As stated inthe exposition ofthe cases, the specifications are generated exclusively by the OEM Group’s R&D during the development phase. The supplier has to fulfil these specifications, otherwise failing will lead to losing business, or failing to be paid the budgeted sums that they invested in producing the component. As suppliers of Detail Controlled Parts (Clark, 1989), the supplier is responsible for development, but it has no influence on the integration ofthe component inthe final system. Additionally, when a supplier is given development responsibilities, they are supervised by the R&D department and do not necessarily become line suppliers. It is worth remembering that, since the supplier is not present in SET (simultaneous engineering teams), mutual adaptations of technical issues are hard to obtain at this stage ofthe product creation process. These adaptations would be essential for the function ofthe product itself and integration inthe whole system, in order to prevent the dissatisfaction of future car owners (case 2). As illustrated in our cases, engineering changes are financially costly and time-consuming processes, and it is suggested that both disadvantages might be contained if the manufacturer sough inputs from the supplier at earlier development stages.
Regarding Y1, no one was able to successfully match the standard. Some of them said that it started when the defect part arrived at the organisation´s premises and ended after analysis, while others said that it was the transport time. For Y2, it was also verified a discrepancy between the standard and appraisers. Only about twenty eight percent were able to match the requirements. Most ofthe incorrect answers were based in that it was just when the analysis was made, while forgetting the containment actions. For Y14, the results indicated that they were also not aware as they made confusion with thetime which the 8D report should have ended. Their main doubt was when if the Y14 ended by thetime that the countermeasures were implemented or not. About forty two percent answered correctly or approximately. Y60 was the one with more correct answers. Almost all of them said that it was the final date that the 8D report had to be completed. There was one customer manager that was not aware of this requirement.
However, under the socialist market economy system, the government, as the ultimate owner ofthe state-owned assets, has influenced the M&A process of state-owned enterprise even more than the market itself. Boycko et al (1993) showed that government-owned companies would be more enthusiastic to pursue social and political purpose than to create their own value. Liu Xiaodan, CEO ofthe Huatai United Securities Co., Ltd, delivered a speech in September 23rd, 2014, she pointed that the current M&A market in China is still inthe primary stage, and there will be a huge space for development inthe future. In China, government intervention is a very common phenomenon in mergers and acquisitions. Of course we know, M&A is a natural historical process, if the enterprise, which is the subject of a merger, lacks the inherent requirements, it is not available for government to simply rely on administrative means to promote the enterprise to scale up.
During applying this framework, the Y1, Y2 and Y3 Companies review and analyse the POS data received by the X Company, to plan their future processes. For instance, the Y1 Company reported that they received the POS data for a part (semi-finished product) that they used to supply for the X Company. In their review, they estimated that there might be some products inthe X Company’s store from the previous order and might be remained some in their store as well. They planned to check not only their inventory level but also the inventory level ofthe X Company to know about the exact amount of this product in both inventories. According to proposed framework, each tier inthe supply chain can access to database of its partners to get its needed data. In this casestudy, the participated companies do have proper equipments (i.e., Internet connectivity, comprehensive data base) to fully implement proposed framework, so Y1 Company received it’s required (i.e., the amount of inventory of X Company) data via Email or telephone from X Company. Thus, the amount of real orders which they will receive from the X Company was almost clear to them. In this regards, they considered that “it was not necessary to produce more products for safety stock because the amount of future order was almost clear. Producing the safety product took more time and money because more products need more storage space, employees and equipments to be produced, stored and protected. The Y1, Y2 and Y3 Companies mentioned that, “it was not necessary to allocate the costly night distribution system to distribute our products to the X Company, because we had enough time for the workflow and distribution system”. More importantly, “we had enough time to examine the quality of our products before sending them to the X Company” they added.
This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears ofthe structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is inthe area of co-existence ofthe solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment ofthe resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis ofthe transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range ofthe high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application ofthe welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
I think we can answer this question inthe positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism ofthe created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action inthe processes occurring inthe world. The emergence of life inthe universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage ofthe non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because ofthe chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
For all hourly based data sets the information content in re- sidual data was equal 1. It means that both statistical tests explic- itly indicated that the residual data may include important infor- mation and therefore it is advisable to apply a regression model for finding desired predictions. By contrast, for most ofthe daily based data sets the information content in residual data was below 0,5, (in almost half ofthe cases it was equal to zero). Taking into account that the residual data are important fraction ofthe whole variability in those sets (an example is shown in Fig. 1), these results indicate that thetime-series analysis can give prediction results with relatively large errors.
is the customer who gives the technical specification ofthe prod- uct and it is the customer who has to decide whether he can or cannot accept the price dictated by the manufacturer. Based on these restrictions, it is now the manufacturer who must decide whether he is able to execute the order (within the deadline ap- pointed and using the available facilities) and what will be the price ofthe product as dictated by the cost of production. Improv- ing the procedure of production costs estimation should improve the contract negotiations and make them more efficient. On the other hand, estimating the cost of production involves, among others, also the need to determine the type of material and treat- ment. The manufacturer can choose what materials he will use for the product and at what price, providing he can check which
On the introductory chapter a few facts were presented, with the majority of them pointing towards a scenario where the parameters that are used to produce a component through the LMD technology have an influence that is yet relatively unknown and undocumented. The main goal of this work was to studythe mechanical properties of several LMD components produced with both powder and wire LMD processes, using several deposition heights on the powder LMD components, in order to understand how they would compare between themselves, and how their mechanical properties would compare to the references. The microhardness data collected allowed the understanding that on each component, the values of microhardness vary significantly from one point to another, with the top ofthe components, where the last layers were deposited, tending to present a higher microhardness when compared to the one registered on the base, for all ofthe tested components. The overall values of microhardness were significantly higher than the reference ones, for both the powder and the wire components.
Such mediums are the best cover media to hide messages. Digital images are the most widespread cover files used for SG, due to their high embedding efficiency and the insensitivity ofthe human visual system (HVS) . It is not necessary that the cover and message have a homogeneous structure. For example, it is possible to embed a recording of an audio stream message inside a digital image . The simplest steganographic techniques embed the bits ofthe message directly into the least significant bit (LSB) plane ofthe cover image in a deterministic sequence [5, 6]. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity [7-10]. Our technique is focused on providing high security and high speed operation while maintaining imperceptibility. We are using here Galois Encoder to provide high operational speed while maintaining the security intensively. The 2BC (two bit code) technique is the basic steganography technique we are using with the Galois Operation. Galois field arithmetic has received considerable attention in recent years due to their application in public-key cryptography schemes and error correcting codes. We are here using the 2BC(two bit code) and Galois Field algorithm to achieve the goal ofthe maximum reception ofthe original message signal while maintaining the losses and enhancing the speed of operation. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity. Our embedding technique is focused on providing security while maintaining imperceptibility. Our method can work in any transform domain, but we are illustrating the ideas inthe spatial domain for convenience. The rest ofthe paper is divided among the following sections: section 2 explains the existing passcode based technique which involves the matching process and the embedding techniques, section 3 describes the Galois operation, section 4 and 5 explains the data transmission and retrieval process using the Galois Encoder and decoder, section 6 contains simulation result and section 7 summarizes the Conclusion.
household, the program caused an increase of more than 11 percentage points inthe probability of attending school. One possible reason for this increase inthe estimated impact is the fact that his/her family is only receiving any transfers from the Bolsa Familia program because he/she is attending school. The fear of losing access to the program, which means that it may take time to come back to it incaseof harder times ahead, may stimulate parents to monitor their kids’ school attendance more strongly. When these two features were combined — i.e. male youngsters who were the youngest child — the probability of attending school increased by 16.2 percentage points and it is statistically significant at the 1 per cent level.
The dynamic capabilities approach presents some specific aspects of definition, which constitute an important part ofthe existing body of know- ledge about the subject. Strong dynamic capabilities are the means to create the organizational agility necessary to deal with the increasing uncertainty generated by innovation and competition (Teece, Peteraf, & Leih, 2016). For Winter (2003), there is a broad consensus inthe literature regarding the understanding that dynamic capabilities contrast with so-called ordi- nary (or operational) capabilities, because the former would be concerned with the change. In this way, ordinary resources and competencies differ from dynamic capabilities. According to Teece & Leih (2016), ordinary capa- bilities involve skills for the proper execution of functions, administrative and governance tasks. Dynamic capabilities, however, create and shape busi- ness environments. As an example ofthe concept application, Protogerou, Caloghirou and Lioukas (2012) carried out a quantitative study with 271 companies from different sectors, concluding that the dynamic capabilities of coordination, learning and competitive response positively and indirectly impacted the operational capabilities of technology and marketing ofthe company. For the authors, the dynamic capabilities support the mentioned operational capabilities, impacting the profitability and the market share ofthe companies.
Based on the objectives to be achieved and problems that have been formulated, the method used is juridical- sociological. The juridical approach is intended to explore and studythe legislation as a basis for a research, while the sociological approach is intended to explore the factors and impacts incurred from the occurrence of border-area dispute and solution by the government. The specifications of this research are normative law called also as doctrinal research. A site was chosen by researcher to conduct a research is a government agency that includes the Navy (Department of Hydro-Oceanographic) related to the sea boundaries ofthe Republic of Indonesia and neighboring countries, local governments, especially inthe leading islands border to the Republic of Indonesia related to culture, security, politics and thinking about the area/island they occupy, as a part ofthe Unitary ofthe Republic of Indonesia. The population is all research objects to be researched. In this research, the population is Navy and the relevant agencies involved inthe security of sea area. The samples were chosen to be a material of research is the bearer ofthe security function in marine areas through the random system and interviews with relevant parties, such as Bakorkamla and community.
Arterial ageing is a process that can be quantiied, at least to some degree, by measurement of pulse wave velocity along the aorta, the largest elastic artery, as a marker of arterial stifness. In recent years the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA) has been developed by a group of mostly European researchers and some reviews have been published. Based on a lecture given at the European Association for theStudyof Diabetes (EASD) Meeting in Vienna 2014, this review was written to describe recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular (CV) risk. This brings new perspectives related to genetics, telomere biology, and the role of gut microbiota. Even if EVA has been described in general terms there is still no unifying deinition available and no direct treatment, only recommendations for conventional CV risk factor control. However, a new intervention study (SPARTE) is ongoing in France with a randomised design to treat arterial stifness in patients with hypertension versus conventional treatment strategies. Results are expected in a few years and will be of importance in deining the role of arterial stifness, a core feature of EVA, as a target for treatment.
The introduction of Swatch revitalized the entire Swiss watchmaking industry. On the one hand, the brand restored the Swiss industry’s credibility with the public and re-established the Swiss trustworthiness concerning trade (Taylor, 1993). One the other hand, the action resuscitated mechanical watches. While Swatch Group took over a global mass-market audience with its low-end watch Swatch, other traditional mechanical watch manufacturers benefited from Swatch’s success and reinvented themselves as luxury status symbols celebrating craft and tradition (Taylor, 1993). In summary, the Swiss watchmaking industry turnaround was mostly evoked by a transition from high-end watches to a broader product range including low-end watches. The return toward tradition and Swiss craftsmanship, combined with a necessary reduction of production costs, led to the overall industry recovery. Swatch Group with regard to its legal structure emerged from the Quartz Crisis. Because the company did not exist beforehand, it is impossible to investigate which potential measures and principles o f sustainability might have contributed to the company’s apparent resilience and sustainability. A similar situation presents itself concerning Richemont, as the company’s legal structure was set up in 1988. Based on these circumstances, this study is confronted with a recurring issue within any research-based academic dissertation. On the one hand, due to the timeframe ofthe Quartz Crisis, finding sound and comparable data with regard to the companies’ financial statements has proven to be virtually impossible as several companies, which are now part ofthe representative sample, did not make internal documentation publicly available during that time period. On the other hand, any strategic documents that could serve as basis for further academic investigation regarding which measures the companies had taken in order to be resilient are also either not available or available only with considerable difficulty that surpassed the available timeframe and scope of this study. Given these preliminary results and the timeframe and scope of this study, the global financial and economic crisis in 2007/08 will be utilized as the starting point ofthe conceptual framework of this study. The following chapter presents the conceptual framework on which thestudy was based.