Being a part of the paper culture relics, Tripitaka carries the precious and valuable records of human civilization and the development of Buddhism. Although the writing language on Tripitaka and its translation was largely investigated, very little was known about the materials and techniques used. As the number ofTripitaka reduced over the years, it is time-critical to take necessary actions to prevent the treasure from damage. This analytical research employed scientific approaches to study the crafts and materials used. It demonstrated that the papers were made mainly from the bark of mulberry tree, bamboo, hemp and jute. The use of indigo as the dye to colorize the paper is also highlighted here. This research demonstrates evidence of defining adopted treatment, and also provides inspiration on studying the history of science and civilization ofancient Tibet.
Crushed ceramic fragments, which were likely fired at low tem- perature in order to ensure a higher reactivity with the other com- ponents , probably derived from different waste materials. In fact, some fragments present wider pozzolanic reaction rims at the aggregate-binder interface, indicating that these fragments were possibly obtained from the grinding of reused buildings materials (e.g. bricks or roof tiles), a common practice of roman builders. Conversely, some fragments have a more confined poz- zolanic reaction rim and a dark layer at one side of the fragment, probably as a consequence of specific treatments (such as glazing or smoothing), indicating its probable origin (i.e. domestic pottery). The identification of minor mineral phases and rocks (i.e. amphiboles, igneous rocks such as granites, and shale) can help identify the origin of the aggregates. The observation of the thin sections (in accordance with stereozoom observations and XRD analysis) has shown that the mineralogical composition of the aggregates is related to the local geology . In fact, the aggregates used for the mortars probably derive from an area nearby the villa, closed to the Guadiana river, as shown in the geological map of the Beja district (Fig. 8). Previous studies on other Roman mortars in the same region [7,30,34] confirm the use of fluvial aggregates from the Guadiana river bank, located at above 20 km East of the Pisões archaeological site.
progenies (Fig 4). White endosperm is an ancient trait shared with teosinte, the wild progenitor of maize, caused by ys recessive mutations impairing carotenoids biosynthesis . It seems likely that Pyrenean-Galician landraces have been developed through hybridization with the Northern US flints introduced into Europe in the sixteenth century from the north of France [5, 15, 50] and we can conjecture that this last parental contribution brought the y allele which has been fixed in the following generations. To further characterize the Millo Corvo variety we measured the antioxidant ability of its flour containing anthocyanins and lacking carotenoids in comparison with a Scagliolo cultivar used as control (an Italian polenta maize variety con- taining carotenoids) and compared the data obtained with an F2 segregating white seed lacking both anthocyanins and carotenoids (Fig 6). The results obtained showed the highest ARP value (0.06) in the dark blue kernels of Millo Corvo and the lowest ARP value (0.03) in the white ker- nels while the yellow–orange cv. Scagliolo showed an intermediate ARP value of 0.04. These data showed that Millo Corvo even though lacking carotenoid has a higher antioxidant ability, due to the presence of anthocyanins, compared with a classical yellow orange cultivar such as Italian Scagliolo polenta maize. To conclude, this ancient cultivar represents an historic landra- ce that could be a useful tool in future breeding programs and a promise for the development of functional foods or natural colorants.
The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo’s sambaqui located at south-west Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the oldest contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there aren't any physical and chemical analysis performed in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological researches at the sambaqui. This work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterizationof eighty-four ceramic samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) by means of the determination of Na, K, La, Sm, Yb, Lu, U, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, Ce, Eu, Hf and Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples, cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups whose dating ranging 3000 b.P. to 1500 b.P. that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller and suggest Bacabal’s phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon.
Saqqara is a one section of the great necropolis of Memphis, the Old Kingdom capital and the Kings of the 1st dynasty as well as that of the 2nd dynasty are mostly buried in this section of the Memphis necropolis. Saqqara is located 30 km south of Cairo (29.871264° N 31.216381° E). The excavations of the Faculty of Archaeology have begun since 1984, in south of the way of pyramid of Unas; there, burials from the Roman and Coptic times were discovered. During the years (1984 −1988), many tombs from the 19th dynasty have been discovered. In the mission worked in the year 2005 at the area, painted limestone blocks have been discovered in the wheel of tomb of hwi nfr (Fig. 1). The preparation of multi-layered paint-samples and their structural analysis is standard practice for the examination of painted surfaces in art conservation. Mounted cross-sections have been commonly used to study the
The mechanisms that evolve LGTs into functional eukaryotic genes are poorly understood and fascinatingly complex. The acquisition of a eukaryotic promoter could occur quickly if the LGT integrates near an existing promoter or enhancer element. However, the evolution of introns would be more complex and presumably represents a multistep process. With this latter point in mind, it is interesting that neither D. plexippus nor B. mori GH31 sequences contain introns, despite their ancient establishment. Li et al. (2011)  also noted that 20 other putative LGTs they identified in B. mori are intronless. Similarly, LGTs involving two Wolbachia genes in the genome of Aedes aegypti also are intronless . The formation of eukaryotic splice sites must direct precise splicing such that the reading frame in the mRNA is preserved. The process of intron acquisition is thus likely to be hindered by the high probability of deleterious intermediate steps, such as the introduction of frame shift mutations or protein truncations. That several examples of intron-containing LGTs exist shows that this process does occur. However, with the present case in mind, it may require many millions of years [4,10,35]. Our limited understanding of intron function also makes it difficult to devise clear hypothesis to explain the selective pressures driving intron acquisition in LGTs. It is clear that the study of LGTs will provide us with a rich source of information not only on the evolution of new introns, but also on the selective forces driving LGT maintenance within eukaryotes.
I n 1995, Whit t em ore et al, 1 5 in a st udy of t he r elat ionship of pr ost at e cancer t o diet , phy sical act iv it y , and body m ass in African- Am ericans, whit es, and Asians living in t he US and Canada, found a significant r isk associat ion bet w een t his neoplasia and t ot al fat ingest ion in all et hnic groups. This associat ion w as at t r ibut ed solely t o t he ex cessiv e calor ies or iginat ed fr om sat ur at ed fat s, and not t o t hose r elat ed t o pr ot ein or car bohy dr at es. At t he t im e, r isk w as not associat ed w it h BMI or phy sical act iv it y pat t er n s. The aut hor s suggest ed t hat ot her fact or s, in addit ion t o sat ur at ed fat ingest ion, could account for t he differ ent r isk lev els obser v ed for t he differ ent et hnic gr oups. Recent st udies w it h cer t ain specific gr oups, how ev er , hav e det ect ed an im por t ant associat ion bet w een pr ost at e cancer r isk and BMI . Hsing et al 1 0 found an alm ost t hreefold risk ( OR 2.71wit h 95% CI ) am ong Chinese in t he highest WHR quart ile.
Ancient buildings where mostly made of masonry, which is a composite material of units (brick, block, stone) and mortar (clay, cement, chalk, lime). The properties and resisting characteristics of the masonry are depending on the properties of the constituents (units, mortar and their interfaces) and the construction techniques which depend also on the builder. Despite the dispersion of masonry buildings’ characteristics, it is possible to point out the common features of the masonry mechanical behavior: high specific mass, low tensile strength, low to moderate shear strength and low ductility (quasi-brittle behavior), anisotropic structural material, non-homogeneous and non-elastic (Mendes, 2012). From the previous characteristics it is possible to conclude that masonry performs well when working in compression, but has a lower capacity to bear shear and tensile stresses. These stresses have to be sustained by the walls, taking advantage of the self-weight of the structure and the friction between stones and mortar. Masonry walls have a good performance in its plane, supporting the vertical axial loads, which only introduce compressive stresses on them. However, when the walls are subjected to horizontal excitations the vertical loads will tend to bend the walls, increasing the tensile and shear stresses, which this material is practically unable to resist (Simões & Bento, 2012). The seismic vulnerability of masonry buildings is extremely dependent on the load-bearing walls, which are normally arranged in orthogonal planes, and connections between the floors and the walls. Furthermore, the stiffness of the floors have a high influence on the seismic vulnerability of the buildings. In general, the ancient masonry buildings present flexible floors.
The coordination complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) derived from 5-bromosalicylidene-3,4- dimethylaniline (BSMA) and 5-bromosalicylidene-3,4-dichloroaniline (BSCA) have been synthesized by conventional as well as microwave methods. These compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, molar conductance, electronic spectra, 1 H-NMR, FAB-mass, ESR, magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and thermal analysis. The complexes are coloured and stable in air. Analytical data revealed that all the complexes exhibited 1:2 (metal: ligand) ratio with coordination number 4 or 6. IR data shows that the ligand coordinates with the metal ions in a bidentate manner through the phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. FAB-mass and thermal data show degradation pattern of the complexes. Solid state electrical conductivity studies reflect semiconducting nature of the complexes. The Schiff base and metal complexes show a good activity against the Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and fungi Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), was fascinated by astronomy, but disappointed with the accuracy of tables of planetary motion at the time. He decided to dedicate his life and considerable resources to recording planetary positions ten times more accurately than the best previous work. He achieved his goal of measuring to one minute of arc. This was a tremendous feat before the invention of the telescope. His aim was to confirm his own picture of the universe, which was that the earth was at rest, the sun went around the earth and the planets all went around the sun - an intermediate picture between Ptolemy and Copernicus.
The first question needing answer is how many times AMH left Africa in a significant manner? Two models exist to answer this interrogation: Multiple exits and a Single exit. Multiple exits model was initially seen as the more intuitive model since that modern humanity is divided in various “sub-populations” with morphological differences, which could be explained by different exits of different populations to different places of the world. This model is based in cranial findings in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the early 90’s [52,53], that showed land-isolated populations with morphological differences. It was extrapolated that these different populations originated the different population outside of SSA that are seen in the present. Some researchers saw support for the multiple exits model, namely on Y-chromosome lineages that do not clearly show a single founder outside Africa . The Single exit model states that a single significant migration out of Africa occurred and that is responsible for the colonization of AMH around the world. This model is strongly based in mtDNA evidences since only one branch (L3) of the dozen primary haplogroups of the mtDNA phylogenetic tree is found outside Africa, with L3 comprising both SSA Africans and all non-Africans suggesting that a single population migrated out of Africa, most likely from East Africa, and colonized the rest of the world . This counter intuitive model was later supported by a higher resolution Y chromosome phylogeny which suggested a mtDNA-L3-equivalent Y-chromosome
We notice that Lebesgue spaces with variable exponent L p( ·) (Ω) have been intensively studied during the last decade. Apparently, the research was strongly motivated by their applications to differential equations with non- standard growth conditions and by modeling problems of fluid mechanics (see, for instance, [1,24]). A significant progress has also been made concerning the study of classical integral operators in the context of the L p( ·) -spaces. We refer to the papers [18,27] for the basics properties of these spaces. For details on the recent development of operator theory in such spaces see the surveying papers [9,15,29] and other references therein. We also mention the paper  where the boundedness of several classical operators was obtained through extrapolation tools.
The projection of the variables studied at the first PCA group, (Figure 2a) was defined by the first plan by two factors (1 and 2). These two factors accounted for about 46 and 39% of variance, respectively. Each vector represents the variables; so, the closer the vectors are to the variables the more positive the correlation between them, such as: wet gluten and dry gluten, thousand kernel weight and extraction, kernel water activity and kernel moisture, kernel hardness index and extraction, kernel hardness index and chroma b*, and crude protein content and gluten index. The 180° vectors represent variables that were negatively correlated, which was the case with gluten, crude protein, color and lipid. When the variable vectors are at right angles, they are independent. Factors 1 and 2 represented a way to differentiate between grains and flours, respectively. In fact, grain and flour samples contrasted with the variables evaluated. When Figure 2a was superimposed on Figure 2b, it was observed that BRS Louro flour had the lowest averages for wet gluten and dry gluten; therefore, the perpendicular graphical projection was below the origin. BRS Louro cultivar grain and flour presented the highest averages for color attribute chroma
The multiplier is one of the fundamental hardware blocks in many Digital Signal Processing systems for performing different operations like frequency domain filtering(FIR,IIR),frequency transformations(FFT), etc., Some of the important arithmetic functions implemented by the multiplier in the DSPs are Multiply and Accumulate (MAC), inner product. Not just in the DSP systems, the digital multiplier is an indispensable block in Digital Image Processing systems, and even in Microprocessor in its ALU. The former microprocessors did not have a Multiplier block, instead of which they used multiply routines, for shifting and adding the partial results to produce the final product result. But with the enhanced levels of integration in the latest VLSI circuits day-by-day, the task of designing a multiplier block has began receiving immense devotion in the design of digital systems.
groups (cyano, carbonyl, …) are added to the ring structure fluorescence may occur . This kind of compounds are found in bitumen. Therefore, fluorescent optical microscopy (FOM) can be used as a contrast technique to study the morphology of PMB samples [22, 30, 41, 42]. In fact, this technique has been shown to be the least invasive technique to study morphology on asphalt samples, e.g. in SEM the increase in temperature caused by the exposure of the sample to the electron beam is enough to modify the microstructure of the samples . Nevertheless, the biggest challenge in FOM for PMBs relies on the correct sample preparation, fact that is sometimes underestimated. Currently, there are two main methods for sample preparation: drop of hot sample over a glass slide and brittle fracture of frozen binder . The first method has the disadvantage that a drop, due to the curvature, will lack optical smoothness at the microscope, as shown in Figure 2-31. This can be solved by the usage of cover slides, but in this case the pressure exerted to flat the sample deforms the size and shape of the inclusions . It is also worth to mention that either reheating the sample or the glass slides also affect the morphology. Brittle fracture of frozen samples can avoid morphology deformation, but the optical smoothness problem is unavoidable. Mechanical techniques have been used to smooth (flatten) the surface of the fractured sample , however the morphology integrity is again compromised. Based on this a new method for the production of microscopy samples was suggested on the materials and methods section.
Some researchers have examined the inversion effect of non-face stimuli, showing that the effects on N170 amplitude were left lateralized (for English words) or bilateral (for objects). However, Chinese characters and other logographic scripts[7, 23–25] do not elicit the typical left N170 lateralization observed for alphabetic scripts[6, 26]. For example, Wong et al. (2005) reported a left-lateralized response for Chinese characters and Chinese emotional nouns also showed a left-lateralized N170, while Wang et al. (2011) showed a right N170 amplitude lateralization associated with the inversion effect for compound Chinese characters. Similar to the experimental material used in our current study, pictographs have been shown to elicit bilateral N170 responses. Although we used only Xiaozhuan font characters as stimuli mate- rial, the researchers in this previous report used three types of pictographic characters; how- ever, we reached the same conclusion with Xiaozhuan font characters, showing bilateral N170 responses. Thus, the results of various studies on modern Chinese characters are inconsistent, and more studies are needed to elucidate these mechanisms. Our current results were consis- tent with the bilateral N170 effect of pictographs.
Abstract: Problem statement: Algebra developed in three stages: rhetorical or prose algebra, syncopated or abbreviated algebra and symbolic algebra-known as “school algebra”. School algebra developed rather early in India and the literature now suggests that the first civilization to develop symbolic algebra was the Vedic Indians. Approach: Philosophical ideas of the time influenced the development of the decimal system and arithmetic and that in turn led to algebra. Indeed, symbolic algebraic ideas are deep rooted in Vedic philosophy. The Vedic arithmetic and mathematics were of a high level at an early period and the Hindus used algebraic ideas to generate formulas simplifying calculations. Results: In the main, they developed formulas to understand the physical world satisfying the needs of religion (apara and para vidya). While geometrical focus, logic and proof type are features of Greek mathematics, “boldness of conception, abstraction, symbolism” are essentially in Indian mathematics. From such a history study, a number of implications can be drawn regarding the learning of algebra. Real life, imaginative and creative problems that encourage risk should be the focus in student learning; allowing students freely move between numbers, magnitudes and symbols rather than taking separate static or unchanging view. A move from concrete to pictorial to symbolic modes was present in ancient learning. Real life practical needs motivated the progress to symbolic algebra. The use of rich context based problems that stimulate and motivate students to raise levels higher to transfer knowledge should be the focus of learning. Conclusion/Recommendations: The progress from arithmetic to algebra in India was achieved through different modes of learning, risk taking, problem solving and higher order thinking all in line with current emphasis in mathematics education but at rather early stage in human history.
Unlike the MK 13G 117, TQ 28F 112, TQ 28F 256 samples, the mitogenome sequence ofancient MK 11G 107 individual exhibited substitutions in the control as well as diagnostic coding region sites (73-489-511-10398-10400-16223-16266-16289), this indicates that this individual might have originated from Indian sub-haplogroup M65a origin . It is evident that the data obtained from the M65a mitogenomes available in the literature and databases (Table S1 and S2 in File S1) and our SNPs data from two haplotypes, share control region motifs with the ancient Mesopotamian lineage- MK 11G 107, this further implies that MK 11G 107 lineage belongs to subhaplogroup M65a1 (Fig. 1; Table S1 in File S1). Besides, five different mtDNA M65a haplotypes detected by Witas et al.  (see their Figure 1b) were classified now into two subhaplogroups- M65a2 and M65a3 (Fig. 2b; Table S1 in File S1). M65a2 lineage is widely distributed across India, Apart from India, it is also found in Pakistan, Myanmar and Tibet populations. Haplotype M65a3 has been observed in populations of northern India, Nepal and Pakistan (Table S1 in File S1). On the contrary, M65a1 is exclusively found in the south India (Fig. 2b). Fifteen M65a1 HVS-I haplotypes were observed, of which seven were in Andhra Pradesh/ Telangana and eight were in Tamil Nadu. M65a1 could have originated in south India and the local divergence dates back to 31.5 kya (95% C.I.: 8.5–54.5). It is intriguing to note that the precisely matched sequence ofancient Mesopotamian –MK 11G 107 haplotype (16223-16266-16289) was observed in the popula- tions living in a restricted area of Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu, India (Table 1 and Table S1 in File S1). Historical documentation indicates that during first centuries AD, the trade between Rome and south India got intensified; pearls, ivory, textiles and gold ornaments were imported from Tamil Nadu of south India- and Tamil merchants actively engaged in the overseas trade with Rome . In addition, earlier archaeological evidence (pots with Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions found in Quseir-al-Qadim, an ancient Figure 1. Maximum parsimony tree of entire mtDNA genomes belonging to ancient Mesopotamian haplogroups M49 and M65. Mutations are scored relative to the revised Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS)  and displayed along the branches. The prefix ‘‘@’’ indicates back mutation, recurrent mutations are underlined, transversions have a base suffix, ‘‘d’’ deletions and ‘‘+’’ insertions, and the poly(C) region in HVS1 and -2 as well as 16519 is excluded. The geographic origin of the sample and the accession number which is retrieved from the publication are denoted on top of the branches.
Despite the role of the collagen domain and the tail region in the stabilization of the triple helix, it is believed that trimerization of the collectin subunit is initiated at the neck domain. The neck region of the collectin polypeptide (24-28 residues) forms α-helices that intertwine with other collectin polypeptides because of hydrophobic interactions. This results in a triple α- helical coiled coil (Sheriff et al., 1994; Epstein, 1996; Lu, 1997). Generally, collectins exist as multimers of trimers, which gives rise to diverse quaternary structures (Weis and Drickamer, 1994). For example, MBL and SP-A exist as hexamers of trimers, and the final configuration of the molecules resembles a ‘bunch of tulips’. SP-D and conglutinin form cruciform structures, while conglutinin also exists as a single unit of trimers (reviewed in Epstein, 1996). There is also evidence that some collectins (e.g., conglutinin and SP-D) can exist as dimers of the primary polypeptide, although they appear to be rare forms of these collectins.