ABSTRACT: Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identiication, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forestspeciescharcoal was done envisaging the identiication and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components. Key words: Carbonized wood, gymnosperms, angiosperms.
The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes’s conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization ofcharcoal from 25 Cerrado’s species. We simulate the real conditions offorest controllers by using the magnifi cations of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrifi cation, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identifi cation of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample ofcharcoal itself.
temperatures of (-11 °C). It has the ability to fix nitrogen through symbiosis with bacteria of the genus Rhizobium. It is mainly used for tannin extraction (for hide and skin tanning), but other uses include the production of fuel wood for energy and charcoal and the supply of raw material for pulp industries. Today, with the export of wood chips to Japan, its timber became an extra source of profit for producers as well as a major generator of foreign exchange. In Brazil, it is grown in Rio Grande do Sul and the main characters of interest for breeding are wood and tannin production and resistance to the disease gomosis. Black wattle was originally introduced in Brazil in 1930 from seeds collected in South Africa and only in the 1980s Australian provenances and progenies were introduced, made by Embrapa Forestry and tannin-producing companies.
A lack of proper management, coupled with uncontrolled exploitation of angico vermelho and jurema preta, especially due to the lack of options in terms ofspecies for tannin production, which would make it possible to constitute mixtures for skin tanning over the short term, has led to a depletion of these forestspecies, as well as affecting the production chain and the livelihood of families that depend on them (Diniz et al., 2003). In this context, jurema (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir.), a fast growing species common in disturbed areas of Caatinga and widely used for the production of firewood, charcoal and wood for cooking, was highlighted in research where its tannin content appears sufficient to warrant further investigation to more precisely determine its potential for use in the tanning production chain (Paes et al., 2006a).
ABSTRACT - Herbicide clomazone is highly soluble in water, which increases the risk of leaching, resulting in contamination of sources of groundwater and waterways, affecting non-target organisms, with possible degradation of riparian areas. The objective of this work was to investigate the possible anatomical modifications of the leaf tissue of twelve arborescent species native to Brazil grown in soil contaminated by clomazone, in order to microscopically characterize leaf damage caused by the herbicide, and investigate whether the structural damage precedes visible damage. Through micro morphometrics, the thickness and the area occupied by the tissues were measured in a cross section of the leaves of the forestspecies: adaxial and abaxial epidermis, palisade and spongy parenchyma. It has been found that the species evaluated were affected by the presence of the pesticide in the soil, and the variable with the largest negative changes was the spongy parenchyma. Among the species, Inga marginata, Schizolobium parahyba and Handroantus. serratifolius had higher tolerance to the herbicide, demonstrating potential for studies on the mechanism by which these plants exert such tolerance. Overall, the results revealed that the forestspecies studied demonstrate significant alterations in leaf anatomy in response to the presence of residues of herbicide clomazone in the soil, even in leaves with no visible lesions.
Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. pellita F. Muell., E. pilularis Sm., E. pyrocarpa L.A.S. Johnson & Blaxell, E. resinifera Smith in J. White, E. saligna Sm. and E. urophylla S. T. Blake; cultivated in pots with 10 L of clayey soil fertilized with 216.6 g of N- P-K (6-30-6) and 12 g of lime in the ratio Ca: Mg = 4:1 equivalent, with 6 g/pot of N-P-K (20-5-20) applied 15 days after planting (DAP) of the seedlings, and three applications of 4 g/pot of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 40, 60 and 80 DAP; were analyzed. The seedlings were produced from seeds certified arising from IPEF (Institute ofForest Research), which has collections of this species for production and distribution. The plants were maintained in unprotected environment from sun and rain, in an area owned of the Department of Plant Production, Viçosa Federal University, Brazil, from 12 December 2004 to 15 March 2005. The plants, growed at full sun, received sprinkler irrigation of water. The leaves produced by the plants are with their upper surfaces at right angles to the rays of the sun, i.e., in the horizontal position. They are about twice as long as broad and arranged in pairs, at right angles to each other. Six fully expanded leaves around third node from the shoot apex were collected from three plants per species for the histological and histochemical study. The plants were 120 days old and approximately 1.5 m high at the time of collection.
Charcoal is one of the main forestry products and Brazil is the world’s largest producer. Its production from native species is estimated at 30-35% of total output. One of the major problems of the iron and steel industry is charcoal consumption, especially in terms of environmental and social aspects. Therefore, the use of reforestation species must be increased. Considering most of the energy forests in Brazil are planted with eucalyptus, the present work aims to contribute to the identiication ofcharcoal origin through anatomical analysis of Eucalyptus and Corymbia. The wood samples were carbonized in a mufle furnace during 7h to a maximum of 450ºC. Anatomical analysis was done according to IAWA Committee. We found few works with charcoalanatomy and the species analyzed were not characterized. The results on charcoal are very close to previous studies of wood anatomy. But, we recommend the comparison of materials of similar features, enhancing the visual acuity, particularities of each material and modiications that might happen. We believe that this analysis is an accurate tool to identify the source ofcharcoal and can help to guarantee the sustainability of the charcoal supply chain.
In tropical forests of world, in charcoal production, literature report the use of native species from deforestation regions, and also that there is no selection of cut species. The process impact soil, affects global warming through the production and emission of gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane (Chidumayo and Gumbo, 2013). In Brazil, statistics shows that this scenario is being modified in function of environment legislation and more control in inspection process. In 2016, charcoal manufacture from native forest present a reduction of 31.7% (IBGE, 2016) and the use of planted species is estimated in 84% of total consume of country (IBÁ, 2017). On the other hand, data no included in official statistics shows that charcoal production present a high economic and social importance for much family farmers in southern Brazil and, in this case, native species are applied (Bauer et al., 2015).
The analyzed species have perennial leaves with variable morphology in the same individual (Fig. 5A-C). Cross sections of all three species show a unisseriate epidermis with juxtaposed irregularly-sized cells that are usually elliptic, and with little variation in size and shape. Anticlinal cell walls are sinuous, while the external periclinal walls vary from being smooth to papillose for all species (Fig. 6A-G). Leaves are dorsiventral, with heterogeneous mesophyll and slightly curved edges in P. purpurascens (Fig. 6B-C) and W. trichostephia(Fig. 6E-F), and homogenous mesophyll in P. gardneri (Fig. 6G-I). All species are amphistomatic, with anomocytic stomata (Fig. 6J-L) and stomatal ridges with epicuticular waxes impregnating the cells (Fig. 6M-R). In P. purpurascens, stomatal guard cells are positioned above the other epidermal cells on the abaxial surface (Fig. 6B-C). The midrib of P. purpurascens possess angular collenchyma underlying the adaxial epidermis, with collateral vascular bundles surrounded by a lignified sheath (Fig. 6A), while Table 1. Analyzed species and respectively geographic data and vouchers
Abstract: Bat assemblages in two urban fragments of Maringá city, north of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, were inventoried. These fragments, Parque do Ingá (48 ha) and Parque Florestal dos Pioneiros (59 ha), are located in a subtropical region covered by semideciduous Atlantic forest. Bats were sampled with mist-nets from August 2006 to July 2007, over 24 nights (12 hours a night), adding up to a total of 30,240 h.m2 of net effort. A total of 839 individuals were captured belonging to 10 species and four families. Artibeus lituratus was the most abundant species (66% of the sample). The observed richness represents 22% of the bat species recorded for the state, 24% of the bat species occurring in the seasonal semideciduous forestof Paraná, 26% of the species previously recorded in urban environments in Brazil, and 83.4% of the estimated richness by Jackknife 1 (n= 12 species). Studies that provide data on richness and abundance of bat species in urban fragments are becoming increasingly important, but are still poorly available in Brazil. This habitat is especially interesting because anthropogenic pressure can be harmful to bat assemblages, reducing their diversity.
This work aimed to perform a comparative study of leaf anatomy, trichome frequency and essential oil production of some Lippia native speciesof the semi-arid region of Bahia State, Brazil. Leaf samples were analyzed with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to describe the leaf structure and to quantify the trichome frequency. Six types of glandular trichomes were identified: unicellular, bicellular and tetracellular, as well as three types of tectorial trichomes. L. bromleyana presents an ornamented epidermis and no tectorial trichomes on the abaxial surface. L. thymoides has glandular trichomes with irregular contours on both leaf faces, with a higher frequency of tectorial trichomes on the adaxial surface and peltate glandular trichomes on the abaxial surface. L. insignis and L. lasiocalycina are anatomically similar, and present a higher tector trichome frequency on the abaxial
The vascular bundles of the mesophyll are open col- lateral with bundle sheath rich in chloroplasts (Figure 2D - arrow) in all evaluated species. In the smaller bundles, the metaxylem (Mx) has wide vessels interposed by small parenchyma cells (Figure 2E) in N. amazonum, N. gardneriana and N. prolifera. Protoxylem lacunae (Pl), delimited by parenchyma cells (Pa) arranged in regular formation (Figure 2E), are present in most large vascular units of the species, except in N. jamesoniana. Since leaves do not feature vessel elements, xylem is conducted by tracheids with spiral thickening. Phloem is well devel- oped, but with reversed arrangement in N. belophylla and N. jamesoniana (Figure 2A), and N. lingulata (Figu- re 2F). Only N. lingulata presents bicollateral bundles in the midrib (Figure 2F).
The wood stakes from the five forestspecies studied were infested by the Asiatic subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The presence of basidiomycetes (wood decomposing fungi) was also observed, along with other insects that do not damage wood such as ants, cockroaches and beetles. According to Hunt and Garratt (1967), Cavalcante (1982) and Oliveira et al. (1986), the decay of wood is a chemical process caused by rot fungi (xylophagous fungi). These microorganisms attack the cell walls, irreversibly altering the physical-mechanical properties and compromising wood resistance. According to Sands (1969), the environment of subterranean termites normally includes a wide variety of wood degrading fungi, some of which compete with the termites for cellulosic material as a food source. In general, the Rhinotermitidae benefit from association with these fungi. For example, Lentinus pallidus Berk. & Curt. degrades compounds in the core of Pinus caribaea that are toxic to Coptotermes niger Snyder, making this the preferred site for feeding and nesting of the latter species (WILLIAMS, 1965). On the other hand, some wood degrading fungi produce compounds that are toxic or repellent to the termites (SANDS, 1969). Ruyooka (1979) showed that wood decomposed by the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) was repellent to the subterranean termite Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill). In this context, it appears that the basidiomycete fungi that infected the wood stakes in the present study made them more attractive to C. gestroi.
ABSTRACT - The anatomyof the internal organs of the male reproductive apparatus (MRA) of adults and pupae was compared among 51 speciesof bees, including representatives of six families. Four different types of MRA were found. The type I is present in males of the less derived families (Colletidae, Andrenidae, and Halictidae) and is characterized by three seminiferous tubules per testis, which are almost completely enveloped by the scrotal membrane. The type II is an intermediary between types III and I and is present in Melittidae and Megachilidae, as well as in some Apidae studied, being characterized by post-vesicular deferent ducts outside the scrotal membrane and by three or four seminiferous tubules per testis, except for Apis mellifera L., which has a secondarily increased number of tubules. Type III was only found in the Apidae studied and is characterized by separately encapsulated testes and genital ducts (except for the post-vesicular deferent duct). Accessory glands are well developed, and the ejaculatory duct is thickened with fissures in its wall, which may also occur in the type II. Type IV is present exclusively in the tribe Meliponini, and is characterized by the absence of accessory glands.
It is highly probable that since the original settlement of humans on the Azores a number of arthropods and other poorly known taxa have already become extinct due to deforestation (cf. Brook et al. 2003, Hanski et al. 2007, Cardoso et al. 2010). Thus, given that a large fraction of the island’s forest had already been cleared before the first reliable standardized sampling (Borges et al. 2005a, 2006, 2008, Ribeiro et al. 2005, Gaspar 2007, Gaspar et al. 2008, Borges and Wunderlich 2008), the extinction ofspecies most sensitive to disturbance probably went unrecorded (Cardoso et al. 2010). In point of fact, at least five SIE beetle species (Bradycellus chavesi, Calathus extensicollis, Calathus vicenteorum, Nesotes azorica, Ocydromus derelictus), recorded early in the 20th century, have not been recorded since 1965 and might therefore be considered extinct (Borges et al. 2000). Moreover, many other SIEs are extremely rare and under threat (Borges et al. 2006), and are particularly scarce in standardized samples (Supplemen- tary material Table S1 for Terceira Island). While seven individuals of Calathus lundbladi, an endemic speciesof Sa˜o Miguel, were found in four traps during 1989, just one individual was collected in 120 traps in the 1999 2000 survey (Borges et al. 2005a). The case of Graciosa Island is in accord with the above (Supplementary material Table S7); although species abundance responses to forest loss and fragmentation can be strikingly idiosyncratic (Fahrig 2001), and phenomena like density compensation as a result of the extinction of competitors and/or predators cannot be excluded (Whittaker and Ferna´ndez-Palacios 2007; Supplementary material Table S7), the very small fragment of secondary native vegetation in Graciosa, which is highly disturbed, can be considered as the ‘‘last refuge’’ for the endemic forest-dependent species on that island. These species are already on an ecological trajectory towards extinction. Although, it is possible that some forest specialist species might be able to find a refuge in exotic forests (Supplementary material Table S1), the durability and viability of these populations are probably limited (Borges, unpubl.). Conclusively proving the extinction of a small arthropod species will be practically impossible within such a large area as the Azorean archipelago (2328 km 2 ), but we concur with others (Hanski et al. 2009, Ladle 2009), that given the great importance of understanding the processes and rates ofspecies extinctions, analyses based on indirect evidence can be informative.
Nectaries in leaves of Gentianaceae have been poorly studied. The present study aims to describe the distribution, anatomy, and ecological aspects of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of three Calolisianthus species and in particular the ultrastructure of EFNs in Calolisianthus speciosus during leaf development, discussing its unusual structure. Leaves of Calolisianthus species were fixed and processed by the usual methods for studies using light, scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ion chromatography was used to analyze the nectar exudates of C. speciosus. The distribution patterns of nectar secretion units were analysed by ANOVA and t-tests. Two EFNs that can be seen macroscopically were observed at the bases of C. speciosus and C. pendulus leaves. Such large nectaries are absent there in C. amplissimus. Another similarly large EFN is observed at the apex of each leaf in all species. The EFNs at the base of the young leaves in C. speciosus are visited by ants during the rainy season. EFNs are formed by several nectar secretory units (nectarioles) that are present throughout the leaves. Each nectariole is formed by rosette cells with a central channel from which the nectar is released. Channels of old C. speciosus and C. pendulus EFNs were obstructed by fungi. TEM of EFNs in young leaves showed cytoplasms with secretion, small vacuoles, mitochondria, cell wall ingrowth, and plasmodesmata. TEM of EFNs in old leaves demonstrated dictyosomes, plastids, mitochondria, segments of endoplasmatic reticulum, and lipid droplets. The nectar contains sucrose, glucose and fructose.
Maximum entropy is one of the most fundamental theories in physics and ecology. It is based on maximising the available information entropy of a system under certain constraints. Information entropy is the measure of confusion for a given system. In a thermodynamic system, entropy is described as the number of specific micro-ways in which the system can be arranged for observed macro-states. In ecology, this theory has been used for inferring SADs under constrains of the area occupied by species, the number ofspecies, the number of individuals per species and the total rate of metabolic energy required by all the individuals in the system. This section discusses the application of Lagrange multiplier method in maximizing entropy information for deriving the SAD (Harte, 2011). In a thermodynamic system, the Maximum Entropy theory is defined for some state variables, and the same rationale is also applied in the maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE). State variables are properties of a given system that need to be specified in order to fully describe the system. In the METE we lay our calculations and arguments on the following state variables (Sognnaes, 2011).
In conclusion, although FBL has higher forest coverage, approximately four times the forest coverage of PMA, being a less fragmented area, PMA is more heterogeneous in habitat composition, which can provide more microhabitats and support higher species diversity in this area, demonstrating that conservation units are important for biodiversity. Moreover, PMA is a conservation unit since 1991 and has been effectively preserved and conserved, while FBL exhibit high antrophic extractive activity (mainly mate and Araucaria seeds) that could affect species distribution and occurrence in this area. However, the fact that FBL is larger, less fragmented and more distant of Guarapuava city limits than PMA, could be providing a better resource exploration opportunity for the drosophilid community, compensating the antrophic disturbance in this area, and this unbalance in both areas could explain the similar richness indexes (D mg ) detected. This way, the size of the preservation area and/ or connection with other fragments should be considered for the stablishment of conservation units.
To analyze correlations between the envi- ronmental gradients (soil and drainage) and vegetation we used the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) (ter Braak 1987). For this analysis, we grouped vegetation data at every two plots. We used only species that had values greater than or equal to five individuals sampled. These data were correlated with eight chemical variables of soil: pH in H20, available phosphorus (P), exchangeable Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Potassium (k) and Organic Matter (MO). The soil physical attributes used for the CCA were the amounts of coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay. The species were also correlated with drainage classes for each vegetation type. The program PC-ORD for Windows version 4.14 generated analyses and the ordered CCA axes (McCune and Mefford 1999). To check the significance level of the results given by the main axis of the canonical ordering, we employed the Monte Carlo permutation (ter Braak 1988, 1994).
Boracéia Biological Station, near the city of Salesópolis, SP, is located in one of the most well- defined centers of endemism in eastern Brazil – the Serra do Mar Center. While the station was established only in 1954 under the auspices of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, the avifauna of this locality had already attracted the attention of ornithologists by the 1940s, when the first specimens were collected. Here we describe the ornithological history of the Boracéia Biological Station with a review of all the bird species recorded during more than 68 years, including recent transect and mist-netting records. Boracéia’s records were found in museums, literature and unpublished reports that totaled 323 bird species when recent data is also considered. Of these, 117 are endemic to the Atlantic forest and 28 are threatened in the state. Although there are a few doubtful records that need to be checked, some species are the only sightings in the state. Boracéia includes a recently discovered species near the station site and is extremely important for the conservation of Atlantic forest birds.