Simuliidae is a relatively small familyof nematoceran lies, comprised of 2,163 species (2,151 living and 12 fossil) world-wide (Adler and Crosskey 2014). Numerous taxo- nomical confusions and diferent views on nomenclature between eastern and western scientists have created confusion in blackly studies for many decades. Some taxonomi- cal issues concerning species occurring in North Europe have been resolved by recent synonymisations (Raastad et al. 2010, Adler and Crosskey 2014). Systematics and nomenclature ofthe enumeration follow that of Adler and Crosskey (2014), and only the most relevant synonyms used in previous checklists for Finland are listed.
Ochlerotatus (Rusticoidus) rusticus (Rossi, 1790). Dahl (1997) listed this spe- cies for Finland. here are, however, no conirmed collections ofthe species in Finland. Frey (1921) listed Aedes maculatus Meigen (with A. waterhousei heobald as a presumed synonym) from Finland. According to Natvig (1948), Meigen made a mistake in 1830 when he stated that “maculatus is the male of cantans” instead of “reptans is the male of cantans”, leading to a switch in synonyms. According to Minar (1990) the correct combinations should be as follows: maculatus Meigen is a synonym of rusticus (Rossi) and both reptans (Meigen) and waterhousei (heobald) are synonyms of cantans (Meigen). From this context, it is obvious that Frey refers to the common species cantans and not to the southern species rusticus.
Chamaemyia herbarum (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). A poorly known species. he name has been widely used for various Chamaemyia species in the past. Coe (1943) and Collin (1966) applied this name (without seeing types) to a species which may be C. subjuncorum Tanasijtshuk, 1980 (sensu Beschovski, 1995). Czerny (1936) and Tanasijtshuk (1986) listed this species as a junior synonym of Chamaemyia juncorum (Fallén). Most Finnish specimens under this name are either unidentiiable females or belong to other species, most frequently C. aestiva Tanasijtshuk, 1970, but some speci- mens probably belonging to C. herbarum R.-D. sensu Coe have been found in Finland. Minettia(?) styriaca (Strobl, 1892). his species, originally described in Sapro- myza, has traditionally been placed in Minettia. Unfortunately Strobl’s description, which was based on a single female, is rather short and unillustrated. he holotype is lost according to Chvála (2008). he Finnish and Russian material in the Finnish Mu- seum of Natural History (MZH) identiied as Minettia styriaca (see Kahanpää 2013 for data and a photograph) matches Strobl’s description, but these specimens lack the postsutural supra-alar setae found in Minettia (and many other genera).
All nomenclatorial and taxonomic adjustments (new synonyms, misidentii- cations, changed circumscriptions of species and genera) made since the appearance of Hackman’s (1980) checklist are indicated in the following, updated checklist. In agreement with Fauna Europaea the genera are listed alphabetically, as existing attempts to split thefamily into subfamilies and tribes are preliminary and in part poorly substantiated.
Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region ofthe Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance ofthe foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline ofthe Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region ofthe Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
companies of any kind, including the banking industry is not enough to just rely on internal resources and capabilities they have and implement business functions are single fighter. The success gained competitive advantage depends on the ability of companies in perceived value to customers who exceed that offered by competitors. For an industry that includes the banking industry in the creation of value to the customer and achieving superior performance must be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the type and intensity of competitive forces in the industrial environment. Increasing the strength of competition in the industrial environment both of Rivalry Among Existing sellers and new entrants will result in price competition and tighter margins obtained which will ultimately affect the performance ofthe company. Especially against the banking industry, including Islamic banking, competitive landscape facing now not only fellow Islamic banking in the country, but because the growth is very promising, also has attracted foreign banks to plunge also in the Islamic banking industry both full-pledged islamic banking and foreign commercial banks which have business units islamic window. Influential forces affecting the competitive environment on the performance of Islamic banking in particular through the introduction of new entrants of foreign banks into Islamic banking industry is evidenced by the results of research conducted by Hassan et. al. 2013). The results of research by using econometric models and using 14 samples from 24 countries who have foreign Islamic banks and Islamic banks with domestic observation period financial statements (financial statements) ofthe 149 Islamic banks domestic and foreign Islamic banks during 1996 to 2010 concluded that: In general, foreign Islamic banks as new competitors enjoy more Linggi performance in the form of net profit margin in 7 countries ofthe 24 countries sampled, but instead get the net profit margin is very low in 5 other countries. Another finding is the rate of returns (in the form of ROE and ROA) plays an important role in the decisions of foreign Islamic banks to entry into the market of Islamic banking in the country, macroeconomic conditions only act as a supporting role, considered tax policy plays a role in the decision-hostile entry decision and the presence of foreign Islamic banks, the financial crisis did not significantly affect the entry decision. Meanwhile, the analysis ofthe influence of foreign Islamic bank entry on the performance ofthe domestic Islamic banks, among others, show the profitability ofthe domestic Islamic
41. Wang WL et al. The beneit of pretreatment esophageal screening with image-enhanced endoscopy on the survival of patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(8):808-13. 42. de Monès E et al; Socéité Française de l’Otorhinolaryngologie. Initial staging of squamous cell carcinoma ofthe oral cavity, larynx and pharynx (excluding nasopharynx). Part 2: Remote extension assessment and exploration for secondary synchronous locations outside ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. 2012 SFORL guidelines. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2013;130(2):107-12.
The females G.S.I. presents two peak, the first in early winter, in January 2012, (1.15 % ± 0.66 %) and the second in the late winter, in March 2011, (1.45 % ± 0.83 %), and reached the lowest value in autumn. However, the higher values of males G.S.I. were observed in winter, in February 2012 (1.77 % ± 0.52 %), and in spring in March 2011( 1.72 % ± 1.4 %) and April 2011 ( 1.86 % ± 0.88 %) and reached the lowest value in autumn and summer. Similar findings have been reported by Hood and al., (1988) and Sullivan et al., (2003) on Conger. oceanicus and C.conger, respectively. Nevertheless, Correia et al., (2009), showed that the G. S. I. was lowest in autumn and high during winter and spring seasons. This was probably due to mobilization of somatic energy for the development of ovaries. The decline of G.S.I. from April to December 2011in female and from May 2011 to January 2012 in male may be due to the migration ofthe broodstock. Indeed, the reproduction is carried out in deep water, south-east of Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea. A spawning ground exists in the Sardinia channel at depths between 600 and, at least, 800 m in the Mediterranean Sea (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The females H.S.I. showed two pairs of peak, first in winter, in January 2012 (1.89 % ± 0.36 %) and March 2011 (1.80 % ± 0.51 %), and the second in summer, in July 2011 (1.75 % ± 0.78 %) and September 2011 (1.84 % ± 0.66 %). The summer peaks coincided with hepatic fats deposits due to intense feeding activity, probably because ofthe abundant food, useful for fish gonad maturation (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). The peaks measured in January and March was correlated with the dynamic of G. S. I. these can be explained either by the action of liver (precursor synthesis products involved in
The results of calculations ofthe areas of non-planar grain surfaces and the grain areas on the projection plane for correct and incorrect macrostructures are presented as distributions with a logarithmic width of classes in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. 7. Parameters ofthe grain size distributions in 3D and 2D spaces are presented in Table 1. A supplementary evaluation ofthe grain size consists of a calculation ofthe shape and elongation coefficients. The results ofthe calculations are presented as distributions these values in Figures 8, 9, 10 and 11, respectively, while statistical parameters are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
We designed a set of experiments for both models. Obtained results are presented in Figure 6. As can be seen only one curve, corresponding to the factor 1 f , diverges from the others, including cooling curves obtained by our model. Curves corresponding to other two factors are convergent with each other and with curve obtained by means ofthe proposed model. We noted that for both eutectic transformation modes the same correcting factor in analytical model can be used to describe eutectic structure evolution in case of hypoeutectic alloy. This implies that in order to take into account various eutectic transformation modes, there is no need to differentiate between various correction factors.
A modeling method ofthe Steinmetz equivalent diagram elements corresponding to the Eddy current losses from a single-phase transformer is proposed. The analytical calculations were carried out based on the transformer shell form. The obtained results can be employed for the calculation ofthe active loss in an electromagnetic domain of other forms such core form and toroidal form. However, the results do not include the hysteresis loss. The characteristic of alloy constituting the core is not given. Collaboration with manufacturers of sheets for the electric machines to have fuller information is necessary. A good correlation between the practical and theoretical results was verified with the proposed approach. The iron resistance and reactance are clarified analytically according to the geometrical and electromagnetic data ofthe core. Consequently, using the different powers in no load and short-circuit test, the article expressed the elements empirically given by Steinmetz. Finally, all the elements ofthe Steinmetz equivalent diagram can be calculated analytically. In the future, we expect to extend the proposed model to the larger fields of applications as electrical rotating machines modeling.
Studies have proved that structure ofthe chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device use and support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology and the results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on
on overall company evaluations‖. Murray and Vogel (1997) have investigated the effect of associated CSR practices on consumers and presented similar findings. The CSR activities mentioned in the research are, for instance, environmental protection practices (energy conservation), engagement in acts to promote human welfare, corporate social marketing (electric safety education for schoolchildren), contribution to the economic development ofthe region, and consumer protection program. Their research found that CSR programs lead to improved customer attitudes towards the firm, including beliefs about the company‘s honesty, consumer responses, and increased support for the firm in labor or government disputes. Mohr et al. (2001) conducted a consumer interview project for investigating the impact of firms‘ CSR on consumer behavior. How well are consumers aware ofthe CSR level of individual firms? Are the purchase decisions of consumers affected by a firm‘s CSR, and how much? How do consumers think about firms‘ motivation for being socially responsible? Mohr et al. (2001) found that consumers are positive to business in general. It is not wrong to pursue economic interests. Consumers expect firms to be socially responsible. The attitudes of consumers toward socially responsible firms are more positive than toward irresponsible firms. Consumers are aware that socially responsible firms are helping themselves by practicing CSR. But this perception of consumers does not harm the positive consumer evaluations toward socially responsible firms. The study of Mohr et al. (2001) is enlightening for researchers, managers and policy makers. For managers specifically, it is clear that consumers do care about a firm‘s CSR and act accordingly. Some consumers are highly ethical in
The Malaysia government is proactive in supporting and promoting ICT usage just like its Singapore counterpart. Internet usage has been found to be relatively mature in a consumer satisfactory survey conducted by the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (2004a). Four out of ten Internet users access e- government services for registration and information purposes. Further more, the World Bank has classified Malaysia as an upper-middle-income country (ITU, MCMC, 2004a). Malaysia’s Personal Computer (PC) penetration rate stood at 16.6 percent (ITU, 2004a). The cost of dial-up Internet access has been kept relatively low with subscribers being able to connect to a dial-up point of presence at local call rates (see table 2). Commercial broadband services were first launched by Time dotcom (TIME) in June 2001. At the end of 2003, there were a total of 110,247 subscribers. According to ITU 2004a, this translates to subscriber penetration rate of 0.44 percent or a household broadband penetration rate of 1.98 percent. Around 98 percent of all broadband connections are over direct exchange line (DSL).
We also run another counterfactual with a family planning demand policy in which we reduce the utility cost of abortion. This is a much harder policy to implement in real life: Besides emotional side effects after an abortion, which may be able to be mitigated through counseling or other therapeutic help, there can also be adverse physical conse- quences associated with it. Therefore, although we think it worthwhile to execute and report on the counterfactual experiment in which the utility cost of abortion is reduced to zero, we know that it would be difficult to implement in practice. However, the utility cost of abortions can also be related to the fact that abortions are largely illegal in Kenya, as well as to taboos and social stigmas, which can prevent pregnant women from seeking abortion facilities. Given that this estimated cost in our model is much higher than the cost associated with the use of modern contraceptives, it is straightforward to observe that the potential effects on reproductive behavior and the economy are stronger for a reduction in the utility cost of abortion than a reduction in the utility cost of contraceptives. The percentage of pregnancies aborted when the utility cost of abortion is set at zero doubles relative to the baseline. Given the relative price of contraceptives, we can observe that no woman would choose to use modern contraceptives to control family size. They would rely only on abortion to prevent unwanted births. The average unwanted fertility de- creases by 0.4 of a child, and moreover, it decreases for all education categories. Realized fertility decreases by 0.19 of a child, which suggests that households adjust wanted fertil- ity upward. Output per capita increases by 5 percent relative to the benchmark economy and inequality is roughly unchanged. The decomposition shows that the wanted fertility margin and the investment education margin are the key channels in driving the over- all results. 43 For obvious reasons, it is difficult to price the cost of such demand policies, which explains why we do not report the costs associated with them, as well as why we will mainly focus on supply–side reforms.
The resulting, internal database system should allow the sto- rage of all available data on materials, not just of those specified attributes that are necessary for the currently implemented model of reasoning, as at later stages ofthe system execution, other attributes may be needed as well. Hence, another optimisation problem appears: how to plan the structure of a database to, on the one hand, store as much as possible ofthe available information while, on the other, preserve data integrity and consistency, without generation of empty arrays requiring disk space allocation.
Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used on the tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface ofthe steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting ofthe surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties ofthe materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting ofthe surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
Bentonite mixtures belong and will always belong among the most widespread sand mixtures for the “green sand” technology of castings production. This technology’s essential advantage is bentonite mixtures application reversibility in the closed circulation after composition modifications and circulation losses replenishment. After the casting of a mould, the surrounding sand mixture is strained by the solidifying casting heat and bentonite degradation occurs. In case of appropriate conditions the oolitization occurs. This phenomenon is specific only for bentonite-bonded mixtures. The oolitization of opening material silica grains brings a number of negative as well as positive features with it. It is not only a technological problem but economical and ecological as well because for minimization of mixture regeneration with a help of new sand it is necessary to know bentonite mixtures quality control tools even in term ofthe oolitization rate. This paper deals with the description of undemanding physical method ofthe oolitization rate evaluation with a help of powder density assessment and its examination with actual sand mixtures which were obtained from the Czech Republic foundry plants. There are foundry plants of heavier weight castings and in one case there was an operation where bentonite mixtures regeneration was applied. Moreover, the oolitization effect on metal penetration in test castings was verified.