Top PDF Chemical Composition of Propolis from Different Regions in Java and their Cytotoxic Activity

Chemical Composition of Propolis from Different Regions in Java and their Cytotoxic Activity

Chemical Composition of Propolis from Different Regions in Java and their Cytotoxic Activity

The peak numbers in the Table 1 are given according to the retention time only to the major peaks. The following compounds were identified for the first time in propolis: 1,3-bis(trimethylsilylloxy)-5,5- proylbenzene, 3,4-dimethylthioquinoline, 4-oxo-2- thioxo-3-thiazolidinepropionic acid, D- glucofuranuronic acid, dofuranuronic acid, patchoulene and 3-quinolinecarboxamine. Four new sugar and sugar derivates have been identified: arabinofuranose, D- ribose, threitol and arabinitol. Silanol is also new compound which is found in propolis. The variability of constituents of propolis in three samples showed that they were collected by the honeybee from different plants depending on the geographic location [9] . The specific composition of plant population varies as a function of elevation, soil type and moisture. The plant population include many native and introduced species of flowering trees, shrubs and herbs [13] . The plant origin of propolis determines its chemical diversity. Bee glue′s chemical composition depends on the uniqueness of the local flora at the site of collection and thus on the geographic and climatic characteristics of this site. This fact results in the strikling diversity of propolis chemical composition, especially of propolis originating from tropical regions [1] .
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Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans- pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.
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Chemical composition of four essential oils of Eugenia from the brazilian Amazon and their cytotoxic and antioxidant activity

Chemical composition of four essential oils of Eugenia from the brazilian Amazon and their cytotoxic and antioxidant activity

and, previously, it was identified with a significant percentage in the oils of Guatteria diospyroides, G. oliviformis, and Unonopsis costaricensis. These Annonaceae oils showed remarkable cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-231 cells (human breast tumor) [39]. The germacrane group was also highlighted in the study of the essential oil of Porcelia macrocarpa, another Annonaceae species. A mixture of germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene isolated from its oil showed significant cytotoxic potential against HL-60 cells (human leukemia) [40]. As mentioned before, the oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (clove) exhibits strong cytotoxic activity in HL-60 cells [20], as well as being active against colon and melanoma cancer cells [41,42]. Thus, the results in Table 2 were compared to eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil. Interestingly, the oil of E. polystachya exhibits no activity against the normal MRC-5 fibroblast cell line, whereas the other two oils from E. flavescens and E. patrisii display the same range of cytotoxicity on HCT-116 cancer cells and in MCR-5 normal cells, what makes them suitable for further investigation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the cytotoxic activity of these oils has been reported. All tested oils did not display lytic activity against red blood cells (see Table 2).
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Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

Development and utilization of more effective antiox- idants of natural origin are desired. Naturally occurring polyphenols are expected to help reducing the risk of various life-threatening diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, due to their antioxidant activity. Propolis possesses antioxidant activity, its constituents being able to scavenge free radicals (30). On the other hand, propolis chemical composition (and hence antiox- idant activity) may vary widely according to locality, epoch of collection or simply comparing one hive with another (6). The purpose of the present study is to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of three propolis samples, each from one locality of the state of Minas Gerais (southeast Brazil). It is expected that such analyses may help understanding relationships between composition and antioxidant activ- ity. In addition, it is intended to evaluate the effects of seasonality on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of propolis samples from a same apiary collected over a period of 12 months.
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In vitro antiparasitic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves (Burceraceae)

In vitro antiparasitic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves (Burceraceae)

The promising trypanocidal activity exhibited by the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves can be justified by the following terpenes: β-caryophyllene (14.0 %), p-cymene (0.3 %), limonene (1.8 %), spathulenol (17.6 %) and caryophyllene oxide (16.4 %), as previously identified in the essential oil from different species of Lippia spp, with recognised antiparasitic activity (Escobar et al. 2010). The compound α-pinene (1.2 %), which is also found in the essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius, has recognised trypanocidal activity (Sartorelli et al. 2012). Other notable compounds identified in the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves have already had their antiparasitic activity reported by the literature are: myrcene (8.4 %), sabinene (1.8 %), terpinen-4-ol (0.4 %) and β-pinene (2.1 %) (Silva et al. 2015b). To sum up, bioactive compounds that were identified by this study in the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves may justify the promising anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities that it found.
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Rev. bras. farmacogn.  vol.22 número3

Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 número3

modern hyphened techniques, HPLC-MS, is reported for the irst time. The probably composition is comparable to molecules and compounds found in samples from other regions (Pietta et al., 2002).The exact determination of this molecular composition requires further chromatographic and spectral studies. On the other hand, the interaction between these molecules ant the cell components remains to be established. Indeed, quercetin a current compound of propolis was cited as a potential modulator of P-glycoprotein expression and function in human pancreatic carcinoma cells resistant to daunorubicin (Borska et al., 2010). BiochaninA and silymarin elso found in propolis can inhibit Pgp mediated eflux of digoxin and vinblastin in human intestinal Caco-2 cells suggesting that these molecules can icrease the bio-availability of anti-tumoral administred drugs (Zhang & Morris 2003). Furthermore, if the differential chemical composition of these two extracts may explain the different levels of sensitivity of the same cell line to these extracts, it could not explain why each extract (EEP or EAEP) exhibit a differential and selective cytotoxic effect from one cell line to another. The obtained results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of EEP and EAEP is target cell-dependent. This idea was also conirmed when we tested EEP and EAEP towards normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These experiments were performed to evaluate the side effects of these extracts. In fact, only minimal cytotoxicity against the PBMC was observed for the two studied extracts. These results are in agreement with those of Dimov et al. (1991), who reported an immune-modulmatory activity of propolis. In fact propolis exert an immune-modulatory effect on natural killer cells (Sforcin et al., 2002), and on macrophages (Scheller et al., 1989). The molecular mechanism of propolis-induced in vitro cytotoxicity is not well documented. In order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the observed cytotoxic activity of EEP and EAEP extracts, apoptosis induction experiments were performed using P815 tumor cell line. The assay results showed that treatment of these cells with EAEP induced the programmed cell death, while no apoptosis was detected in EEP-treated cells. These results suggest that EAEP may contain some components which induce apoptosis and that are absent or inactive in the EEP extract. Araujo et al. (2010), observed that the cytotoxicity of propolis ethanolic extract may be related to its chemical composition and to the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production.
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Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees

Most of the studies in the literature have investigated the antimicrobial activity of the propolis produced by Apis mellifera. However, little is known about the biological effects of the propolis produced by other bees, such as the Meliponines. Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier and Tetragonisca angustula Letreille stingless bees belong to the Meliponini tribe, and are two among more than 200 species of Brazilian native stingless bees (13). Native from tropical and subtropical regions, M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula are locally known as Mandac¸aia and Jataí, respectively. Interestingly, the propolis from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata is known as geopropolis because it presents soil traces in its com- position (14). Due to the unique behavioral and morpho- logical characteristics of these bees, one might reasonably hypothesize that the propolis produced by them has distinct composition and biological activity. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the chemical composition of the ethanolic crude extract of propolis (EEP) produced by M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and T. angustula and investigate its potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, includ- ing methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
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Rev. bras. farmacogn.  vol.17 número4

Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.17 número4

ABSTRACT: Many species of Thyme have been widely used in Moroccan folk medicine as anti-infl ammatory, antioxidant and antinociceptive agents. This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and the in vitro antitumor activity of the essential oils and various extracts of thyme species collected in different regions of Morocco. The essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, and the various extracts, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, using solvents of varying polarity, were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both major and trace components were analysed. Overall, the major constituents in the chemical composition of Moroccan thyme populations were carvacrol, thymol, borneol and p-cymene. The rate of these components can hit respectively to 85%, 42%, 59%, and 23%. Furthermore, the essential oils as well as two pure products (carvacrol and thymol) were tested for their antitumoral activity against P815 mastocytoma cell line. While all these products showed a dose dependent cytotoxic effect, the carvacrol was the most cytotoxic one compared to the others. Interestingly, when these products were tested against the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, they show a proliferative effect instead of a cytotoxic one.
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Antibacterial activity of propolis collected in different regions of Brazil

Antibacterial activity of propolis collected in different regions of Brazil

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of propolis samples from Goiás, Paraná and São Paulo States, Brazil, and their flavonoids content. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared (30g of propolis in 70% ethanol), and the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were tested. The methodology employed was agar diffusion using filter paper discs. Ampicillin and tetracycline were used as controls. Antibacterial activity was determined by the reading of inhibition zone diameters (mm) after 24 hours incubation at 37°C. Results demonstrated that EEP inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus but not that of Escherichia coli. Tetracycline and ampicillin showed an efficient action against both bacteria. Flavonoids content was variable, depending on the propolis sample. According to the results, it may be concluded that EEP showed effective action against Gram-positive bacteria, independently on their geographic origin, and a positive correlation between antibacterial activity and flavonoids content.
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Chemical composition and biological activity of oil propolis extract: an alternative to ethanolic extract.

Chemical composition and biological activity of oil propolis extract: an alternative to ethanolic extract.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF OIL PROPOLIS EXTRACT: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ETHANOLIC EXTRACT. Propolis is mostly used as hydroalcoholic extract. Recently there has been a growing number of patents dealing with new solvents for preparing propolis extracts. This study aimed to prepare edible oil propolis extracts and compare their chemical composition and biological activity with ethanolic propolis extracts. ESI-MS and spectrophotometric methods were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by diffusion in agar. Cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assay using tumor cell lines. The oil is able to extract bioactive compounds from propolis. Further studies are needed to improve extraction eficiency and to characterize the active components.
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Anti-Candida Activity and Chemical Composition of

Anti-Candida Activity and Chemical Composition of

Thus, naturally occurring products, especially those derived from the plant species, gain importance due to their availability and popular usage, which often ensures safety with regard to their toxicity. Among the plant species with therapeutic potential Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, popularly known as cinnamon is an important one. This species belongs to Lauraceae family, is native to Indonesia and cultivated in various regions of the world. Several biological properties of C. zeylanicum have been described such as antiseptic, analgesic, anti-spasmodic, astringent, insecticide and parasiticide properties (Moreira et al. 2007). Studies have shown that the essential oil obtained from its leaves has broad antimicrobial activity (Moreira et al. 2007; Khan et al. 2008). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-Candida activity and to identify the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from C. zeylanicum leaves.
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Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya.

Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya.

suitable the coating of hives just happen to have antimicrobial properties. Strong anti-microbial properties are not universal and in a survey of anti-bacterial activity of propolis from various parts of the world it was found that many samples from Sub-Saharan Africa did not have anti- bacterial properties [38] against the eight types of bacteria studied. In the current case the sam- ples from the South of Libya were less active against protozoa but did exhibit more cytotoxicity. Is this variation just random because the plant sources are varied or is it that the bees face dif- ferent environmental pressures in different regions? Considering protozoa specifically it is known that these infect insects [8] and it is also known that trypanosomatids occur in plant latexes and in fruits [39]. Thus plants also have an interest in defence against infection against protozoa and it might be expected that some plant resins would have anti-protozoal properties but obviously not all as judged from the current survey. Again a question which arises regard- ing whether or not plants from certain environments are more likely to face pressure from pro- tozoal infection? The same might be true of bacterial infection and we concluded in our earlier study that propolis from tropical areas with high rain fall and warm temperatures has the high- est anti-microbial activity [38]. Thus since nature is so interconnected it might be that bees for instance in an environment where plants do not face pressure from protozoal attack also are not susceptible to this pressure. Protozoal infection might not occur in the dry areas in the South of Libya. However, propolis is still collected by bees in these areas and this might simply be for its properties as a mechanical barrier rather to ward off infection. The propolis from the South of Libya is more cytotoxic and from the plant’s point of view this might be simply to make it unpalatable to animals. Finally there is little doubt the discovery of new anti-protozoal compounds is particularly important. There has been little development of new anti-protozoal drugs for many decades, resistance to the existing treatments has become a problem and the treatments that are used are quite toxic and often have poor bioavailability and have to be given by injection [40, 41]. Although there is a resistance to the notion of using extracts as treatments bees appear to exert a degree of quality control as judged similar activity for samples P1 and P2. Thus could propolis extracts have a role in treating these diseases at low cost and in the process encourage bee keeping?
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Activity of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis against different species of Leishmania

Activity of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis against different species of Leishmania

Propolis samples from Bulgaria and Brazil present striking differences in their chemical composition (Marcucci & Bankova 1999). In temperate zones, the main sources of propolis are bud exudates from different poplar trees (Populus spp.) and the microbicidal activity is associated with the presence of flavonoids and derivatives of caffeic acid (Kujungiev et al. 1999, Hegazi et al. 2000, Sawaya et al. 2002, Bankova 2005). On the other hand, in Tropical regions, like Brazil, other plant sources are presented to the bees, such as Araucaria, Baccharis, and Eucalyptus, leading to samples with a totally distinct composition, in which flavonoids are usually present in very small quantities and, the main bioactive compounds are phenolic acids, specific terpenoids, and prenylated derivatives (Kumazawa et al. 2003, Trusheva et al. 2004, Mishima et al. 2005, Teixeira et al. 2005, Pisco et al. 2006).The chemical composition of the three propolis extracts was established by HT-HRGC-MS (Prytzyk et al. 2003, Salomão et al. 2004). This technique, for sepa- ration of complex mixtures and identification of high molecular weight compounds, is an excellent alternative to classical analytical phytochemistry and a potent tool for the rapid evaluation of the composition of crude natural products, such as propolis (Pereira et al. 2000). Et-Blg presents a predominance of flavonoids (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, chrysin, and a series of pinobanksins) corresponding to 35.9% of the total identified area, besides aromatic acids and esters and fatty acids. Ket-Blg shares several constituents with Et- Blg, possessing, however, higher levels of monos- sacharides, and no major difference was observed between the activities of both Bulgarian extracts against the species of Leishmania assayed. The composition of Et-Bra was totally distinct from that of the other two extracts, with a very low content of flavonoids (1.1%), corresponding to pinostrobin, besides the presence of amyrins, diethyl methyl succinate, isobutylquinoline, and geranyl acetal. The higher activity of Et-Blg against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitides, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, when compared to that of Et-Bra, was previously associated with the high content of flavonoids in the Bulgarian extract (Salomão et al. 2004). In the present work, a higher effect of Et-Blg was also observed for L. amazonensis (7.8X) and L. major (6.7X). However, against L. chagasi both extracts presented similar, while for L. braziliensis Et-Bra was about three
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Própolis: teor em fenóis totais e actividades antimicrobiana e inibitória da enzima hialorunidase

Própolis: teor em fenóis totais e actividades antimicrobiana e inibitória da enzima hialorunidase

vi Nowadays a great amount of information regarding chemical and biological aspects of bee products is available in the literature, but few data on their therapeutic uses are found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic profile, the in vitro antimicrobial activity and effect in the hyaluronidase enzyme (widely related with the inflammation process) of propolis harvested in Portugal. The efficacy of three extracts (hydro-alcoholic, methanolic and aqueous) was also compared. It was chosen the hydro- alcoholic extract, because this was the most effective for extracting phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial activity was accessed in Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria and yeasts, isolated from different biological fluids and the results were then compared with the obtained for reference microorganisms. The propolis from Bragança was the one that possessed the highest polyphenols’ content. The sample from Beja showed less significant inhibition of the hyaluronidase enzyme. Concerning the antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans was the most resistant and Staphylococcus aureus the most sensitive microganism. The reference microorganisms were more sensitive than the ones isolated from biological fluids.
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Comparison between chemical composition and antioxidant activity of different extracts of green propolis.

Comparison between chemical composition and antioxidant activity of different extracts of green propolis.

COMPARISON BETWEEN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF GREEN PROPOLIS. In this work were determined the total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of twelve samples of green propolis acquired from beekeepers and other twelve commercial extracts samples from different regions of Southeast Brazil. The phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity were evaluated by the Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods, respectively. Both types of propolis showed significant radical scavenging properties. HPLC-PDA was applied for quantification of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, para-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, vanillin, hesperidin, naringenin, pinobanksin, kaempferol, Artepillin-C (4-hydroxy-3,5-diprenyl cinnamic acid), kampheride and pinostrobin. Despite the chemical composition of both in natura and commercial propolis extracts were similar the multivariate analysis allowed the discrimination between them.
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Quím. Nova  vol.30 número8

Quím. Nova vol.30 número8

The antimicrobial activity of the oil from leaves of A. suaveolens was evaluated by determining of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results are given in Table 2. The oil was active against all microorganisms tested; being that the best MIC value observed was 1.25 mg/mL for Escherichia coli and Cryptococcus neoformans. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds (linalool, β-farnesene and massoialactone) was also tested by bioautography techique. According to results showed in Table 3 was observed that the (-)-massoialactone is the more active component and appear to be the principal responsible for biological properties of the oil. This compound exhibited a more potent antibacterial activity, when compared with others isolated compounds (linalool and β-farnesene) and crude essential oil. (-)-Massoialactone exhibited antibacterial activity against S. setubal (3.12 µg), B. subtilis (3.12 µg), S. aureus (6.25 µg), S. epidermidis (6.25 µg), E. coli (6.25 µg) and P. aeruginosa (6.25 µg). The sesquiterpene β-farnesene showed activity against four microorganisms and the monoterpene linalool was active only against S. aureus (100 µg). In spite with (-)-massoialactone, this compound has been previously isolated from the bark oil of Critocarya massoia 11 and jasmine flowers 21 , is also found in the defense secretion
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Chemical Composition, Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from two Bauhinia Species

Chemical Composition, Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from two Bauhinia Species

The human tumor cell lines used in this work were HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H292 (lung carcinoma) and HEP-2 (cervical adenocarcinoma), and these cells were obtained from Rio de Janeiro Cell Bank (RJ, Brazil). Cancer cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 medium or DMEN supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM glutamine, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 g/mL streptomycin at 37 °C with 5% CO 2 . We assessed the cytotoxicity of the

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In vivo antitumoural activity and composition of an oil extract of Brazilian propolis

In vivo antitumoural activity and composition of an oil extract of Brazilian propolis

can not consume alcohol for medical reasons, such as diabetic patients. Several patents have dealt therefore with new methods or solvents besides ethanol to extract propolis (Kasuma & Kenichi, 2001a, 2001b; Namiki et al., 2005). These patents have reported the use of edible vegetable oils, triglycerides and fatty acids as extraction solvents for propolis. Data on the biological activity and chemical composition of oil extracts of propolis are, however, scarce. Tosi, Donini, Romagnoli, and Bruni (1996) evaluated the antimicrobial activity of commercial extracts of propolis prepared with different solvents including oils. They reported a wide range of antimicrobial activity for the oil extract and concluded that the solvent employed for the extraction of propolis influences the po- tency of its antimicrobial activity. We have compared antiprolifer- ative activity against the HL-60, MDAMB-435 and SF-295 cells lines of oil and ethanolic propolis extracts (Buriol et al., 2009) and found out that oil extracts were active against the tumour cell line tested showing higher anticancer potential against the SF-295 cell line.
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Simultaneous Determination Of Adjusted Ranks Of Sample Observations And Their Sums And Products

Simultaneous Determination Of Adjusted Ranks Of Sample Observations And Their Sums And Products

However, in the presence of ties in the data, equation 8 is the proper expression to use in obtaining a more efficient estimate of sum of squares of these ranks rather than equation 9, which results in an underestimate of the sum of squares or bias or underestimate of

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Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of propolis and survival curve

Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of propolis and survival curve

and human infections all over the world. It has become a significant worldwide public health problem (17). Every year, a thousand cases of Salmonella infection are reported in the United States, such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps (4). In Brazil, Salmonella contamination is very common (10).

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