The chromosomeanalysisofarsenicaffectedcattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study. The cytogenetic study on 21 arsenicaffectedcattle has allowed showing that arsenic had no significant effect on the chromosomal abnormal- ities in cattle. These results could serve as a baseline to compare the chromosomeanalysis with other toxic elements in cattle as well as in other species. The industrial pollution emitted into the environment may have a genotoxic character. Thus, cytogenetic exam- ination ofcattle may be a useful test for monitoring industrial pollution. Further studies are highly recom- mended to show the cytogenetic analysis after induc- ing arsenic on different age, sex, and breeds ofcattle at a different concentration level.
mal, laboratory expenses, professional fees, and repla- cement of dead animals (Riet-Correa & Medeiros 2001). Etiological diagnosis of poisoning episodes is often impre- cise, mainly due to the nonspecific manifestation of clinical signs. Failures in the recognition of toxic plants may also hinder diagnosis. Some poisonous plants remain toxic in hay and bales. Other toxins have a cumulative effect and, therefore, poisoning is clinically detected several weeks or months after their consumption has ceased (Odriozola et al. 1994). Furthermore, poisoning by some plants can have different clinical manifestations, depending on the category of the affected animal (Riet-Correa et al. 2013). In addition, mistakes in the administration of enteric or pa- renteral additives may cause significant mortality (Potter et al. 1984, Oliveira-Filho et al. 2010, Rivero et al. 2011a). There is limited regional information about the incidence of toxic episodes and associated losses in livestock. Here we present a retrospective study of poisonings occurring in cattle recorded by the Specialized Veterinary Diagnostic Service (SDVE) of National Institute of Agricultural Tech- nology (INTA) in Balcarce (Argentina), with the aim of es- tablishing the incidence and determining the losses gene- rated by these diseases.
Results obtained with the chromosome checks of H. rugulosus samples from the arsenicaffected and unaffected areas indicate that the diploid chromosome numbers are not different. The NOR location can describe the chromosome evolution. The H. rugulosus samples displayed terminal Ag-NOR on chromosome pair 9. In addition, Patawang et al. (2014) reported that Ag-NOR was located on the region adjacent to the centromere ofchromosome pair 9. The data report basic knowledge about H. rugulosus, and its cytogenetics will be applied to studies on breeding, conservation and chromosome evolution in this H. rugulosus. The H. rugulosus arsenic samples from the affected and unaffected areas were significantly different, and there is a significant difference in the chromosome aberrations between the affected and unaffected samples. The organisms appeared to receive less toxic pollutants and were then able to build up resistance. In addition, the average percentage ofchromosome aberrations of the H. rugulosus samples from the affected area was higher than the samples from the unaffected area. These data indicate that the chromosome aberrations were more frequent in H. rugulosus that lived for a long time in the high arsenic contamination area. However, the chromosome aberrations are not only caused by arsenic; they are also affected by other heavy metals as well as their combination and duration of exposure. The H. rugulosus living in the arsenic contaminated area needs to develop some degree of tolerance to arsenic toxicity to survive. The H. rugulosus from the affected area adapts to its habitat environment. They can endure arsenic contamination and survive in the ecosystem near the gold mine, which is a highly contaminated area. The H. rugulosus are affected by arsenic from gold mine
In this study, we performed a genome wide scan of Piedmontese cattle using a medium density chip featuring about 54K SNPs. The chip analysis clearly showed a cluster of 13 SNPs in a 0.9 Mb wide region of BTA6 significantly associated (P*,0.001) with direct calving ease. Three interesting genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase, which is responsible of the oxytocin hydrolysis [12,13]; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with foetal growth and carcass size [23,24]; LCORL, encoding for a ligand dependent nuclear receptor co-repressor- like, which affects height in humans and also controls stature in cattle in high correlation with NCAPG . In a crossbred population of beef cattle, Snelling and collaborators identified a region on BTA6 (37.96–38.53 Mb, on the Btau_4.0) associated with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits [26,27,28,29]. Four markers typed in LCORL were also found associated with carcass weight in Japanese Black steers . We considered LAP3, NCAPG and LCORL as potential positional and functional candidate genes on BTA6 for direct calving ease. Thus, we chose to enrich the SNP set in these genes to be genotyped on the population. Two out of five SNPs in NCAPG show a weak association to direct calving ease and a positive effect linked to the homozygote genotypes for the major allele (T/T in rs109570900 and C/C in rs110251642). Recently it has been shown that a polymorphism in the NCAPG gene (rs109570900, 1326T.G) is significantly associated to an increase in bovine carcass weight at puberty [24,28,33]. Only one of the 5 markers selected in LCORL (rs109572301) was significantly associated with direct calving ease. LCORL is immediately adjacent to the NCAPG gene; the LCORL/NCAPG locus has been associated with human height [25,30,31,32], with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle , and very recently with size variation in horses [34,35
The classification of African bovines into B. taurus and B. “taurindicus” by Frisch et al. (1997) was based on their karyotype, frequency of DNA markers and protein polymorphism. Boran, the eastern African Zebu, has an acrocentric Y chromosome that is typical for Bos indicus. Sanga breeds, from Southern Africa, have a submetacentric Y chromosome, which is typical for Bos taurus. The frequencies of four DNA markers support the hypothesis that Tuli, a South African Sanga, had a taurine ancestor, and that Boran had two ancestors: one taurus and the other indicus. Frequencies of several protein polymorphisms strongly suggest that the South African sangas have more in common with the taurines than with the Indian breeds, whereas the East African zebus are a mixture of African taurus and Asian indicus breeds. The introgression of genes in African animals is predominantly performed by the introduction of bulls. The detection of a zebu Y chromosome in the African livestock offers significant evidence of the introduction of zebuine genes into the populations of taurine cattle.
The synonymous c.3156C>T (p.(Gly1052 =)) variant in COL17A1 has been determined to be pathogenic by Jonsson and colleagues. After using WES to identify a missense mutation in COL17A1 that segregated with the affected phenotype in a large family with epithelial recur- rent erosion dystrophy (ERED), they reexamined the potential role of COL17A1 in chromo- some 10q23-q24 linked corneal dystrophy. Specifically, they examined whether the c.3156C>T variant could be disease-causing by altering splicing. The authors noted that three different splice site prediction programs predicted that this variant created a cryptic splice donor site. Additionally, they demonstrated using an in vitro splice assay that the c.3156C>T variant pro- duced an aberrantly spliced transcript that corresponded to the introduction of a splice donor site 54 nucleotides 5’ of the wild-type exon 46 donor site, as predicted by the splice site predic- tion programs.
The technique of Moorhead et al. (1960) was used for lymphocyte culture and chromosomeanalysis. Twenty-five metaphases from each animal were karyo- typed with standard Giemsa staining. Biological param- eters such as the size of the outer genital elements, and other phenotypic parameters such as horn, dewlap, ear, chamfer, and coat color characteristics, which could indicate racial contamination, were also analyzed.
Interval mapping: These analyses were done with the software QTL express through the site http://qtl.cap.ed. ac.uk/ (Seaton et al., 2001), using the interval mapping for multiple markers in half-sib families, as described by Knott et al. (1996). A regression model included phenotypic data and the conditional probability of inheriting the gamete from the sire. The effects of sex, month and year of birth were included in the model for the analysisof birth, wean- ing and yearling weight. The age of the cow at calving was included as a covariate. These effects were not considered when analyzing breeding values for the traits. An F test ra- tio was calculated to test the presence of a QTL at 1 cM in- tervals. Significance thresholds were obtained through the permutation test (Churchill and Doerge, 1994). The empiri- cal confidence interval for the QTL location was estimated by a bootstrap procedure (Visscher et al., 1996).
ABSTRACT - The analysisof microsporogenesis in endogamous plants of popcorn (S 5 to S 7 ) showed several and distinct interchanges which involve the nucleolus organizer (chromosome 6). The detection of cells with interchanges was facilitated by the presence of two nucleoli of different sizes in contrast to normal ones with a single big nucleolus. Interchange points do not always seem to be at the same place. Whereas in several situations the interchange point clearly involved more than two chromosome pairs, a simple terminal translocation seemed to occur in others. During diplotene, a cross-shaped configuration connected with the nucleoli was observed in some meiocytes. Some heteromorphic bivalents were found during diakinesis, after which meiosis progressed normally to the end and gave rise to apparently normal tetrads with one normal nucleolus in each microspore. Tests of pollen viability in fixed pollen grains showed 100% stainability in normal and in affected plants. This is the first report on chromosome interchanges in popcorn.
Several dog breeds are susceptible to developing primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), which suggests a genetic basis for the disease. We have identified a four-generation Basset Hound pedigree with characteristic autosomal recessive PACG that closely recapitulates PACG in humans. Our aim is to utilize gene mapping and whole exome sequencing ap- proaches to identify PACG-causing sequence variants in the Basset. Extensive clinical phe- notyping of all pedigree members was conducted. SNP-chip genotyping was carried out in 9 affected and 15 unaffected pedigree members. Two-point and multipoint linkage analyses of genome-wide SNP data were performed using Superlink-Online SNP-1.1 and a locus was mapped to chromosome 19q with a maximum LOD score of 3.24. The locus contains 12 Ensemble predicted canine genes and is syntenic to a region on chromosome 2 in the human genome. Using exome-sequencing analysis, a possibly damaging, non-synony- mous variant in the gene Nebulin (NEB) was found to segregate with PACG which alters a phylogenetically conserved Lysine residue. The association of this variants with PACG was confirmed in a secondary cohort of unrelated Basset Hounds (p = 3.4 × 10 -4 , OR = 15.3 for
A dynamical system is defined by a set of variables describing the state of the system and the laws for which the values of these variables change with respect to time. Variables can be regarded as discrete-time variables where the state of the variable can be described by a distinct set of values, or continuous variables in which any real value can be used. The option of differential equations or difference equations depends upon the time and on the state of all variables. Furthermore, it can be deterministic where the time and variable states uniquely defines the state at next time point, or it can be stochastic where the time and variable state defines the probability of how the variable values changes over time. The goal when dealing with a dynamical system is to describe and analyze the behavior of the individual variables and also of the complete system, and
Arsenic in mining areas has created an environmental problem. The presence ofarsenic in certain mining areas has been highlighted in the scientiﬁc literature by various research groups [1–5] . Arsenic is always associated with gold ores and is present in mining areas, prob- ably due to sulﬁde oxidation and the high pH range where arsenic is soluble . It has been shown that some samples of residues coming from a deposit of mining waste presented arsenic concentrations above 2500 mg kg − 1 .
Regarding healthy subjects, looking at Table 5.3 it is possible to note that, for each gait phase considered (entire gait cycle, stance phase and swing phase), both over-ground walking conditions present, in terms of activation, a large difference from the conditions performed on RAR devices. Indeed, the largest differences presented are among over-ground walking conditions and conditions performed on RAR devices. Considering the entire gait cycle, the largest difference presented corresponds to the one between the OverC and the Loko100, being the difference of 86.35 %. During stance, the largest difference corresponds to the difference between the OverC and the GT walking condition (88.32 %). During swing, the largest difference corresponds to the difference between the OverC and the Loko50 (84.12 %). These facts suggest that the activation levels produced by healthy subjects while walking on RAR devices are quite different from those produced during gait performed freely over the ground. On the other hand, looking again at Table 5.3 one can verify that the smallest differences correspond to those among walking conditions performed on RAR devices. It can be said that these differences, compared with the ones above-mentioned, are small, because none of them reaches even 25 %. In fact, considering the entire gait cycle, the difference exhibited between the Loko50 and the GT walking condition is tiny, only of 2.64 %. Considering the stance phase, the lowest difference presented has an absolute value of 12.15 % and is referent to the Loko100 and the GT walking condition. Considering the swing phase, the smallest difference displayed has an absolute value of 2.56 % and corresponds to the difference between the Loko50 and the Loko100. Besides that, looking at difference between the Loko100 and the GT walking condition, it is possible to note that the global average activation level presented by the Loko100 during the whole gait cycle, as well as during stance and swing phases, is smaller than the global average activation level presented by the GT walking condition, since all average relative differences present a negative signal. During the swing phase, Gait Trainer GT1 produces a global average activation level slightly higher than the one produced by the Lokomat exoskeleton, regardless the level of guidance chosen. In short, all these last facts suggest that, in case of healthy subjects, RAR devices produce activations levels that are quite similar among them.
The observed change in TER following arsenic exposure could be the result of physical breaks in the epithelial barrier large enough to allow large molecules to pass. Such a compromise could lend increased access of inhaled pathogens and particulate matter to tissue situated below the conducting airway epithelium and result in increased susceptibility to infection and inflammation, as observed in bronchiectasis or other arsenic-associated airway diseases. Alternatively, loss of TER could be indicative of changes in paracellular ion conductance without breaches that allow for larger proteins, particulates, or microbes to cross the epithelial barrier (reviewed in 14,15,39). Within the tight junction assembly, claudin-claudin interactions create size- and charge-selective pores that, depending on the individual claudins expressed, can increase or decrease paracellular ion passage (reviewed in 14,15). Varying heterotypic claudin interactions between adjacent airway epithelial cells can directly affect paracellular ion conductance [21,40]. Unfortunately, interpretations of how specific claudins contribute to paracellular conductance changes can be cell type specific. For example, Cl-5 is known to play a role in endothelial cell tight junctions in the blood-brain barrier and has also been shown to increase TER in transfected madin-darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) , whereas studies using airway epithelial cells show a correlation between increases in Cl-5 expression and decreases in TER [21,42]. Further, knockout studies in kidney model cell lines show Cl-4 and Cl-7 are either paracellular barriers to Na + or
All chemicals and standards used during preparation and analysis were of the highest purity analytical grade available. De-ionised water was used throughout the analysis wherever applicable. Alkalinity was determined by strong acid titration method. Calcium (Ca) was determined using the standard EDTA titrimetric methods according to APHA (1998). Zinc, Magnessium, Copper, Nickel, Cobalt, Chromium, Iron, Cadmium and Lead were determined using Varian Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (model AA 240FS). Total hardness was determined using standard EDTA titration with ammonia buffer and erichrome black ‘T’ indicator. The water samples for anion analysis were filtered using a hand operated vacuum pump equipped with a 0.45 μm cellulose acetate filter membrane. Chloride determination was undertaken using the argentometric method (APHA, 1998). Sulphate (SO 4 2- ) and phosphate (PO 4 3- ) were determined by UV
The larger the fe is, the greater the fe/fa ratio becomes; this means that, at some point, only few founders were chosen to be the parents of the next generation, which resulted in genetic bottleneck. However, according to the fe/fa ratios found in the present study, there was no genetic bottleneck, because values were equal to 1. The fg/fe ratio represents the magnitude of genetic drift, which means that the lower the fg/fe ratio is, the larger the genetic drift effect becomes. In this case, the fe is larger than fg, which shows that some sires in a given population are not used as often as others, and only those that have a larger number of progeny are capable of preserving their genome across generations. Therefore, the loss due to the unequal contribution of founders (1 - GD*), even if small, was greater than that of genetic diversity due to the genetic drift accumulated over nonfounder generations (GD* - GD) (Table 4). This shows that, in the present study, the effect of genetic drift was greater in Pt and P2, but, in general, this effect had little impact on all populations formed from the pedigree data set. When Pst and Ppt were compared, a lower fg/fe ratio was observed for Ppt, with 25% allelic loss by genetic drift, which may be explained by the greater availability of sires genetically
of the inspection was to identify known toxic plants that cause sudden death and the presence of the plant that res- pondents termed “Erva”. This “Erva” plant was identified on 41 properties in the region (Fig.1) and it was exclu- sively present on properties that border the main rivers of the municipality, namely, the Guariroba, Quebra-Dente, Diamantino and Araguaia Rivers (Fig.2). The plant was observed to infest areas next to the banks of rivers and close to riparian forests, and it was also found in areas of dense forest but in areas no more than 500 meters from the riverbanks. The respondents described that the plant can only be developed where the land is more favorable for agriculture. This visit occurred during the month of August, and there was abundant flowering and fruiting of the species incriminated by respondents as responsible for causing sudden death in cattle. No case of spontaneous poisoning was observed during the visits. Palicourea mar- cgravii, Amorimia pubiflora or other plant species known to cause sudden death in livestock were not observed du- ring these surveys and were not mentioned during the questioning.
Suppose that the subunit denoted 1 of bainitic ferrite forms without diffusion, but any excess carbon is soon rejected into the residual austenite. Consequently, all the subunits denoted 1 were formed at the early stage of transformation from austenite whose carbon concentration is initially identical to that of bulk alloy (region of upper bainite). The subunits denoted 2 and 3 were formed from enriched austenite as a consequence of carbon redistribution occurring after the growth event (region of lower bainite). The transition between these two regions is not sharply defined. There is then the possibility of the reaction beginning with the growth of upper bainite but decomposing to lower bainite from the enriched austenite at the later stages of reaction. This explains why both upper and lower bainite sometimes can be found in the same temperature.
An alternative to the use of iron salts could be the adsorption to organic compounds as proposed by Fagundes et al. (2008), who used a complex of iron-chitosan (III) for the removal of arsenate from surface waters, besides many other low-cost adsorbents as dry plants, red mud, ﬂ y ash and zeolites (Chiban et al. 2012). Furthermore considering the chitin constitution of cladocerans carapace, the toxicity ofarsenic may be enhanced by adsorption of this ametal to exoskeleton of test organisms, and iron could increase this adsorption, although some authors associate the metal adsorption to limestone from carapace (Tsui and Wang 2007).
Circular dichroism (CD) (190–265 nm) spectra of WT- hAS3MT and hAS3MT mutants were recorded with a JASCO- J810 Spectropolarimeter (Jasco Co., Japan) with a 1 mm cell and 10 mm light length at a scanning rate of 50 nm/min. Each spectrum represents the average of three accumulations recorded per mutant protein solution (2 mM in 25 mM PBS, pH 7.0) and the secondary structure parameters of the mutants were calculated using Jwsse32 software with reference CD-Yang. jwr . Baseline correction was automatically carried out with the PBS (25 mM, Figure 1. Sequence alignment of AS3MTs from various species. Sequence are denoted by NCBI gi number, which contain NP_065733.2 (Homo sapiens), NP_065602.2 (Mus musculus), XP_508007.2 (Pan troglodytes), NP_543166.1 (Rattus norvegicus), XP_001113391.2 (Macaca mulatta), XP_003409193.1 (Loxodonta Africana), XP_001916919.2 (Equus caballus), DAA14779.1 (Bos taurus), AEJ84245.1 (capra hircus), XP_003359405.1 (Sus scrofa), XP_002913939.1 (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), XP_421735.3 (Gallus gallus), NP_001135714 (Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis), NP_001139863 (Salmo salar) and 4FS8 (Cyanidioschyzon merolae). The conserved residues are marked in red and the residues Cys32, Cys61, Cys85, Cys156, and Cys206 in hAS3MT are marked with their residue numbers.