Tourism is a competitive industry, even on a global scale. If access to a destination or attraction is too complicated, time consuming, expensive or not providing adequate capacity, even the most spectacular attraction will remain a secret to most tourists, as they will prefer competitive alternatives” (Smiths, 2003). And to continue this, it is considered that „that cultural differences and uniqueness are important if one wants cultural products to become a commercial success” (Lindenberg, 2004). When cultural tourists are looking to experiment or to improve their knowledge, the question is: “Which are the best strategies and practices to market that experience and knowledge for the cultural tourists” (Kantanen, 2005).
Cities offer substantial amounts of space to be consumed by tourists who visit urban destinations (Gospodini, 2001). Besides serving as gateways and staging areas to a region or country, cities like Paris, London, and Tokyo offer a wide range of attractions (Inskeep, 1991). A city can be considered as having a core product (Bonita, 2006) and different products for its visitors, including a variety of activities and experiences (England Research, 2005) like museums, theaters, historic places, architecture, and shopping (Inskeep, 1991; Gospodini, 2001). Meanwhile, as cited from Valdez (2000), the urban tourist products as defined by Jansen-Verbeke (1988) are historic buildings, urban landscapes, museums and art galleries, theaters, sports, and events. She classified the elements of urban tourism as ‘primary elements’ such as cultural facilities, physical characteristics, sports and amusement facilities, and socio-cultural features; ‘secondary elements’ such as hotel and catering facilities and markets; and ‘additional elements’ including accessibility, parking, information offices, signposts guides, maps, and others (Figure 1).
Baby Boomers are those individuals who were born after World War II (Patterson, Sie, Balderas- Cejudo, & Rivera-Hernae, 2017). They represent a generation influenced by Western industry, by new consumer tendencies and fast social changes (Katz, 2017). That context shaped new lifestyles and a rebellious youth culture at that time. These individuals are an example of how sociocultural changes affect behaviours and mentalities. Baby Boomers grew up in a world of fast industrial and technological progress and are frequently part of work contexts that include three and four generations (Perfect Labor Storm, 2016). They are competitive, committed, loyal, materialistic, and strive to achieve self-fulfilment (Devaney, 2015). They do not feel "old" and do not recognize their real age (Forbes, 2014). Their perception of the world, their habits and preferences are not those one would expect from such an age group (Perfect Labor Storm, 2016). Due to the aging of the world’s population, they have become the largest generational group and one of the fastest growing tourist segments (Li, Li, & Hudson, 2013). Baby Boomers or “Silver Hair Tourists”, according to the Tourism Megatrends Report terminology, usually travel with their cohorts or alone, have higher financial power, a good health, less domestic responsibilities and more free time (Horwath, 2015). Boomers try to take advantage of all the pleasures of life (Shevchenko, 2013), so they are curious about trying new things (Creative Marketing Alliance, INC, 2018). Online information sources are not their primary option. Some still maintain traditional habits such as looking for travel agencies to plan their trips. These tourists are usually loyal customers. Generally, they visit the same destination and travel with the same airline companies. On vacation, Baby Boomers want to relax and spend time with their families. “Silver Hair Tourists” have the desire to travel; yet, they have some concerns, like the cost of the trip or issues related with health and safety. In some cases, being in control of the planning of their journeys or being able to solve unexpected problems leads to a sense of self-fulfilment that is quite evident in the way they share their stories. Although they clearly show a preference for familiar places, they show interest in living memorable experiences. Therefore, these features will directly affect their travel choices. It seems that the image of comfort and safety attached to a destination will be more attractive to this group, but, on the other hand, they also seem to favour a certain level of independence and adventure (Patterson et al., 2017).
Tourism has become one of the most important sec- tors of the global economy (Ferreira, Rial and Varela, 2009). According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2009), in 2008, the number of international tourist arrivals came to 924 million, representing an in- crease of 2% (16 million) compared to 2007. Revenues increased to 642 billion Euros in 2008, i.e., an increase of 1.7% compared to 2007. However, the results of 2009 worsened due to the international crisis (Rial, Ferreira and Varela, 2009). Thus, every effort should be made to achieve sustainable growth for tourism. In this con- text, special attention has to be paid to the study and assessment of brand image or destinationimage (in the context of tourism) because it is one of the most impor- tant elements of a tourist destination.
A full -length film reaches millions of people and has the pow- er of defining, extolling, degrading or even destroying the image of a place. Although it is important to reach a consensus among all of the participants when planning marketing activities, places look- ing to gain notoriety will find that encouraging local cinema produc- ers and seducing movie companies to shoot in their communities will increase their profile (Kotler et al., 2007). These authors recommend, in the case of Latin -American and Caribbean countries (LAC), that they nourish and financially support directors such as Iñárritu in or- der to be sure that the region is portrayed correctly and precisely in the cinema world. This director, with his blockbuster Amores Perros, por- trays Mexico City as a complex cosmopolitan city fighting against the pressures of a modern society.
1) Tourism in Georgian is trying to follow main streams of the European promotional video making standards, although the targeted groups are not well identified by age. In most of the videos we see young people between 25-35 years, while Tourism Board statistics 12 clearly show that most of the foreign citizens, who crossed Georgian border, were between 35-45 years old. My own destinationimage survey (2011) deals with tourists, most of them between (45-65) years old. Hence, at least may be con- cluded: the addressed and the attained age segment of tourists to Georgia differ sub- stantially, as targeted promotional groups. Given the evident discrepancy between im- agined and reached groups, since the promotion aims at a far younger age segment than the reality proves to be, the question may be raised: Is this a consequence of lack of research, or is it an intended political decision for the future of the country?
Similarly to other sectors of the economy, also the tourism industry is facing increasing global competition since the developing countries are attracting still more and more tourists. Due to this still increasing competition, Europe must offer sustainable and quality tourism. Moreover, the European countries shall exploit comparative advantages, in particular, the variety of landscapes and extraordinary cultural wealth that is hidden in Europe. Europe ought to intensificate the cooperation with those countries whose population can be seen as a major source of visitors to European destinations after their standard of living will increase. 5 At this point, it is important to emphasize that Europe remains the largest generating and at the same time receiving tourism market with more than 50% of total world tourist arrivals and revenues from inbound tourism.
So as to fulfil these objectives, a qualitative methodology approach was chosen to be engaged in this study. Within this approach, three methods of data collection were identified as most suitable and practical to conduct, these being the critical examination and analysis of a particular case study – UNESCO World Heritage Site of Oporto city –, content analysis of the existing material concerning the mentioned case study, and semi-structured interviews conducted at the Site. The case study of UNESCO World Heritage Site of Oporto served as a practical application of the reviewed literature on governance. The content analysis of strategic and management reports, manuals and plans led to a clearer understanding of the governmental and organizational structure of the Site. And, lastly, the semi-structured interviews with the representatives of governing entities served as a final step towards the comprehension of governing and decision- making structure of the Site, these entities being Porto VIVO SRU – Sociedade de Reabilitação Urbana (Society for Urban Rehabilitation) and the Tourism Department and the Department of Culture of the Oporto City Council.
Through this research, targets’ profiles were identified, together with their perceptions on the city and its tourism. Most of the locals’ / resident’s respondents admitted not only that they feel they belong to the city of Aveiro, but also that they are proud of their city. The majority identified city’s adjectives were related to the cityimage and city personality, which shows the importance of the concepts to the branding of a city. This sample also considered that the city of Aveiro is both well- developed and in development, being therefore able to welcome more tourists, as the city is growing and developing a strategy for the future. Considering the tourists’ sample travel tendencies, most of them were not visiting Aveiro for the first time. On the current trip, most of them were doing a day trip and others a 2-3 days trip, being most of them traveling on leisure, by their personal car and stayed either in a hotel or a rented apartment. Most of them admitted that their expectations were meet and that they would recommend to others. On the city’s characteristics, most of them agreed that Aveiro has a rich history & cultural heritage, rich gastronomy, a pleasant climate, pleasant gardens and green areas, is easy to access from outside to the city, it is not difficult to circulate in the city and is a safe city. Related to the city’s personality, they have identified Aveiro as unique and cool.
It is noteworthy that the people who live in this region have the same culture and they established stores which sell Italian goods and products and opened Italian restaurants offering Italian cuisine. Therefore, there is a little Italy in the middle of a modern city of America. This lifestyle has bit- tersweet experiences for residents. These urban neighbourhoods show people who never lived in their ancestral lands, but have preserved their cul- tural components. These groups are recognized as the minority in a city. The Jews living in New York’s Historic Little Italy make this region no- table as a destination that shows the lifestyle of religious minorities and is also known as a ghetto of America (Conforti, 1996).
For Echtner and Ritchie (2003), imagery is based and interrelated with image, which is the result of a more holistic way of interpreting reality and information gleaned from different sources. This interpretation and conceptions deriving from imagery may be a significant influence on the choices and decisions that consumers make (Lee and Gretzel, 2012) which, on the other hand, impact on expectations, emotions, experience and satisfaction (MacInnis and Price, 1990). In Gover’s (2005) study, words can integrate one, or all of the 5 senses. These images can result from organic (Gunn, 1972) or induced sources (Pan and Li, 2011), and can be disseminated through several ways, such as, webpages, blogs, television, books or brochures. Another relevant aspect of the imagery construct is that it results from consumers’ images generated from a previous experience (Adams, 2004). Moreover, consumers’ experience may positively or negatively affect the outcomes of the expectations arising from the imaginary process (MacInnis and Price, 1990).
to diversify the destination supply, depending on the product sun and sand (Aguiló, Alegre & Sard, 2007; Ritchie & Crouch, 2000). Therefore, it verifies that the present study also confirms the strategic guideline suggested by the “Strategic Plan of Lagos”, based on the cultural im- portance of the “discoveries” and the connection of Lagos to the sea. The model of analysis of this study was the involvement of two tourist and resident stakeholders needed to develop a solid branding strategy for destinations. In relation to this concern, there are some limitations associated with this study. First, the analysis was limited only to the referred stakeholders and does not cover other stakeholders involved in the study of destinationimage, such as investors, traders, hotels, restaurants, business people, and tourisiers (Jafari, 1987), local powers and tourists in general. The application of the questionnaires during the month of August, considered high season of tourism in the Algarve, it is also a limitation, showing mainly a seasonal perspective (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999). Recognizing the need of a more com- prehensive and participatory implementation with the cooperation of host community, public and private sectors, it becomes important to extend the study to the destination’s identity and its image conveyed by the media. The methodological value of this study is based mainly on its potential as a reference tool to improve the process of strategic decision-making for destination development.
This study analyzes the construction of the image of the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) as a tourist destination through advertisements (pos- ters) involving four airline companies that offered flights to the city in the twentieth century (Va- rig, Pan American Airways, Panair do Brasil and Air France, the last one still flies to Brazil). For this purpose, five posters were selected for analy- sis of verbal and visual language, seeking to iden- tify the main feelings and meanings contained in them. The city of Rio de Janeiro was chosen be- cause it is a traditional international tourist des- tination, a fact partly due to air transport. The city has been through a substantial transforma- tion, prompted mainly by sports mega-events: the FIFA World Cup, hosted by Brazil in 2014, and the Olympic Games and Paralympics, hosted by the city in 2016. Among other improvements, these are serving as impetus for modernization and expansion of Rio de Janeiro International Air- port (SBGL/GIG), better known as Galeão Air- port. Therefore, understanding the role air trans- port played in establishing Rio de Janeiro as an international tourist destination, especially by me- ans of the images projected through advertising involving airlines that offered flights to the city, is an opportunity to better understand the important ties between the various components of the tourist industry. The study is exploratory and descriptive, with a qualitative nature. From a methodological standpoint, the literature and original documents, selected texts and images in books and various websites were surveyed. The article is organized in four sections besides this introduction.
Song et al. (2012) argued that the particular characteristics of the tourism industry call for new perspectives and approaches, stating that demand analysis continued to dominate economic studies of tourism in articles published until 2011. Complementing the literature reviews performed by Song and Li (2008), Goh and Law (2011) and Song et al. (2012), the present review sought to identify the type of data used (i.e. daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or annual data). It also focused on the time window, type of destination analysed (i.e. country, region, city or other) and methodology (i.e. studies that model tourism demand or its volatility or that make forecasts). Other aspects, concentrated on, in this review, were variables used in models, journals that have published articles on tourism demand modelling - based on CiteScore 1 , SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2 and Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 3 - and the authors that do research on this topic.
It is suggested that destinationimage encompasses three interrelated components – cognitive, affective, and conative (Gartner, 1993). The cognitive component relates to the beliefs and knowledge someone has about a destination; the affective component refers to someone’s feelings toward a destination; and the conative or action component refers to the behavioral intentions toward a destination (Gartner, 1993, Pike & Ryan, 2004). Researchers agree that the cognitive and the affective components are important in shaping a destination’s image (Fakery & Crompton, 1991; Gartner, 1993; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999, Beerli & Martin, 2004a; San Martín & Rodríguez del Bosque, 2007), and that the affective component is subsequent to the cognitive component (Stern & Krakover, 1993; Beerli & Martin, 2004a). The majority of previous studies have focused on the cognitive component of destinationimage (Hunt, 1975; Goodrich, 1978; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Echtner & Ritchie, 1993; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Beerli & Martin, 2004; Pike & Ryan, 2004; Grosspietsch, 2006; Stepchenkova & Morrison, 2006; Govers et al., 2007; Qu et al., 2011; Stylos & Andronikidis, 2013). Other researchers have recognized the importance of the affective component when studying destinationimage (Echtner & Ritchie, 1991; Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997; Walmsley & Young, 1998, Baloglu & McCleary, 1999). According to Tasci et al. (2007), the subjective nature of the affective component is the main reason why it has not been studied as widely as the objective component. It has, however, been found that the affective component has a significant influence on a person’s evaluation and selection of a tourismdestination (Yuksel & Akgul, 2007). These findings indicate that the affective component is important in conceptualizing and evaluating a destination’s image, and, thus, should be used in conjunction with the cognitive component. Furthermore, the conative component has not been widely used and studied. Tasci et al. (2007), however, argue that the behavior component is significant in conceptualizing destinationimage, and thus the researchers developed an interactive system of image components that incorporates all three components – cognitive, affective, and conative.
Since the 1970s, destinationimage has been widely studied in view of its practical implications for management, marketing and branding (Stepchenkova and Mills, 2010). In this context, destinationimage has been identified as influencing destination loyalty, as well as tourist behaviour before, during and after a visit (Beerli and Martín, 2004; Bigné, Sánchez and Sánchez, 2001; Bosque, Martín, Collado and Salmones, 2009; Galí and Donaire, 2005; Hunt, 1975). In addition, destination loyalty has been studied through analyses of intention to revisit and, more recently, also through recommendation intentions (Bosque and Martín, 2008a; Chen and Gursoy, 2001; Dann, 1996; Gartner, 1993; Konecnik and Gartner, 2007; Pike and Ryan, 2004; Stepchenkova and Mills, 2010). Nevertheless, although the decision-makers are attempting to develop a favourable global image of their destinations, focusing on revisits, there are other factors to take into account with regard to tourists‟ decision to return to a destination, which can lead to a different choice of holiday location (Bigné et al., 2009; Konecnik and Gartner, 2007; Stepchenkova and Mills, 2010; Zauberman, Ratner and Kim, 2009). Thus, several authors have referred to „willingness to recommend the destination‟ as a better indicator with which to assess destination loyalty (Chen, 2003; Chen and Gursoy, 2001). Indeed, regardless of whether or not they revisit a destination themselves, tourists can recommend the destination to their family and friends. Furthermore, the literature points to this variable as the most credible informative agent in the process of choosing a holiday destination. In this sense, research should focus on the features of a destination which explain recommendation behaviour (Bigné et al., 2009; Chen, 2003; Chen and Gursoy, 2001; Pike and Ryan, 2004; Simpson and Siguaw, 2008; Vassiliadis, 2008). Thereby, this research aims to identify, from a tourism perspective, the contribution of the image of the municipality of Lagos in the Algarve region, the Portuguese tourismdestination with the largest number of overnights stays, to how likely tourists are to recommend it to relatives and friends. In accordance with the stated objective, this study proposes three research questions:
Destinationimage has been one of the key areas of tourism research for more than four decades (Svetlana & Juline, 2010). Image is deined as “the people feelings of anything that they aware” (Boulding, 1956). Image is deined as “people hold are a way of organizing the different stimuli received on a daily basis and help make sense of the world in which we live” (Mayo, 1973). Destinationimage is deined as “an expression of knowledge, impressions, pre- judices, imaginations and emotional thoughts an individual has of a speciic place” (Lawson and Baud Bovy, 1977). Image further deined as “the sum of beliefs, impressions, ideas and percep- tions that people hold of objects, behaviors and events” (Crompton, 1979). Destinationimage deined as “the overall perception of the desti- nation that is formed by processing information from various sources over time” (Assael, 1984). Ideas or perceptions held individually or collec- tively about a destination by people (Embacher & Buttle, 1989). Image deined “as the sum of beliefs, attitudes, impressions that a person or group has of an object and impressions may be true or false, real or imagined” (Barich and Kotler 1991). Image is deined as “an internali- sed, conceptualised and personalized understan- ding of what one knows” (Ahmed, 1996). Des- tination image is deined as “the perception of groups of people” (Jenkins, 1999). “Perceptions or impressions of a destination held by tourists with respect to the expected beneit or consump- tion values” (Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000). Tota- lity of impressions, beliefs, ideas, expectations,
28 In the Reviews table no outliers were detected when analyzing interval and class type data. Although, a different problem arose: Data regarding customer profile is not standardized. In other words, the variables “City”, “Country”, “Description”, “State”, “School” and “Work” are displayed in an unstructured manner, e.g., in the variable “Country” one could see as values “I am from Portugal”, “Portuguese” or “I live in a city close to Lisbon” (illustrative examples only), even though it is clear all these three observations would have a common country of origin: Portugal. In order to parse this data from the text entries a Python script was developed using the libraries Pandas and Geograpy. Geograpy is a library developed using the NLTK library (Natural Language Processing Toolkit) with the goal of detecting locations and languages from a text and convert it to a dictionary containing the data encountered. If the algorithm detects a city in the text, it will return the city, region and the country associated to it (as a dictionary or list of dictionaries when more than one city/region/country is detected).
2.2.5)To open a franchising pastry of Pastéis de Nata in China, in a tier one city (e.g. Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Macau). The store could be decorated with products typical from Portugal (tiles, porcelain pieces, “xailes”, Portuguese guitars, photos of Portugal and of Torre de Belém, etc.) and could have Portuguese music playing. In addition, thematic events could be hosted in the pastry, about the Portuguese culture (Fado concerts, conferences, book launches, autograph sessions of famous football players, etc.) to educate Chinese people about our culture and to create buzz about this destination. The retailer “Nata Lisboa” could be the one expanding to China (appendix 51).
9 Buhalis ’ work (2000) was definitely a milestone in this line of thinking by providing a comprehensive framework for destination marketing due to the complexity of relationships of local stakeholders. According to him, when marketing a destination marketers should first analyse and understand the type of destination (e.g. urban, rural, alpine or lake tourism in the case of this thesis), and also appreciate the stage of development in terms of the life cycle concept. In the case of lakes as a part of a destination product, the geographical location of a lake is of utmost importance for the tourism development process. There are lakes located near mountains (e.g. Switzerland, Northern Italy), others located in distant islands (e.g. Iceland), others that cross different countries (e.g. the Great Lakes), a single lake (Lake Balaton in Hungary) or a Lake District (in the UK), which means that different types of lakes will require different types of strategies for tourism development. The lake is seen as the nuclear resource of the destination that might be seen as a driving force for the development of other tourism products (gastronomy, culture, nature, among others) depending on the characteristics of the territory where the lake is located. In fact, there are lakes which are well positioned are tourism destinations in the global market; others are only the lake itself, as the natural resource, but without yet having a well-developed supply and organizational component. For that reason, the life cycle of Butler (1980) is considered by Buhalis (2000) as a guide for strategic planning when marketing a destination. The destinations are totally in different stages of the life cycle. Yet, it is framed by the rationale that tourism in general and destination in particular is a distinctive product that needs to entirely apprehend that perceptions and image are important elements to be considered in any tourism development process (Morgan and Pritchard, 1998). Destinationimage was then recognized as an important subfield of destination marketing as the next section will detail.