regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most fre- quent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12–55%), lungs (19–55.5%), liver (10–60%), and bones (3–10%). The first line therapy in stage IV metas- tatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC) dimethyl-triazeno- imidozole-carboxamide in 61–93% ofthe patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease) was achieved in 25.7% ofthe patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% ofthe patients treated with the sec- ond line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months). More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large un- met need for the new treatment options for metastatic mela- noma inSerbia. The development of national guidelines, and greater involvement in international clinical studies could lead to widening oftreatment options for this chemotherapy resis- tant disease.
Introduction: There is scarce data on the clinical profile of adult Brazilian patients with nephrotic syndrome caused by minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Objective: We evaluated the clinical characteristicsand response to treatmentin adult patients with nephrotic syndrome having a histological diagnosisof MCD or FSGS. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 50 patients with MCD and 120 with FSGS. All patients were initially treated with steroids. Thestudy outcomes were: steroid responsiveness, prevalence of total remission, progression to chronic renal failure and need of renal replacement therapy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Results: Initial serum creatinine level was 24% higher among patients with FSGS (p = 0.02), and proteinuria levels were 36% higher in MCD (p < 0.001). Patients with MCD were sensitive to steroid therapy in 80% ofthe cases, with total remission in 74%, while patients with FSGS were sensitive in 58% (p = 0.01), with total remission in 30% (p = 0.002). Patients with FSGS had an acute renal failure prevalence of 39% (vs. 12%, p = 0.013) and ESRD of 10% (vs. 0%, p < 0.001). Steroid responsiveness reduced in 83% the risk of ESRD (p < 0.001), while total remission was associated to a reduction in risk of 89% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A positive response to steroid therapy was the most important factor related with preservation of renal function and FSGS was related with less steroid responsiveness.
retinoblastoma increase the risk for cutaneous melanoma. In a recent meta-analysis, the pres- ence of familial aggregation ofmelanoma is estimated to account for 1.3–15.8% ofmelanoma cases, depending on the series andthe countries studied . Approximately 25% of these famil- ial cases can be explained by germline mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), the most frequent gene mutated in familial melanoma, revealing that the genetic explanation for the majority of cases remains elusive [2,3]. Patients with CDKN2A mutations have a high risk of developing melanoma, as well as other tumors, the most common of which is pancreatic cancer . Genetic counseling for these patients is under debate, since the real im- pact of prevention or early diagnosis remains unclear [5,6]
Of interest is the reported association between MND and specific tumours, in particular melanoma [29,39]. We found a history ofmelanoma was not associated with SMND in an Australian population. Our findings are consistent with register studies from Sweden  andthe USA  that found no melanoma-SMND association. In contrast, a joint USA-Australian studyof post-melanoma survival found increased mortality due to MND and Parkinson’s disease , and survivors ofmelanoma were also found to have an increased risk of MND in another USA population . However, these two studies could not define the temporal relationship between MND andmelanomadiagnosis. This raises the possibility that the positive associations may have been due to a short-term increase in medical surveillance immediately after melanomadiagnosis. While a detailed temporal analysis was not possible in our study, all but one of our SMND diagnoses were made greater than five years after melanomadiagnosis, so here any association would be long term. An association between neurodegenerative disorders andmelanoma does, however, remain plausible. Riluzole, a drug used inthetreatmentof ALS, has been proposed as an anti-melanoma agent , suggesting a biochemical link between the two diseases. An increased risk of Parkinson’s disease after melanomadiagnosis has been described [49,50] and is thought to occur due to increased alpha-synuclein expression in melanocytic lesions [51–53] that may interact with cell cycle regulators . Alpha-synuclein has been detected in MND animal models  and human spinal cords , making a similar mechanism in SMND possible. The relationship between MND andmelanoma therefore requires greater exploration, with larger population sizes and accurate analysis of temporal relationships.
The patients included inthestudy had a histopathological diagnosisof cutaneous melanomaand were seen at Hospital Erasto Gaertner, where they underwent surgical treatmentinthe period between January 2008 and December 2013. Patients with the diag- nosis of primary cutaneous melanoma who were surgically treated in other institution, and patients with ocular or mucosal melanoma were excluded, as well as those with insufficient information avail- able for the analysis ofthe main variables in their files.
At the Foundrys of Drawski M łyn and “WSK–Rzeszów” Metallurgical Plant in Rzeszów, a special technique ofthe nodularising (or vermicularising ) treatment was implemented. It was based on the use of cored wires, one cored with magnesium, and another with inoculant.
Some targeted therapies that have been approved and made available inthe private health system in Brazil for several years still have limited access inthe Brazilian Public Health System. Some examples are trastuzumab for metastatic Her2+ breast cancer; erlotinib and gefitinib for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated metastatic lung cancer; cetuximab and panitumumab for RAS-wild type metastatic colorectal cancer, in addition to several treatments used in hematological malignancies, which are not thefocusof this report. Some other targeted treatments have been available for several years in North America and/or Europe, but they are still not registered in Brazil. Examples are aflibercept for colorectal cancer, pazopanib and trabectedine for soft tissue sarcomas, and axitinib for renal cell carcinoma.
Based on the objectives to be achieved and problems that have been formulated, the method used is juridical- sociological. The juridical approach is intended to explore andstudythe legislation as a basis for a research, while the sociological approach is intended to explore the factors and impacts incurred from the occurrence of border-area dispute and solution by the government. The specifications of this research are normative law called also as doctrinal research. A site was chosen by researcher to conduct a research is a government agency that includes the Navy (Department of Hydro-Oceanographic) related to the sea boundaries ofthe Republic of Indonesia and neighboring countries, local governments, especially inthe leading islands border to the Republic of Indonesia related to culture, security, politics and thinking about the area/island they occupy, as a part ofthe Unitary ofthe Republic of Indonesia. The population is all research objects to be researched. In this research, the population is Navy andthe relevant agencies involved inthe security of sea area. The samples were chosen to be a material of research is the bearer ofthe security function in marine areas through the random system and interviews with relevant parties, such as Bakorkamla and community.
Women also provide most ofthe labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities inthe rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions ofthe farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective ofthestudy is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristicsofthe respondents andthe difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
The case series of non-melanoma skin cancers examined in this study showed epidemiological results similar to those found inthe literature. Presumably, the encountered varia- tions are due to the different proile ofthe patients analy - zed andthe fact that we excluded patients who underwent outpatient resection, which are simpler cases that may be frequently reported inthe literature. The predominance of BCC and female gender in cancer development was detected among the patients evaluated – observations that relect the current tendency of this tumor.
Optimisation ofthe turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations ofthe sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques ofthe system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristicsof turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.
The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes inthe biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas inthe contralateral eye it disclosed, inthe temporal sector ofthe macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability ofthe lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanomaand nevus), congenital or ia trogenic hyperplasia ofthe retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and particularly ver sus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner’s syndrome. Keywords: Pigment epithelium of eye/pathology; Retinal diseases/congeni tal; Ma cula lutea; Visual acuity; Eye neoplasms/pathology; Humans; Female; Child; Ca se report
This study demonstrated an exophytic lesion with a lobulated contour, arising from the anterior and lateral wall ofthe lower third ofthe vagina. The lesion showed homogeneous intermediate signal intensity - slightly higher than muscle - and a small high signal intensity spot on T1-WI (Fig.1). On T2-WI the lesion showed homogeneous intermediate/high signal intensity - higher than muscle, lower than fat (Figs.2-4). On T2-WI it is also possible to observe invasion ofthe inferior segment ofthe urethra (Fig.4). After the administration of gadolinium the tumour shows homogeneous
The tool steels consistute a very important group of materials used for the production, not only tools, but also machine ele- ments, that need to have the increased strength, for example the high-speed steels are used on the rolling bearing operating in high temperatures . Modern technologies such as: laser treatment, electron treatment, CVD, PVD methods, give the possibility of forming the structure ofthe surface layer of steels providing the demaded properties. The economic factors direct research in using the plasma ofthe electric arc for shaping the surface layer ofthe machine elements and tools. Advantages of that method are the possibilities of receiving wider treated areas with one stream ofthe heat in comparison with the laser technologies or electron
where is a set of linear restrictions that transforms the unrestricted model (1) on restricted model (2). 8 In our case, the restriction implies that the age, trend and (orthogonal) time dummies are sufficient to explain the behavior of each estimated statistic order across cells and over time. Imposing the restrictions means estimating weighted least squares regressions on the grouped data, for each quantile and education group separately. This procedure will give us consistent estimates of . Under the null that the restrictions are valid, the minimized value follows a chi-square distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of restrictions. In order to construct the test statistics, we only have to sum up the weighted squared residuals, that is, the estimated percentiles minus the predicted values minus the orthogonal time dummies.
use of only one peptide. The presence of both antigens inthe same NP, and consequently, inthe same APC, could induce competition to the MHC class I complexes (437). However, when the antigens are carried by different NPs, the chances that they are processed by different APCs increase, and a stronger antitumor immune response was induced. This information might contribute to the successful design of effective particulate vaccines inthe future. The present research also took insight on the impact of combining MHC class I- and class II-restricted peptides inthe immunization regimens. Even that the induction of CTLs is the primary goal in antitumor immunization, it is well established that CD8 + lymphocytes can fail to maintain functionality inthe absence of CD4 + T helper cells (193). As so, it would make sense to combine both types of antigens in an attempt to activate both CD8 + and CD4 + T cells. However, there are very few studies combining MHC class I- and class II-restricted peptides for antitumor immunization, probably due to the late identification of MHC class II- restricted tumor peptides (451). Surprisingly, Phan G. (2003) and coworkers verified that the addition ofthe class II peptide appeared to decrease immunologic response of circulating PBMC to the class I-restricted peptide (452). The authors hypothesized that this unexpected result could have involved increased CD4 + CD25 + Treg activity, a possible increased apoptosis of activated CD8 + T cells, the trafficking of sensitized CD8 + reactive cells out ofthe peripheral blood or even bias inthe sequential, nonrandomized nature of patient enrollment. It has also been demonstrated that the peptide Melan-A:26-35(27L) could elicit peptide-specific CTLs inthe absence of a Th peptide due to its increased immunogenicity resultant from the single aminoacid modification (453). However, it remained to be proven if the presence of a Th peptide would not further improve the immune response obtained. The present research demonstrates that mice immunized with a combination of NPs containing either the MHC class I-restricted peptide Melan-A:26-35(27L) either the MHC class II-restricted peptide gp100:44-59 (man-NP[M+P+C] + man-NP[G 44 +P+C]) had a very significant reduction ofthe
initiation. When quantifying outcomes for these cases which died inthe first year, our model assumes that they remained in stable disease for the average time to response then spent half of their remaining time alive in a partial response state andthe other half in a progressive disease state. For the strategy of vemurafenib followed by ipilimumab, our model assumes that 100% of patients who progressed with no response to the initial therapy would switch, and 66% of patients who had an initial response but eventually progressed would switch at the time of progression. For patients who switched treatments, we assumed they switched at the first time progression was identified. We calculated outcomes after switching to ipilimumab in a second similar tree of paths following ipilimumab administration (Figure 2). The tree divides patients with no objective response between those who progressed within one year, and those who did not. We quantified outcomes for patients with no response or progression assuming they were in a stable disease state for the first year oftreatment. We divided the patients who progressed without initial response similarly to those who progressed after response, adding an additional category of cases that died within the first three months oftreatment. To quantify outcomes for these patients, we assumed they stayed in a stable disease state for the average time to progression reported in trials, and then spent the rest of their lives in a progressive disease state. For patients who lived less than the average time to progression, we assumed they spent half of their lives inthe stable disease state and half in a progressive disease state. For clinical outcomes which were not explicitly divided between disease-state groups inthe outcomes reported inthe trials, we used coefficients that allowed differences between disease-state groups and aver- aged to the values reported in all patients. For example, mortality over a 3 month period was assumed to result from considerably more deaths in patients with progressive disease than those with stable disease or response to treatment. Sensitivity analyses performed on these coefficients showed no substantive effect on the outcome.
Traditionally meat quality is either eating quality or processing quality, therefore quality is directly associated with usage and is a multifaceted concept (Webb et al., 2005). Lawrie, (1991) stated that meat eating quality involves five attributes namely, colour, water holding capacity, tenderness, juiciness and flavour. All attributes are influenced by breed, sex, age, anatomical location, exercise, nutrition and internal variability. Color is an important criterion of raw or cooked meat and meat products. It reflects the proper composition ofthe products, particularly in relation of meat to other compounds, freshness of raw materials, texture, taste and proper conditions of storage (Klak et al., 2001; Alberti et al., 2002). Water holding capacity is the ability of meat to retain its own or added water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding, or pressing (Judge et al., 1989) . Cooking loss is one ofthe most important properties of sausage products as it is related to water holding capacity. There is variation in water holding capacity among different types of meat from different animal and muscles (Lawrie, 1991). Mukasa, (1981) defined texture of meat as the sensory manifestation ofthe structure ofthe meat andthe manner in which the structure reacts to the force applied during biting. Simela et al., (2003) stated that meat tenderness and flavor are the most important components that determine meat quality. The Objective of this study is:
For FT-Raman data collection, samples were brought to room temperature and kept moist in 0.9 % physiological solution to preserve their structural characteristics. They were then placed in a windowless aluminum holder for the Raman spectra collection. Soon after, samples were fixed in 10 % formaldehyde solution for further histopathological analysis. A FT-Raman Bruker RFS 100/S spectrometer was used with Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm as the excitation light source. The laser power on the sample was kept at 300 mW while the spectrometer resolution was set to 4 cm -1 . There
Introduction: Cutaneous melanoma is a malignancy caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes. Has been increasing in incidence and mortality over the years. This type of tumor may arise inthe skin or any other place where there was migration of neural crest cells. Melanocytes are located inthe basal layer ofthe epidermis forming the epidermal melanin unit, involving a melanocyte to 36 keratinocytes. The proliferation of melanocytes depends on this relationship with the keratinocytes, gap junctions, E-cadherin and desmoglein. The basal membrane is responsible for promoting the integrity ofthe skin, their adhesion structures shown to be altered in several skin diseases. Some molecules that play the role of adherence in this membrane are the laminins, type IV collagen and type XVII and perlecan.