Top PDF Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most fre- quent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12–55%), lungs (19–55.5%), liver (10–60%), and bones (3–10%). The first line therapy in stage IV metas- tatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC) dimethyl-triazeno- imidozole-carboxamide in 61–93% of the patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease) was achieved in 25.7% of the patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% of the patients treated with the sec- ond line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months). More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large un- met need for the new treatment options for metastatic mela- noma in Serbia. The development of national guidelines, and greater involvement in international clinical studies could lead to widening of treatment options for this chemotherapy resis- tant disease.
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J. Bras. Nefrol.  vol.37 número4

J. Bras. Nefrol. vol.37 número4

Introduction: There is scarce data on the clinical profile of adult Brazilian patients with nephrotic syndrome caused by minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Objective: We evaluated the clinical characteristics and response to treatment in adult patients with nephrotic syndrome having a histological diagnosis of MCD or FSGS. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 50 patients with MCD and 120 with FSGS. All patients were initially treated with steroids. The study outcomes were: steroid responsiveness, prevalence of total remission, progression to chronic renal failure and need of renal replacement therapy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Results: Initial serum creatinine level was 24% higher among patients with FSGS (p = 0.02), and proteinuria levels were 36% higher in MCD (p < 0.001). Patients with MCD were sensitive to steroid therapy in 80% of the cases, with total remission in 74%, while patients with FSGS were sensitive in 58% (p = 0.01), with total remission in 30% (p = 0.002). Patients with FSGS had an acute renal failure prevalence of 39% (vs. 12%, p = 0.013) and ESRD of 10% (vs. 0%, p < 0.001). Steroid responsiveness reduced in 83% the risk of ESRD (p < 0.001), while total remission was associated to a reduction in risk of 89% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A positive response to steroid therapy was the most important factor related with preservation of renal function and FSGS was related with less steroid responsiveness.
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Frequency and characteristics of familial melanoma in Spain: the FAM-GEM-1 Study.

Frequency and characteristics of familial melanoma in Spain: the FAM-GEM-1 Study.

retinoblastoma increase the risk for cutaneous melanoma. In a recent meta-analysis, the pres- ence of familial aggregation of melanoma is estimated to account for 1.3–15.8% of melanoma cases, depending on the series and the countries studied [1]. Approximately 25% of these famil- ial cases can be explained by germline mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), the most frequent gene mutated in familial melanoma, revealing that the genetic explanation for the majority of cases remains elusive [2,3]. Patients with CDKN2A mutations have a high risk of developing melanoma, as well as other tumors, the most common of which is pancreatic cancer [4]. Genetic counseling for these patients is under debate, since the real im- pact of prevention or early diagnosis remains unclear [5,6]
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Is the risk of motor neuron disease increased or decreased after cancer? An Australian case-control study.

Is the risk of motor neuron disease increased or decreased after cancer? An Australian case-control study.

Of interest is the reported association between MND and specific tumours, in particular melanoma [29,39]. We found a history of melanoma was not associated with SMND in an Australian population. Our findings are consistent with register studies from Sweden [28] and the USA [29] that found no melanoma-SMND association. In contrast, a joint USA-Australian study of post-melanoma survival found increased mortality due to MND and Parkinson’s disease [39], and survivors of melanoma were also found to have an increased risk of MND in another USA population [27]. However, these two studies could not define the temporal relationship between MND and melanoma diagnosis. This raises the possibility that the positive associations may have been due to a short-term increase in medical surveillance immediately after melanoma diagnosis. While a detailed temporal analysis was not possible in our study, all but one of our SMND diagnoses were made greater than five years after melanoma diagnosis, so here any association would be long term. An association between neurodegenerative disorders and melanoma does, however, remain plausible. Riluzole, a drug used in the treatment of ALS, has been proposed as an anti-melanoma agent [48], suggesting a biochemical link between the two diseases. An increased risk of Parkinson’s disease after melanoma diagnosis has been described [49,50] and is thought to occur due to increased alpha-synuclein expression in melanocytic lesions [51–53] that may interact with cell cycle regulators [54]. Alpha-synuclein has been detected in MND animal models [55] and human spinal cords [56], making a similar mechanism in SMND possible. The relationship between MND and melanoma therefore requires greater exploration, with larger population sizes and accurate analysis of temporal relationships.
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Analysis of patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma in the last six years in Hospital Erasto Gaertner: epidemiologic profile

Analysis of patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma in the last six years in Hospital Erasto Gaertner: epidemiologic profile

The patients included in the study had a histopathological diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma and were seen at Hospital Erasto Gaertner, where they underwent surgical treatment in the period between January 2008 and December 2013. Patients with the diag- nosis of primary cutaneous melanoma who were surgically treated in other institution, and patients with ocular or mucosal melanoma were excluded, as well as those with insufficient information avail- able for the analysis of the main variables in their files.
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Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

At the Foundrys of Drawski M łyn and “WSK–Rzeszów” Metallurgical Plant in Rzeszów, a special technique of the nodularising (or vermicularising ) treatment was implemented. It was based on the use of cored wires, one cored with magnesium, and another with inoculant.

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Einstein (São Paulo)  vol.14 número2

Einstein (São Paulo) vol.14 número2

Some targeted therapies that have been approved and made available in the private health system in Brazil for several years still have limited access in the Brazilian Public Health System. Some examples are trastuzumab for metastatic Her2+ breast cancer; erlotinib and gefitinib for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated metastatic lung cancer; cetuximab and panitumumab for RAS-wild type metastatic colorectal cancer, in addition to several treatments used in hematological malignancies, which are not the focus of this report. Some other targeted treatments have been available for several years in North America and/or Europe, but they are still not registered in Brazil. Examples are aflibercept for colorectal cancer, pazopanib and trabectedine for soft tissue sarcomas, and axitinib for renal cell carcinoma.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Based on the objectives to be achieved and problems that have been formulated, the method used is juridical- sociological. The juridical approach is intended to explore and study the legislation as a basis for a research, while the sociological approach is intended to explore the factors and impacts incurred from the occurrence of border-area dispute and solution by the government. The specifications of this research are normative law called also as doctrinal research. A site was chosen by researcher to conduct a research is a government agency that includes the Navy (Department of Hydro-Oceanographic) related to the sea boundaries of the Republic of Indonesia and neighboring countries, local governments, especially in the leading islands border to the Republic of Indonesia related to culture, security, politics and thinking about the area/island they occupy, as a part of the Unitary of the Republic of Indonesia. The population is all research objects to be researched. In this research, the population is Navy and the relevant agencies involved in the security of sea area. The samples were chosen to be a material of research is the bearer of the security function in marine areas through the random system and interviews with relevant parties, such as Bakorkamla and community.
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
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Rev. Bras. Cir. Plást.  vol.27 número4

Rev. Bras. Cir. Plást. vol.27 número4

The case series of non-melanoma skin cancers examined in this study showed epidemiological results similar to those found in the literature. Presumably, the encountered varia- tions are due to the different proile of the patients analy - zed and the fact that we excluded patients who underwent outpatient resection, which are simpler cases that may be frequently reported in the literature. The predominance of BCC and female gender in cancer development was detected among the patients evaluated – observations that relect the current tendency of this tumor.
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Optimisation of the turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations of the sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques of the system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.

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Arq. Bras. Oftalmol.  vol.76 número4

Arq. Bras. Oftalmol. vol.76 número4

The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus), congenital or ia trogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and particularly ver sus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner’s syndrome. Keywords: Pigment epithelium of eye/pathology; Retinal diseases/congeni tal; Ma cula lutea; Visual acuity; Eye neoplasms/pathology; Humans; Female; Child; Ca se report
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Malignant melanoma of the vagina

Malignant melanoma of the vagina

This study demonstrated an exophytic lesion with a lobulated contour, arising from the anterior and lateral wall of the lower third of the vagina. The lesion showed homogeneous intermediate signal intensity - slightly higher than muscle - and a small high signal intensity spot on T1-WI (Fig.1). On T2-WI the lesion showed homogeneous intermediate/high signal intensity - higher than muscle, lower than fat (Figs.2-4). On T2-WI it is also possible to observe invasion of the inferior segment of the urethra (Fig.4). After the administration of gadolinium the tumour shows homogeneous
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The tool steels consistute a very important group of materials used for the production, not only tools, but also machine ele- ments, that need to have the increased strength, for example the high-speed steels are used on the rolling bearing operating in high temperatures [1]. Modern technologies such as: laser treatment, electron treatment, CVD, PVD methods, give the possibility of forming the structure of the surface layer of steels providing the demaded properties. The economic factors direct research in using the plasma of the electric arc for shaping the surface layer of the machine elements and tools. Advantages of that method are the possibilities of receiving wider treated areas with one stream of the heat in comparison with the laser technologies or electron
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Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

where is a set of linear restrictions that transforms the unrestricted model (1) on restricted model (2). 8 In our case, the restriction implies that the age, trend and (orthogonal) time dummies are sufficient to explain the behavior of each estimated statistic order across cells and over time. Imposing the restrictions means estimating weighted least squares regressions on the grouped data, for each quantile and education group separately. This procedure will give us consistent estimates of . Under the null that the restrictions are valid, the minimized value follows a chi-square distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of restrictions. In order to construct the test statistics, we only have to sum up the weighted squared residuals, that is, the estimated percentiles minus the predicted values minus the orthogonal time dummies.
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Development of a melanoma therapeutic vaccine candidate by the coencapsulation of melanoma antigen peptides and toll-like receptor ligands as adjuvants into polymeric nanoparticles

Development of a melanoma therapeutic vaccine candidate by the coencapsulation of melanoma antigen peptides and toll-like receptor ligands as adjuvants into polymeric nanoparticles

use of only one peptide. The presence of both antigens in the same NP, and consequently, in the same APC, could induce competition to the MHC class I complexes (437). However, when the antigens are carried by different NPs, the chances that they are processed by different APCs increase, and a stronger antitumor immune response was induced. This information might contribute to the successful design of effective particulate vaccines in the future. The present research also took insight on the impact of combining MHC class I- and class II-restricted peptides in the immunization regimens. Even that the induction of CTLs is the primary goal in antitumor immunization, it is well established that CD8 + lymphocytes can fail to maintain functionality in the absence of CD4 + T helper cells (193). As so, it would make sense to combine both types of antigens in an attempt to activate both CD8 + and CD4 + T cells. However, there are very few studies combining MHC class I- and class II-restricted peptides for antitumor immunization, probably due to the late identification of MHC class II- restricted tumor peptides (451). Surprisingly, Phan G. (2003) and coworkers verified that the addition of the class II peptide appeared to decrease immunologic response of circulating PBMC to the class I-restricted peptide (452). The authors hypothesized that this unexpected result could have involved increased CD4 + CD25 + Treg activity, a possible increased apoptosis of activated CD8 + T cells, the trafficking of sensitized CD8 + reactive cells out of the peripheral blood or even bias in the sequential, nonrandomized nature of patient enrollment. It has also been demonstrated that the peptide Melan-A:26-35(27L) could elicit peptide-specific CTLs in the absence of a Th peptide due to its increased immunogenicity resultant from the single aminoacid modification (453). However, it remained to be proven if the presence of a Th peptide would not further improve the immune response obtained. The present research demonstrates that mice immunized with a combination of NPs containing either the MHC class I-restricted peptide Melan-A:26-35(27L) either the MHC class II-restricted peptide gp100:44-59 (man-NP[M+P+C] + man-NP[G 44 +P+C]) had a very significant reduction of the
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Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies for BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma.

Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies for BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma.

initiation. When quantifying outcomes for these cases which died in the first year, our model assumes that they remained in stable disease for the average time to response then spent half of their remaining time alive in a partial response state and the other half in a progressive disease state. For the strategy of vemurafenib followed by ipilimumab, our model assumes that 100% of patients who progressed with no response to the initial therapy would switch, and 66% of patients who had an initial response but eventually progressed would switch at the time of progression. For patients who switched treatments, we assumed they switched at the first time progression was identified. We calculated outcomes after switching to ipilimumab in a second similar tree of paths following ipilimumab administration (Figure 2). The tree divides patients with no objective response between those who progressed within one year, and those who did not. We quantified outcomes for patients with no response or progression assuming they were in a stable disease state for the first year of treatment. We divided the patients who progressed without initial response similarly to those who progressed after response, adding an additional category of cases that died within the first three months of treatment. To quantify outcomes for these patients, we assumed they stayed in a stable disease state for the average time to progression reported in trials, and then spent the rest of their lives in a progressive disease state. For patients who lived less than the average time to progression, we assumed they spent half of their lives in the stable disease state and half in a progressive disease state. For clinical outcomes which were not explicitly divided between disease-state groups in the outcomes reported in the trials, we used coefficients that allowed differences between disease-state groups and aver- aged to the values reported in all patients. For example, mortality over a 3 month period was assumed to result from considerably more deaths in patients with progressive disease than those with stable disease or response to treatment. Sensitivity analyses performed on these coefficients showed no substantive effect on the outcome.
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Study In Some Quality Attribute Of Meat

Study In Some Quality Attribute Of Meat

Traditionally meat quality is either eating quality or processing quality, therefore quality is directly associated with usage and is a multifaceted concept (Webb et al., 2005). Lawrie, (1991) stated that meat eating quality involves five attributes namely, colour, water holding capacity, tenderness, juiciness and flavour. All attributes are influenced by breed, sex, age, anatomical location, exercise, nutrition and internal variability. Color is an important criterion of raw or cooked meat and meat products. It reflects the proper composition of the products, particularly in relation of meat to other compounds, freshness of raw materials, texture, taste and proper conditions of storage (Klak et al., 2001; Alberti et al., 2002). Water holding capacity is the ability of meat to retain its own or added water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding, or pressing (Judge et al., 1989) . Cooking loss is one of the most important properties of sausage products as it is related to water holding capacity. There is variation in water holding capacity among different types of meat from different animal and muscles (Lawrie, 1991). Mukasa, (1981) defined texture of meat as the sensory manifestation of the structure of the meat and the manner in which the structure reacts to the force applied during biting. Simela et al., (2003) stated that meat tenderness and flavor are the most important components that determine meat quality. The Objective of this study is:
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Differential diagnosis in primary and metastatic cutaneous melanoma by FT-Raman spectroscopy

Differential diagnosis in primary and metastatic cutaneous melanoma by FT-Raman spectroscopy

For FT-Raman data collection, samples were brought to room temperature and kept moist in 0.9 % physiological solution to preserve their structural characteristics. They were then placed in a windowless aluminum holder for the Raman spectra collection. Soon after, samples were fixed in 10 % formaldehyde solution for further histopathological analysis. A FT-Raman Bruker RFS 100/S spectrometer was used with Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm as the excitation light source. The laser power on the sample was kept at 300 mW while the spectrometer resolution was set to 4 cm -1 . There
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Análise da expressão protéica de moléculas de adesão celular em melanomas cutâneos

Análise da expressão protéica de moléculas de adesão celular em melanomas cutâneos

Introduction: Cutaneous melanoma is a malignancy caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes. Has been increasing in incidence and mortality over the years. This type of tumor may arise in the skin or any other place where there was migration of neural crest cells. Melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the epidermis forming the epidermal melanin unit, involving a melanocyte to 36 keratinocytes. The proliferation of melanocytes depends on this relationship with the keratinocytes, gap junctions, E-cadherin and desmoglein. The basal membrane is responsible for promoting the integrity of the skin, their adhesion structures shown to be altered in several skin diseases. Some molecules that play the role of adherence in this membrane are the laminins, type IV collagen and type XVII and perlecan.
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