In the currently employed WM task musicians may on the other hand have benefited from superior cognitive skills that did not relate to musical stimulus processing per se [11,14]. The nature of the n-back task partly supports this interpretation, since the increasing need for control during the temporary storage of information in correct serial order in the n-back task, especially when n .1, has been linked to the MFG [52,67], and activity in the lateral PFC regions was more generally linked to the need for cognitivecontrol during demanding tasks . Cognitivecontrol mediated by lateral PFC regions was previously mentioned as the mediator of superior task performance [17,18]. We suggest that cognitivecontrol may be a key to a unified interpretation of findings from studies of individual differences in an attempt to explain the variation in WM responses as a function of task performance. The hypothesis that musicians recruit more resources for cognitivecontrolis also supported by our observation of greater activity inmusiciansin the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which, together with bordering sections of the medial PFC, has been assigned a central role in monitoring response conflicts , and predicting error likelihood . Specifically, the magnitude of activity was found to predict both greater PFC activity and adjustments in behavior [19,20], hence supporting a role of the ACC in the engagement of cognitivecontrol. Cognitivecontrol also serves to keep active in mind the rules and goals that are relevant in a certain context, functions that are associated with lateral PFC regions . The anterior PFC (BA 10), which also was more active inmusicians, may be related to the integration of subgoals during WM , and the distinction of target from non- target stimuli during recognition . Enhanced load-dependent responses inmusicians were also found in the posterior dorsal PFC (approximately BA 6). This observation may be related to recent findings that link this region to the ordering of stimuli in a sequence  and the binding of individual stimulus units into a sequence , processes that are essential in updating the stimulus sequence and assigning temporal order in the n-back task. Maintenance of ordinal position, an essential component of
below. Third, the training results related WM to the ability to adapt to a varying sensory envi- ronment. It was improvement in this ability, rather than in sensory performance per se, that transferred to and from WM. Fourth, Tone n-back learning transferred across stimulus type (tone vs. digits) and modality (auditory vs. visual), and to a perceptual task that does not involve frequency comparison (duration discrimination), indicating that learning occurred at a supramodal level, beyond the processing of basic sound features. There is a possibility that Tone n-back learning actually consisted of two types of improvements that transferred differ- ently. Namely, improvement due to familiarity of material transferred to perceptual tasks with tones (FDr and DDr; lack of transfer to FDf could be due to ceiling effect), while improvement in mental operations transferred to other n-back tasks. We regard this possibility as unlikely because transfer of familiarity should be mutual, but only one out of the three auditory discrim- ination tasks (FDr, FDf, and DDr) transferred to Tone n-back. The possibility could be directly tested in the future by examining whether n-back learning with non-tone materials (e.g., spo- ken digits or shapes) transferred to auditory discrimination with tones. We are aware of only one other study of transfer between perceptual and cognitive learning . In that study, older adults trained on a visual discrimination task showed improved WM. However, WM was mea- sured using perceptually challenging stimuli. Transfer was eliminated when the perceptual dif- ficulty of the WM task was matched before and after training, indicating that the transferred skill was sensory. The visual training task was discrimination of expansion or contraction of Gabor patterns with varied colors and orientations. This task was comparable to the DDr task in the current study in that the stimulus variations were along task-irrelevant dimensions and did not require updating by WM. In this light, the lack of WM improvement following the visual-discrimination training was compatible with our proposal. The study reported here thus provides the first evidence that perceptual training can improve WM skills and that perceptual performance can benefit from WM training. We suggest that such mutual transfer is based on the involvement of WM processes inauditory discrimination.
Table 2 summarizes descriptive and inferential statistics. The EG performed better in relation to the CG even in pre- testing, which is probably related to the fact that most EG participants were from private schools. Thus, controls for previous performance were needed. Significant effects of group assignment – even after controlling for previous per- formance, age, and IQ – were evident for scores in part 3 of the Stroop-Comp and for the AWM. Marginally significant effects were found for scores on part 2 and interference in the Stroop-Comp. EG participants responded more accurately to parts 2 and 3 – but especially 3 – in the Stroop-Comp, with gains over the CG in selective attention and inhibitory control. These findings also illustrate that the EG became skillful in maintaining and manipulating auditory information mentally, reaching better performance in the workingmemory measure compared to their CG peers. No effects were found on the other measures, despite tendencies among the EG toward better performance compared to the CG on some measures.
First, what is the exact nature of the sex-specific abnor- malities incognitive function that the authors concluded were present in their sample of patients with EOP? There were no sex differences in verbal workingmemory and auditory attention tests in the EOP sample and it appears that they based their conclusion on the finding that group effect (i.e. control vs. EOP) on verbal workingmemory and auditory attention was modified by sex. However, this interaction might just mean that sex has an effect on cog- nition in controls but not patients. Furthermore, at the end of the first paragraph in the discussion section, the authors wrote that ‘‘less impairment in verbal workingmemory and auditory attention was present only in girls with EOP’’ but this statement is not supported by Table 4 of the paper. An important question that should also be asked is: does schizophrenia slow brain maturation at the same rate in female and male adolescent patients? As acknowledged by the authors, their study cannot answer this question due to its cross-sectional design.
behaviour, brain structure and brain function. A combined magnetoencephalography and structural MRI study  has shown that musical aptitude is correlated with both the gray matter volume of Heschl’s gyrus (a structure containing the primary auditory cortex) as well as tone-evoked neural activity in this gyrus. Musicians also show faster responses and enhanced representation of pitch and timbre in the brainstem to music and speech stimuli . Importantly, these improvements were larger still when musically-trained participants simultaneously lip-read or watched videos of a musician playing, suggesting that visual information may improve representations of pitch at brainstem level as well as cortical level, and that musicians are more able to utilise visual cues to enhance their perception of auditory stimuli. Training in music has also been shown to influence auditory stream segregation. The decay of streaming effects occurs more slowly inmusicians compared to non-musicians , and in conditions with reduced spectral complexity, musicians can separate streams of tones that are closer in pitch than non- musicians . Listeners with musical training are also better able to separate concurrently presented sounds. Zendel & Alain  presented musically trained and untrained listeners with a series of complex tones. When the second harmonic in these tones was deliberately mistuned, musicians perceived the tones as segregated into two streams more often than non-trained listeners. The authors also found evidence from EEG recordings made during the task that the musicians’ improvement in detecting the mistuned harmonics was due to changes in early perceptual processing in addition to higher level cognitive processes.
The so-called “club drug” Foxy or Methoxy Foxy (5-Methoxy-N,N-di(iso)propyltryptamine hydrochloride; 5-MeO-DIPT) is a newer drug of abuse that has recently gained in popularity among recreational users as an alternative to MDMA (Ecstasy). While considerable research into the consequences of MDMA use is available, much remains unknown about the neurobiological consequences of 5-MeO-DIPT use. In the present study, beginning at 35 days of age adolescent rats were given repeated injections of 10 mg/kg of 5-MeO-DIPT, MDMA, or a corresponding volume of isotonic saline. Adult animals (135 days old) were trained and tested on a number of tasks designed to assess the impact, if any, and severity of 5-MeO-DIPT and MDMA, on a series of spatial and nonspatial memory tasks. Both the 5-MeO-DIPT- and the MDMA-treated rats were able to master the spatial navigation tests where the task included a single goal location and all groups performed comparably on these phases of training and testing. Conversely, the performance of both groups of the drug-treated rats was markedly inferior to that of the control animals on a task where the goal was moved to a new location and on a response learning task, suggesting a lack of lexibility in adapting their responses to changing task demands. In addition, in a response learning version of a learning set task, 5-MeO-DIPT rats made signiicantly more workingmemory errors than MDMA or control rats. Results are discussed in terms of observed alterations in serotonin activity in the forebrain and the consequences of compromised serotoninergic systems on cognitive processes. Keywords: 5-Methoxy-N,N- di(iso)propyltryptamine hydrochloride; Foxy, Methoxy Foxy; (+)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, spatial learning; response learning, morris water maze, development, memory.
Synchronous and asynchronous audio-visual stimuli were used for the behavioral and neurophysiological MEG testing. The auditory part of all stimuli consisted of a sinusoidal tone of 880 Hz (duration of 200 ms including 10 ms rise and decay time). The interstimulus interval between subsequent tones was always 3500 ms (c.f. figure 1). A black circular dot (RGB: 255, 255, 255) positioned in the middle of a continuously presented gray background (RGB: 125, 125, 125) presented with the same duration of 200 ms as the tone was used for the visual part of the stimuli (c.f. figure 1). The simplicity of the stimulation was chosen because it does not favor prior musical experience, as it would be the case for visible finger movements and concurrent piano tones . In order to assess the subject’s compliance to the task (see the behavioral measurements section) a control condition was included. In this control condition the auditory and the visual part were presented simultaneously, but the visual part was altered by having more smoothed, indistinct edge compared to the visual part of the stimuli in the experimental conditions. Participants who made more than 4 mistakes in the control condition within one run (5 of total 10 trials, i.e. 50%) were excluded from the data analysis.
CIS subjects and control individuals were subjected to neuropsychological evaluation comprising: verbal learn- ing (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test); verbal memory (logical memory subtest from the Wechsler memory scale-revised); constructional ability and visual memory (Rey Complex Figure); and attention and executive func- tion tests: speed of information processing, sustained and divided attention (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test 3 and 2 seconds); workingmemory (Digit Span Test from the Wechsler memory scale revised), category restricted verbal luency (letter and animals); selective attention and cognitive lexibility (Stroop Color test); concentration (D2 test); visual scanning, tracking, and motoric speed (Digit Symbol Test). he cognitive evaluation was performed in an air-conditioned environment at the same temperature.
Introduction: Cognitive rehabilitation technologies constitute a potential rehabilitation approach in several specific areas of cognition, in which memoryis included. The aim of this study is to determine the eventual causal relationships of cognitive rehabilitation software CogniPlus® on the training of workingmemoryin a single case study. Methods: Single subject study or within-subject, quasi-experimental, carried out through a 10-session training protocol with 4 workingmemory computerized training programmes. When monitoring the programme, the subject was evaluated by the Wechsler Memory Scale as a pre-and post-test. Results: Measurable data reveal changes in the memory quotient between the assessments (74 to 85 points), as well as improvements in the evaluation of attention by the TP test, 45 to 67 points. Conclusions: The CogniPlus® training program had a positive influence on the subject's memory quotient, namely on mental control and associative learning. A third evaluation suggests the need for continuity of the intervention program over a longer period of time. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of this training programme in occupational performance among individuals with memory problems of various aetiologies.
Although only two of our three mediators were significant, we have found association between all of our potential mediators (workingmemory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control) with our independent variable, planning (paths a). This finding is consistent with the literature which indicates that these cognitive processes contribute to the performance on TOL (Carlin et al., 2000; Köstering et al., 2014; Welsh, Satterlee-Cartmell and Stine, 1999). Previous studies shows that during the execution of TOL, workingmemoryis required once is necessary keep a sequence of subgoals in the workingmemory during execution to accomplish the objective, especially when doing preplanning (Gilhooly et al., 2002; Welsh et al., 1999). The demand of cognitive flexibility must be related to TOL performance once during this task is necessary generates several alternative move subgoals to select the most appropriate to achieve the goal (Köstering et al., 2014). The literature suggests that the contribution of inhibitory controlis also required because is necessary to inhibit the automatic behavior of moving a ball directly into its goal position to plan the moves to solve the problem successfully (Koppenol-Gonzalez, Bouwmeester & Boonstra, 2010). These results suggest that poor performance on TOL might not represent a core planning deficit, whereas multiple factors influence performance on this task.
The output and comprehension of language depend on a large number of cognitive activities, including the ability to process, temporarily store and manipulate information (workingmemory) (Caspari et al., 1998). Stowe, Haverkort, and Zwarts (2004) have pointed out that the area of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), formerly known only as the language expression area, also performs functions of temporary storage of information during verbal short-term memory verbal tasks and during the processing of sentences, storing the syntactic and lexical information. This could explain the deficits in the workingmemory function presented by the aphasic patients. Moreover, since workingmemory interferes with language functions, it is believed that the opposite may occur. When comparing the two groups (clinical and control) regarding the workingmemory variable, controlling for the linguistic covariates, the differences did not remain significant. Thus, we can conclude that the language difficulties presented by aphasic patients would be interfering with the performance of this function.
Purpose: to evaluate the phonological workingmemory abilities and check possible inluences of impulsivity in patients just included in treatment at the program for Alcohol and Drug users at the Center for Integrated Mental Health Care of Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de São Paulo (ISCMSP –CAISM-SP, Portuguese initials). Method: 29 patients: 21 males and 8 females, drug users, 37,9 ± 10.5 years old, 10.59 ± 3.53 years of schooling; And 30 volunteers: 19 males and 11 female, 32,4 ± 11,9 years old and 11.07 ± 3.29 years of schooling, without psychiatric history or substance abuse participated freely. The individuals were asked to attend the speciic evaluation, aiming to assess: 1) phonological workingmemory for words and pseudowords, 2) impulsivity in its second order factors (attentional impulsiveness, motor and non-planning). Results: performance in the evaluation of phonological workingmemory of the individuals of drug users group compared to the control group showed a reduction in both, auditory word and pseudowords span , as well as the total number of correct words and pseudowords recall. In the evaluation of impulsivity, the group of drug users showed higher scores comparing to control individuals in all subtypes of impulsivity, including the total score of impulsivity. There were no correlations between impulsivity scores and word and/ or pseudowords span. Conclusion: this pattern of responses indicates impairment in verbal workingmemory processing and high level of impulsivity in this population of chronic drug users. The poor performance of chronic drug users on tests of phonological workingmemoryis probably not due to increased impulsivity observed. The present results could helptreatment strategies planning focused on the detected changes.
Correct responses increased, and errors decreased, monotoni- cally for both WMC groups, as duration differences increased (Table 2). Correct responses were treated as ‘‘hits’’ and errors as ‘‘false alarms’’ (FA) in order to express discrimination sensitivity as d’, which is a dependent measure from signal detection theory . This measure expresses in standard deviation units, how distant was a person’s sensitivity to differences between stimuli, from the point of perfect indifference (represented by zero); after controlling for ‘‘guesses’’ or ‘‘response bias’’ (a predisposition to say e.g., ‘‘second one longer’’). Higher d’ means that there was greater sensitivity to differences between stimuli. Furthermore, d’ allows sensitivity across a range of stimulus differences to be expressed in a common metric . Proportion-correct (p (Hit)) and proportion-error (p (FA)) scores for each individual were converted to probabilities according to Table A5.1 in , changing ‘‘p (Hit)’’ and ‘‘p (FA)’’ into ‘‘z-Hit’’ and ‘‘z-FA’’ respectively . Then d’ was calculated according to equation 7.2 for 2-AFC designs in : d’ = (1! 2) * (z-Hit–z-FA).
influence of political interests or economical certain, 3) The obligation to be and to work with honest, imparsial, and efficient, 4) The obligation to always work with manners, good against people it serves, and to a superior, colleagues and his subordinates, 5) An Obligation to prevent themselves from the difference between private interests with the position of public spaces, 6) Obligation not to take advantage of unnatural or his position for personal interest, 7) The obligation to always behave in such a way for the sake of maintaining and increasing trust and confidence on public integrity, impartiality and the effectiveness of public services by, 8) An obligation to carry out tasks and functions iktikad on the basis either, perseverance based on professional skills, knowledge, and sufficient experience, 9) Obligation to always maintain a balance between respect for rights and freedom of citizens with an obligation to precede the public interest, and did not impose restrictions that unnatural unreasonable restrictions, 10) An obligation to respect the rights of citizens for public information, 11) Sanctions law firm to offences
13. Ptok M, Berenedes K, Gottal S, Grabheer B, Schneeberg J, Wittler M. Developmental dyslexia: the role of phonological processing for the development of literacy. HNO. 2007;55(9):737-48. 14. Gathercole SE, Service E, Hitch GJ, Adams AM, Martin AJ. Phonological short-term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship. Aplied Cognitive Psychology. 1999;13:65-77.
The hypothesis that explains workingmemory maintenance through states with stable activity is not consensual. A study pro- posed that persistent activity is a costly consumption of metaboli- cal energy and is not required for workingmemory (Mongillo et al. 2008). According to their modeling analysis, neocortical networks encode and maintain information through slow calcium-mediated synaptic facilitation (Tsodyks and Markram 1997; Hempel et al. 2000). This mechanism consists in a state of increased neurotrans- mitter release that will allow the memory to be reactivated. How- ever, this reactivation requires either an unrealistic readout stimulus or an artificial increase in the background input that effectively re- sults in persistent activity. Another study proposed that memory maintenance relies on positive feedforward instead of feedback be- tween neurons, even in anatomically recurrent networks (Goldman 2009). This idea can explain some experimental data observations but, on the other hand, the proof of its biological realism is still tenuous. Barak et al. (2013) recently compared three paramet- ric workingmemory models of a delayed vibrotactile discrimina- tion task. The models were comprised of neurons with different degrees of tuning and dynamics: ranging from a system with prede- termined connectivity and stable neural representations (Machens et al. 2005) to a random network that evolves according to the readout. They found that an intermediate model was the one that best simulated the data at their disposal.
After the publication of the ADAPT model, semantic and dual-route models of number transcoding have been left aside. Since then, only a few studies have been resorting to semantic routes to interpret their data and, in some cases, the definition of its nature differs from what was defined by semantic and dual-route models. Van Loosbroek, Dirkx, Hulstijn and Janssen (2009) investigated number writing abilities in children and found that children with poor arithmetical abilities rely on a semantic route to transcode small (up to 9) and large numbers (up to 99), while children with normal arithmetical abilities only use the semantic route for larger numbers. This interpretation was made based on the observed magnitude effect: children were faster when writing smaller numbers than larger ones. Similarly, Imbo, Bulcke, Brauwer and Fias (2014) also reported a magnitude effect on error rates of children with less transcoding skills. In both studies, the presence of the magnitude effect indicates that, in number transcoding, numerical magnitudes are retrieved from the mental number line and, due to its logarithmic compression, larger magnitudes are harder to recover (Ansari, 2008).Therefore, the nature of the semantic route in number transcoding would lie in the mental number line, that is, in an analogue representation of numerical magnitudes which follows the Weber-Fechner psychophysical law.
12 (age average of 10.8±1.6 years), with crisis average of 6.1±3.5 per month, lasting up to 24 hours and conirmed by a 30-day illed headache diary. All children were stu- dents from the public school system of São Paulo city. Control group: Thirty children, 18 boys, similar age range (age average 10.0±1.3 years), also from public schools of São Paulo city, where 280 parents responded a questionnaire on headache. Children were included if they had never reported a headache before. his was the only determined inclusion criteria.
participants. In other words, oral language in general, and, specifically, PA and vocabulary are important predictors (regarded as precursors) of reading proficiency (Capovilla & Dias, 2008; Cutting et al., 2009; Dias & Seabra, 2012; Kairaluoma et al., 2013; Mokhtari & Niederhauser, 2013; Scarborough, 2009; Seabra & Dias, 2012a; Skibbe et al., 2008). Reading skills, in turn, are developed during the elementary years (EF-I in Brazil), and they are also related to school performance (Dias et al., 2015). Therefore, it is possible that the reading skills were not yet consolidated in this sample of 5th graders and can be mediating this result. In older students, who already have good reading skills, this ability, and consequently oral language abilities, may exert a less significant effect on school performance. Accordingly, although there is evidence that the PA is a predictor of reading proficiency, even in adolescents (Kairaluoma et al., 2013), its relationship with school performance found in the present study was stronger than expected. Thus, it is possible that reading proficiency (in terms of word recognition) was not yet fully developed in the sample studied, which would explain the still major role played by PA in the performance of those students. This fact may reflect a sampling bias or a problem in most Brazilian schools, where children reach the last grade of elementary school (EF-I in Brazil) without complete mastery of the written code. Another hypothesis is that the PA measure used has other requirements, which will be discussed further ahead. Another noteworthy finding is related to the contribution of EF to the model. As expected, there was a unique contribution of EF to school performance, showing that these skills are indeed of great importance for the learning process (Blair & Diamond, 2008; Diamond, 2013; Fonseca et al., 2015; Seabra et al., 2014). Cognitive flexibility, proved to be specially linked to school performance. This may suggest that the students which are more able to handle two or more sources of information simultaneously (such as paying attention to the teacher while taking notes) or those who are able to consider different approaches (e.g., trying different alternatives to solve a problem) are those who get better grades.
ABSTRACT. It is essential to use culturally appropriate, sensitive and specific tests that reflect true cognitive performance. However, several factors including age, education and gender can influence neuropsychological test performance. Objective: To examine the effects of age, education and gender on neuropsychological function in older adults using measures of global cognitive screening, attention, workingmemory, executive functions, memory, construction, language and parietal focal signs. Methods: This is a cross sectional normative study of 180 community-dwelling normal older adults. All participants were screened with the Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE), Everyday Activities Scale for India (EASI), Edinburgh handedness inventory (EDI) and MINI Screen, and followed by a detailed neuropsychological assessment. Results: Stepwise regression analysis revealed that education was associated with better performance on all the neuropsychological tests. Females performed significantly better on measures of memory. Further, most of the illiterate subjects, including low educated participants, refused to cooperate on measures of executive functioning. Conclusion: Education was found to be the strongest determinant of neuropsychological test performance followed by age and gender. Our study demonstrates that Indian healthy normal older adults with low education perform poorly on measures of planning and workingmemory. Traditional measures of planning and workingmemory should be avoided or used cautiously in the presence of low education. There is an urgent need to develop tasks for measuring executive functions, especially in low educated Indian older adults.