This study has a series of limitations - generated especially bythe studied population, because this was limited only tothe participants at the ten seminaries that were sustained within the said project. Extension ofthe studied population to all the employees in the metal-working industry is not possible, as well as the extrapolation ofthe results to all the employees in this industry, because the participants to these seminaries were not accidentally selected. Also, in the brief report of this research, presented in this paper, testing of statistical hypothesis was not considered. The authors consider still that one can objectively appreciate theefficiencyofthe seminar/workshop as an information and training method, subject of evaluation within this research, especially since one considered interviewing all the population studied, which is over 250 individuals. Setting aside the limitations of this study, one can state that the information obtained was particularly interesting and useful as a basis for a strategy to reduce the economical and social costs of accepting some high risks at the workplace.
The high cost of dedicated Internet access is hampering the cost efficiencyof Nigerian online business, thereby limiting the overall competitiveness of these entities. A key component of any plan for more competitive participation of Nigeria business in the new economy must involve a strategy by governments to reduce the high price of Internet access. Government along with the private sector must find interesting ways of increasing the participation rate in new communication technologies like the Internet. One wayof achieving this (apart from lowering the cost of Internet access) is by reducing the cost of acquiring the hardware (e.g. computers) that allows for participation. The country needs to find a similar wayto facilitate universal access. Therefore the government is called upon to encourage the development of low cost access technologies for addressing the need ofthe rural majority by coordinating and promoting roll-out of multi-purpose community centers using low cost access technologies and encourage those involved in this line of business.
Public-key encryption uses two distinct but mathematically related keys - public and private. The public key is the non- secret key that is available to anyone you choose (it is often made available through a digital certificate). The private key is kept in a secure location used only bythe user. When data are sent they are protected with a secret-key encryption that was encrypted with the public key. The encrypted secret key is then transmitted tothe recipient along with the encrypted data. The recipient will then use the private key to decrypt the secret key. The secret key will then be used to decrypt the message itself. This waythe data can be sent over insecure communication channels .
Thus if we prove that ΔL/ΔF =(r+a)/(r-a) then the theorem is proved. Now let us consider a circle with centre at origin and radius ‘r’. Thus the equation of circle is x²+y²=r².The equation ofthe chord at ‘a’ distance from center is ax-ry- ar=0 or Y= a/r(x-r).
sustainable solution to protect the environment andthe earth even ourselves, against pollution, squandering of natural resources and global warming just to mention the few all this are the result of negative human activities. According to this research is evadable that vertical greenery can be a sustainable tool remedy due to its capability not only on environmental benefits but widely spread to reducing indoor temperature, have many economic benefits. Green façades can be an alternative tool of sustainable architecture due to its capability of enriches the biodiversity ofthe flora and fauna. According to three case studies green façade proof to protect interior living space from acoustic pollution, dust particles harsh winds and direct sunlight and all this has direct or indirect benefits. On the other and green facades can be expanse in both short and long term if key issues are not properly considered in design and construction phases. They is need for wider research on how plants and species can survive on this high rise structure which are increasingly gaining more heights. Why more research because as it steady they is plenty of sci entific reasons why skyscrapers don‘t and won‘t have trees, at least not tothe height which, many architects are currently proposing and other building. It is hot, cold, windy the rain lashes at high velocity same as snow. Life for city trees can be hard enough at the ground level what more miles above it, where nearly every climate variable more extreme than at street level. While another challenge is for trees to find enough space for their roots on balconies. Applying vertical greenery systems for different purpose particular attention has to be considered such as selection of plants, local climate maintenance consideration. The properties ofthe plant should be examined or well defined in deferent seasons so as to maximize the benefits after installation. Orientation is very import since it will affect the growth and plant behavior as well.
Considering mechanism of modification of these precipitations one should take into account that effect of modification of hypereutectic silumins depends on earlier transition to liquid phase of sparingly soluble crystals of primary silicon [1-3]. Tests performed by authors ofthe studies [4-10] enable utilization of modification treatments together with making use of a various micro additives in order to improve properties of hypereutectoid alloys.
The events of 1989 helped Romanian mass-media to escape from the prison of censorship and conformism, of imposed but also self-imposed servitude. The changes happening in the political area also brought along a revolution ofcommunication means. But not all was nice and good since in the new political framework, which featured a democracy in search of its own identity, the evolution ofthe mass-media also experienced such phenomena as the monopolisation ofthe public space, the cartelisation ofthe mass-media or the usage of media trusts as tools serving political interests.
Organized or non-organized forms of senior citizens’ involvement can both encourage new forms of planning ahead for the elderly’s own health and wellbeing. Cook and Klein (2005) argue that involving the public in services moves towards developing partnership with patients in the planning of services. Evans and Vallely (2007) state that the “Opportunities for service users to be involved in decisions about care delivery and service development on an ongoing basis are increasingly seen as central to a sense of well-being.” (p. 15). The active involvement of senior citizens was considered an asset which potentially increases the chances of success of service planning and care management process. The Program “Better Government for Older People”, run in United Kingdom at the end ofthe 1990s, has argued in favour ofthe need to go beyond mere consultations through a capillary implementation of new initiatives at the local level in Europe (Vegeris et al., 2007). On the one hand, the experiences carried out in UK reflect that health and social care issues predominate in the Local Authorities’ thinking about older people’s participation. In other words, the business andthe context of major interaction are directed towards senior users of such services. More traditional models of consultation and information sharing were favoured bythe Local Authorities, though in numerous cases the new forms of interaction led tothe implementa- tion of “wider and deeper” forms of engagement (Farrington, Bebbington, Wellard, & Lewis, 1993). All in all, the most innovative forms of engagement and positive effects on seniors’ involvement typically contained elements of informality against business-like settings. This outcome confirmed that care ser- vices’ users can be more effectively involved by opening to their role as “decision-makers” concerning their own health. In this regard, Barnes and Bennet (1998) assumed users’ will to be involved not only in final decisions but also in “framing” the problems, as the basis to undertake participatory researches and citizen-led programs evaluations. Hayden and Boaz (2000) argued that the Program “Better Government for Older People” has ensured that healthcare services reflect the needs of older people and raised the awareness concerning the positive contribution of their participation. Nevertheless to actively engage older people in new democratic processes, some type of formal organization is nevertheless required.
One ofthe rising solutions to adapt the majority ofthe concepts behind IMS into feasible principles is Service- oriented Architectures (SoA). The concept SoA has gained significant attraction in just a few years and will undoubtedly have a major impact in many branches of technology. According to , “A service-oriented architecture is a set of architectural tenets for building autonomous yet interoperable systems.” and this proposal is facing one ofthe challenges of IMS, namely providing interoperability between autonomous systems. Adapting the service-orientation concepts tothe automation and production “ecosystem” at the shop floor and considering the principles of IMS, a “society” of service-oriented automation components is born. Each participant in the system is referred as Service-oriented Component and in some extends, Service-oriented Automation Component (when it has automatic control duties). Components may have different roles (e.g. production, transportation and monitoring) and operate autonomously. Since services are the main guide, these components should have the need of requesting services and also the desire in providing services tothe community. Services itself are a form of providing resources and actions that are shared in some circumstances, much similar tothe real-life services. Fig. 1 shows the basic description of a Service-oriented Component and its integration into the environment of automation and production shop floor. The given example is a component that represents a physical conveyor (Mediator of: Conveyor) and has the transportation role (Role: Transportation). Implicitly, thecommunicationtothe outside world would be via services (Orientation: Services), being able to provide and request services when needed. The integration into the IT- enterprise is also reached bythe service-orientation. A component has a set of tasks or activities (Tasks: Transport, Monitoring, etc.) and those may be used as services provided bythe component.
(time slot 2) to avoid powering in the same time slot. This is because if the times for dwell and running are increased to reduce the peak energy for a high-density traffic line, such as an urban MRT, the quality ofthe timetable is reduced, reducing the transport capacity and increasing the journey time. Another goal is to follow the current timetable as much as possible, while considering the fea- sibility (vehicle routing plan, crew scheduling, transport demand, etc.) of an energy-efficient timetable. In this method, the state ofthetrain starting time will be one shift up by -30 s, one shift down by +30 s, or maintain- ing the current timetable, andthe traction energy in each time slot will be determined accordingly. Thus, with the current timetable, we determine the traction energy (E i,t )
The reallocation of property rights at the transition from slavery to free labor in Brazil, the US South, Jamaica, among others, were often followed by stagnation and even falls in GDP per capita. One theory for the higher productivity of slaves claims it was the coercion available to slave-owners and not to employers. A second argues that plantations were using various incentives to induce it – more food, time-off etc. Loss of scale at abolition is the implied theory. In this paper, some recent theories ofthe firm are used to study the incentive mechanisms when effort at multiple tasks must be supervised. A principal-agent model is used to show how wrong incentives after abolition could have induced former slaves to produce more peasant crops relative tothe plantation staples which yielded more GDP. If at the transition to free workers there is no technical progress or changes in product prices, plantations may become unviable andthe economy can collapse into lower- productivity family farms or worse. An exception to this argument is the “gold rush” outcome where the pulverized activity is so lucrative that growth can occur without hierarchical production structures. In the absence of such windfalls, agents may resort to less efficient, incentive-compatible mechanisms akin to sharecropping, tenancy and marginal-product wage labor which do not need the supervision which firms provide.
Management is often equated with leadership. Managers may act as leaders, but often they do not, and employees can take a leadership role even if they do not have a managerial position (Hackman M.Z., Johnson C.E., 2013, p.11-12). Leadership cannot exercise its function without an efficient communication system. A study showed that the leaders consumes 90% of its time to communicate (Singla R.K., 2009, p.191) with stakeholders, including employees, that is why they must take into consideration this process, and make it effective. Communication is a process which models human behaviour in order to achieve its objectives (Kumar R., 2010, p.24), and offer in exchange motivation measures (financial and non- financial) (Constantin T., Stoica- Constantin A., 2002). But the leaders must detain some special skills to put this into action, as active listening (Steinberg S., 2007, p.75), in order to understand, clarify, synthetize and share (Hoppe M.H., 2006, p.1). For Witherspoon (2004, p.2), leadership is first and foremost a communication process. Every leadership’ behaviour is enacted through communication (Patrick F., 2011, p.1118). Leadership involves a wide range of analytical, personal, communication, organizational and positional competencies, knowledge, experience, and skills.. Effective leaders have the ability to create the conditions for self-motivation in followers andthe capacity to influence others through communicationand leading by example. The outcome is a high-performance culture and positive communication
The first part ofthe study describes the methods used to determine Weibull modulus andthe related reliability index of hypereutectic silumins containing about 17% Si, assigned for manufacture of high-duty castings to be used in automotive applications and aviation. The second part ofthe study discusses the importance of chemical composition, including the additions of 3% Cu, 1,5% Ni and 1,5% Mg, while in the third part attention was focussed on the effect of process history, including mould type (sand or metal) as well as the inoculation process and heat treatment (solutioning and ageing) applied tothe cast AlSi17Cu3Mg1,5Ni1,5 alloy, on the run of Weibull distribution function and reliability index calculated for the tensile strength R m ofthe investigated alloys.
rich in value. Experiential value perceptions are based upon interactions involving either direct usage or distanced appreciation of goods and services. These interactions provide the basis for relativistic preferences held bythe individual involved (Holbrook and Coffman, 1995). These preferences may be intrinsic_when the experience helps the shopper to realize some of his purposes_ or extrinsic when the experience is enjoyed for its own sake (Babin and Darden, 1995; Batra and Ahtola, 1991). Besides, they may be experienced as the consequence of active (the consumer assumes the role of co- producer) or reactive (that occurs when the individual simply apprehends, appreciate, or responds to an object) interactions with the product/service. The following experiential value matrix developed by Malhotra et al (2001) represents an integration ofthe intrinsic/extrinsic and active/reactive dimensions.
The International Health Regulations (IHR) are being revised in accordance with a resolution adopted bythe World Health Assembly in 1995 (WHA48.7). The purpose ofthe revision is to adapt the IHR tothe present volume of international travel and trade and take into account current trends in the epidemiology of communicable diseases, including emerging diseases threats. The WHA resolution urged Member States and international organizations to participate directly in the revision. Expert meetings and working groups convened by WHO have recommended that the IHR contain two key sections: a main, essentially unchanging core text and a more easily modified annex of technical requirements. They also proposed that syndromes be used for notification of disease events, instead of a disease list. A provisional draft ofthe IHR was prepared in 1998 after wide-ranging international consultations, using syndromes of diseases, and this draft was sent to all Member States for review. The feedback obtained from the Member States and key stakeholders acknowledged that, while syndromes were a useful tool for very early notification of undiagnosed disease, they could not be the sole reference to disease in the Regulations. Because of this obstacle, a thorough review ofthe problems identified in the 1998 draft was initiated. New concepts were developed and proposed in 1999-2000 to create an IHR that could adapt to each serious, unexpected public health eventof potential international importance.
The IHR revision process strives to build broad consensus with WHO Member States. The current collaboration between the Secretariat and interested Member States is designed to test the proposed changes andto seek suggestions on how the Member States would want the new IHR to operate. An extension of this collaboration has led tothe setting up of an electronic virtual discussion forum between the IHR team and representatives of WHO Member States. The revision team wrote to all the Member States asking them to nominate focal points from their relevant ministries to act as resource persons to make inputs tothe revision process. In Region ofthe Americas, PAHO has been working with Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and signatory States of MERCOSUR to formally establish collaboration partnerships for the IHR revision process. In fact, MERCOSUR has included the follow up ofthe IHR revision as an agenda topic of its health sector committee.
Abstract. Hydraulic simulation models of water distribution networks are routinely used for operational in- vestigations and network design purposes. However, their full potential is often never realised because, in the majority of cases, they have been calibrated with data collected manually from the field during a single historic time period and, as such, reflect the network operational conditions that were prevalent at that time, and they are then applied as part of a reactive, desktop investigation. In order to use a hydraulic model to assist proac- tive distribution network management its element asset information must be up to date and it should be able to access current network information to drive simulations. Historically this advance has been restricted bythe high cost of collecting and transferring the necessary field measurements. However, recent innovation and cost reductions associated with data transfer is resulting in collection of data from increasing numbers of sensors in water supply systems, and automatic transfer ofthe data to point of use. This means engineers potentially have access to a constant stream of current network data that enables a new era of “on-line” modelling that can be used to continually assess standards of service compliance for pressure and reduce the impact of network events, such as mains bursts, on customers. A case study is presented here that shows how an online modelling system can give timely warning of changes from normal network operation, providing capacity to minimise customer impact.
Several studies that aimed at developing application rate controllers were performed, but they ignored its oscillatory characteristic and acted only in the error ofthe angular speed. UMEZU & CAPPELLI (2006) used a PID controller to change the proportional hydraulic flow valve, so that the angular speed ofthe hydraulic motor activat es the dispenser’s shaft. To set the application rate, a linear relationship between the angular speed ofthe shaft andthe average mass flow rate was used. TOLA et al. (2008) developed a proportional type controller andthe performance ofthe controller was carried out by means of electric motor acting on the lever arm of a variable gearbox and, consequently, the application rate. JAFARI et al. (2010) and YUAN et al. (2010) used a driver that worked in a DC electric motor to drive the seed andthe fertilizer feeder, respectively. This type of engine has the ability to quickly change the shaft’s angular speed, with the elements ofthe system being easy to install and perform when compared to hydraulic or mechanical actuators, such as those used by UMEZU & CAPPELLI (2006) and TOLA et al. (2008), respectively. For the development of more advanced controllers, which act not only in controlling the angular speed ofthe feeder’s axis, but also consider its characteristic oscillation, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model for simulations with different control strategies without the need of testing the real physical system (KIM et al., 2008, SAEYS et al., 2008).