Communicativetesting approach initially came as a response to the enormous importance that had gained reliability and validity in the previous stage. Morrow (as cited in Fulcher, 2000) stated that reliability was responsible for objectivity, whereas validity existed depending on the criteria that were based on questionable assumptions. Redefinition of these two concepts emerged as a task for communicativetesting linguists. The latter saw the validity as a concept which would bring test tasks closer to real-life situation, whereas reliability could be achieved through multiple choice questions. But, as Underhill (1982) stated: “there is no real-life situation in which we go about answering multiple choice questions”. Therefore, when tests become more reliable, they lose some of their validity, and vice versa. Since the main focus of this approach was testing communication in real-life situations, reliability lost its ground and became second-hand. The communicative approach began to disregard statistical analysis intesting research underestimating the languagetesting experts. At the beginning of this stage, the perception was that statistical analysis depreciated the human side of the individuals who were involved in the testing, disregarding language acquisition and production. Morrow (as cited in Fulcher, 2000) talked about “ethical validity” and the impact of the tests on the quality of life of applicants. These developments may have gone too far, but shed light on the social dimension of the testing process, which was almost not mentioned absent in earlier stages. For the first time they discussed the problems of ethics and influence of language tests in the lives of individuals.
Recent studies in Second Language (L2), specifically on academic success of immigrant populations, have focused on analysis of age effects, of being exposed to the language and on differences in the type of speakers (specificities in mother-tongues). Variability in per- formance has been thoroughly and frequently tested in international school areas, especially in the American context, since the 1960s (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 1996; Bachman, 2000; Bailey & Huang, 2011; Bygate, Swan & Skehan, 2013; Coombe, 2013; Ramirez, Gen, Geva et al., 2012). In the specific field of assessment, inter- national researched has focused on the development and validation of tools for immigrant school population (Bachman, 2000; Coombe, 2013; Bailey & Huang, 2011), though each national system has developed its own guidelines, as is the case of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) in the USA, the Canadian repository of tools and tests - ALBERTA (2012) and the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE), in Europe. The European and American resources are very different in terms of scientific research and of school practices, which have an impact on enhancing evidence and validity of new materials and new data in this scientific field (Bachman, 2000; Bailey & Huang, 2011). Which is the best reference? The type of linguistic minorities will determine the necessary tools for assessment, placing and learning for each country. However, the materials available are mostly restricted to English as a Second Language and as a Foreign Language, there being vast experience in PhD theses and exploratory studies as assessment tools since 1960 (Coombe, 2013).
Twenty-four Dutch-speaking children, living in Flanders, Belgium, participated in Dutch and English production tasks. The mean age of the participants (9 girls, 15 boys) at the time of testing was 10;6 years (range: 9;10 to 12;2). Data were collected in three schools in different towns in Flanders, Ghent (n = 9), Erembodegem (n = 6) and Mol (n = 9), in order to examine potential effects of L1 regional variation. None of the children had received any formal L2 English instruction in school or made extended trips to English-speaking countries and no children reported having contact with native English speakers. However, all children in Belgium are exposed to English through the media and popular culture (music channels, English-spoken cartoon channels, computer games, English pop music, etc.), so that by the age of 9, they have a basic knowledge of English.
Abstract: The language assessment in second languagecontext is still a gap in Portuguese schools and at research settings. Comprehensive diagnostic procedures are expected to be explanatory and to provide classification about proficiency levels. Proficiency, development and application are three components involved in educational assessment, specifically in second languagecontext. Diagnostic and placement should be responsive to ensure the academic success mainly in the first years of schooling. The current international approaches focused on in-depth and broader assessments with strong theoretical basis. Specifically, our research project is developed maintaining the principles of several benchmarks provided by ALBERTA, TESOL, TOEFL and other testing guides. Despite of Portuguese Second Languagecontext, our sources are mainly American instruments regarding the great scientific evidence available. This study will examine the validity and prevalence of 4 specific tasks to differentiate 108 second language learners, considering the socioeconomic factor determined by current job situation of students’ families. Immigration routes are mostly work- related and the professional situation of families is extremely diverse and might have influence in school outcomes of young students experiencing constrained economic environments. All the tasks were developed for the first levels of proficiency (A2-B1, according to European benchmarks), including subtests as main criteria of organization and different types of responses (multiple format), applied to a large sample (oversampling is recommended) of diverse students (with the migratory experience as a condition). Across a small scale exploratory study we will have useful information about the adequacy of the test for school staff members, for students and for specific research in second language. Data will be presented regarding the following items: verbal analogies, semantic associations, picture naming, and morphological extraction. The main focus will be on the evaluation of the cognitive academic language proficiency depending on socioeconomic backgrounds identified through the professional situation of two-parent families and attending to their job skills (graduate and non-graduate). The results confirmed the hypothesis that students from low income immigrant families experienced worst performance in general tasks. Implications will be discussed considering that limited socioeconomic families have more failure to provide their children cognitive stimulating activities inside home routines comparing to more stable immigrant contexts.
switching has a strong identity connotation and appears in the form of Italian words, related to Italian games (example 5). Given these examples we can comment on the use of code- switching in a community of Italian immigrants abroad during a recreational activity. Code-switching, in the context studied, is ascribable to situational factors. In fact, in the situation in which the players are bilingual there are communicative exchanges in which the language of interaction is negotiated continuously based on interaction management requirements. However, in situations in which the players have minimal competence in Italian, code-switching can be ascribed to symbolic factors related to identity. We have, in fact, seen that despite Tina and Luisa having limited Italian language competence compared to the other players, so much so that they often readily orient their linguistic choices towards Portuguese and confi ne their Italian to the terms related to games (bocce, a coppie, piastrelle), their relationship with Italian culture and traditions is still very strong. In this sense we can affi rm that Italian games constitute a strong element of ethnic identifi cation for the Italians studied and while speaking of them they affi rm their Italian origins regardless of their linguistic preferences.
Abs tra c t. The article deals with the analysis of the problem of the form ation of professional skills of future specialists of fine arts in the process of artistic and practical training. The author em phasizes that the efficiency of the form ation of professional skills of future specialists of fine arts in the process of their artistic and practical training can be achieved on the basis of the realization of the following pedagogical conditions: 1) individualization of the academ ic process by m eans of the im plem entation of a professionally oriented program of educational activity which has different form s of self-organization and self-determ ination of a personality and takes into account students’ interests, inclinations and natural abilities; 2) use of professionally oriented tasks (testing, training and creative) and m odern m ultim edia technologies of education in the process of students’ artistic and practical training; 3) organization of system of continuous practice of future specialists of fine arts which includes m useum and pedagogical practices and the practice in the open air.
learning to be successful. Measurement of skills provides indicators of student pro ﬁles and of their different limit- ations in pro ﬁciency which leads to appropriate intervention and educational tools (Shum et al., 2014). According to Lukmani (2012), SL testingin the classroom should be set in AQ23 other terms to avoid space inside curriculum time. Assessment should be carefully executed and take place longitudinally during the ﬁrst year of exposure to the SL. Typical tests should be reviewed in order to avoid ﬁxed rules and tasks that do not assess independent outputs of SL learners (e.g. changes from active to passive voice). It is mandatory to evolve testing objectives to measure how individuals develop their reasoning over the questions and trial, and making implicit the cross-transfer processes. Sanchez et al. (2013) re ﬂected that community research assessment practices in the USA are not able to give a realistic picture of the cognitive and linguistic behaviours of bilinguals. Findings in the international research revealed evidence of cross-language transfer but not focused on Romance language learning. The evidence is mostly related to English SL learning and with no advances for other languages such as Portuguese that is widely spoken throughout the world. More research in Romance language settings should be undertaken to provide valid data and new tools for teachers, principals, curriculum coordinators and students.
Several difficulties have been encountered in establishing an ESP based syllabus at the university: first, widely disparate abilities exist because learners reach this stage with three, five, seven or eight years of English at school, depending upon whether it was their first or second foreign language, and whether they specialised in it in their final year at school. In addition, some learners have attended an English institute having passed the First Certificate in English or Cambridge Advanced English examinations. Teaching has to be adapted to meet all the learners’ needs and it is necessarily easy for the more advanced learners, who need to be stimulated to participate actively in the lessons while allowing the weaker learners to contribute to the task. Thus, variations inlanguage level and prior education can only be accommodated to a certain extent.
In the context of SBI, the autonomous learning concept would benefit the schools in creating an international atmosphere at the school and improving students’ quality in terms of academic and attitude toward learning. As naïve as it is to say that internationalization is simply measured by the use of English at school, one would admit that the active use of English at school is a sign that the school is ready to internationalize itself. By the help of proper activities and materials, students are given more exposures and expose themselves to English. The use of technology will, too, benefit the schools in accelerating the autonomous language learning process as it is a reservoir of self access resources and students are more closely attached to it. Self Access Center (SAC) can then be the center of activities where students are assigned to watch or listen to multi media, download or upload authentic materials, work as groups to find solutions to the problems, or conduct research to answer stimulating questions posted on the SAC’s posts.
One interesting inding of this study was the performance of groups concerning personal-social function. In the DDST- II, the personal-social score assesses reactions of the child in response to stimuli from social environment as compared to the independent performance of daily and concrete tasks, involving organization of, and response to stimuli; social skill; and understanding of the context. HI interferes in the development of verbal communicative skills, affecting social functions. However, such damage was not relevant to limit the social activity in G1. We can infer that this can be attributed to the intellectual skills and beneits derived from CI, which has the objective of establishing contact with the world of sound, thus proportioning the development of hearing and linguistic skills for communication, even if slowly. Also, after the child with CP receives the beneit of speech perception by CI, the child starts presenting receptive language. These skills are suficient and useful in enabling the child communicate and interact with the environment, which is essential for the development of personal-social function and implies social involvement (21,24) , which also
Tests of ATL-based model transformations were conducted so that the groups of selected test cases were considered. To do so, it is important to point out the execution of an ATL transformation, involving the following steps: (i) Verification of semantic errors related to the ATL meta-model and the source and target meta- models; (ii) compilation; and (iii) execution of the transformation (Brunelière et al., 2010). That is to say, in the first two steps the verification of certain types of errors is already performed and the execution is interrupted, if needed. The syntactic correctness of the model transformation is assured by the ATL language compilation process. Thus, the ATL compiler verifies whether the program/model developed is syntactically correct in relation to this language.
Brassinosteroids are a group of plant steroid hormones that are involved in plant growth and development. About fifty naturally occurring brassinosteroids have been identified in diverse plant species. C28 brassinosteroids are most commonly occurring and most abundant. Among these brassinolide is most active. Plants have many pathways for biosynthesis of brassinolides (BL), which are derived from the steroid biosynthetic pathway. At least four pathways are involved in the biosynthesis of castasterone (CS), and CS is further metabolized to BL by lactonization of the B ring.C6 oxidation and the late-C6 oxidation pathways, two additional pathways from campestanol to castasterone (CS) are found in many plants. Analysis of a brassinosteroid-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in discovery of another branching pathway, the early C-22 oxidation pathway.. Functional analysis of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases responsible for brassinosteroid biosynthesis revealed the existence of a new pathway from campesterol to 6-deoxotyphasterol (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/)
The eighth study is Air and bone-conduction frequency-speciic auditory brainstem response in neonates with normal hearing from the authors Ramos and Lewis. Fonseca and Iorio present the ninth study about Hearing aids dispensed by SUS and quality of life. The tenth study is present by Barcelos and Dazzi about Effects of the MP3 Player on hearing. The eleventh study is from Fernandes, Sousa and Costa-Guarisco about Speech recognition in ski slope sensorineural hearing loss. The twelfth contribution by Gois, Gois, Pereira and Taguchi about State mental and impacto f the tinnitus in the elderly.
The notion of ‘inatism’ (structuralism) can not be argued as exclusive explanation in the language development, applied to the first and second language contexts. The ‘language acquisition device’ (Chomsky, 1957) is the human mechanism to guarantee the language development, considering the linguistic input as a secondary influence. This ability is developed as a mental structure (where private events occur that are difficult to the direct observation), which in turn, however, is the result of the stimulus operated by the ‘context’. The verbal behaviour depends on the relation of various factors and among them we find the mental structures, which along with other events, help to form the set of stimuli: the context. In the first acquisition of languagecontext, the biological factors (mind) are involved effectively, but not constituting key factor in the acquisition of second language. This means that the elements (gender, age, culture, first language, formal education, verbal community) that constitute what we call the 'context' and are essentially external (not depending exclusively from the internal structures of the human mind) will act with greater emphasis in the development process of L2. Thus, the maternal language is acquired in a separate acquisition of the second language, when occurring in different ages, not simultaneously, regarding the greater or lesser influence that several factors take the course of life.
The first evident information points out that, although there was a collection of about 20 CD-Roms with child's games and a virtually unlimited number of games and activities in the internet, the children usually choose among a few preferred games and some work programs (word® and paint-brush®). It was also interesting to note that only three subjects used more than 1 program or game in each session, regardless of its duration and they did it in only 4 sessions.
convenience and non-probabilistic sample, being an action-research carried out with physicians who attended the Specialization in Family Health at UNASUS/UFCSPA and who spontaneously chose to study the Module "Initial Management of Users with Rapid HIV positive Testing", with the objective of addressing comprehensive care, improving knowledge about the pathology, and improving the flow of first steps management within the possibilities of their health units and of the service network. The opening of vacancies was offered to the two groups that were already in the second stage of the Specialization, called "Core", due to the fact that they were already acclimated to learning from complex cases. The estimated workload was 8 hours and the availability was in the first quarter of 2016. The course is integrated in the platform Repository of Educational Resources in Health (ARES), under the register 3474. Available at:
The contexts bestowed to us every day are more plural and in literature the new emerging terms seek to express or signify all this plural reality. In the case of the words “multilingual” and “multicultural”, the studies that address these concepts define them as the coexistence of different languages and cultures in the same territory and as the knowledge that individuals have of these languages and cultures (EUROPEAN COUNCIL, 2002; BEACCO; BYRAM, 2007; PIÑEIRO; GUILLÉN; VEZ, 2010; NUSSBAUM; UNAMUNO, 2014). Although under these terms underlies the idea of its preservation, especially of those minority languages, because it´s considered that
70 x 80mm with the influence on the same 30 mm diameter casting but with contact surface of 30 mm diameter. Than the length of that kind of chill is 435 mm. The results which were shown in fig.1 and fig.2 and in table 1 indicate that energetic dimension of compacted chill in the place where there should be the best mechanical properties express good several percentages shorter time of solidification. Long chill with small transverse cross-section (massiveness obtained by length extension) in spite of very high λ, c and ρ of copper even λ higher than 300 W/(mK) doesn’t guarantee so fast heat extraction in the period when the primary structure are formed. The test confirmed more intensive influence of massive, compacted chill.
Spoken language is considered one of the most important skills for students who learn a foreign language and, at the same time, one of the most difficult ones for teachers to deal with in the classroom. It demands from the students, along with the ability to express spontaneous, coherent and fluent ideas in different sociolinguistic contexts, the capacity to understand what other people say and react to it using feedback expressions to show interest and keep the course of a conversation. For this reason, the conception of speaking lessons must start with a careful preparation, selection and presentation of activities based on the students´ needs and interests, creating the best conditions for them to use the language for a variety of communicative purposes and situations.
If we are to ponder on the significance of silence in political communication, we should broaden the specter of possible meanings and distinguish potential dimensions of silence beyond lack, absence, failure or apathy. A comprehensive and relevant way to look to “the silence debate” in political communication would not exclusively consider democracy from be speech-centric point of view. Instead, it would consider extrinsic forms of silencing (distortions, ruptures, disbelief, disregard) but also intrinsic forms of silencing (that ways silencing is an act of communication and a central element of political discourses and negotiations of power). In other words, we are interested in highlighting positive, constructive and euphoric aspects of silence in political communication by focusing, not on the powerlessness side but on the empowerment side. By separating extrinsic and intrinsic forms of silence, we are differentiating between silence as imposition and silence as a choice; between silence that disempowers and silence that empowers. While stressing intrinsic forms of silence, we open space to reflect the communicative dimension contained in it. In effect, we should include in our exam how citizens communicate preferences and judgments in decision-making processes and acknowledge that the choice of silence, in itself conveys little information about the preferences and political attitudes of individuals. The vocal ideal of democracy has, first of all, interpreted that silence as expressing a negative political attitude. However, that perspective does not necessarily register silence as a communicative act. It comprehends silence as denial or negligence without posing the possibility that silence, instead of evidencing lack of motivation, could, in fact, configure a certain kind of political motivation.