The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main companyperformancemeasurementandreportingmethods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on companyperformancemeasurement. If the financial performancemeasurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performancemeasurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performancemeasurement, reportingand interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performancemeasurementmethods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the companyperformancemeasurement than the non-financial indicators do.
This article aims to provide new insights into the methods used for the valuation of companies. The specialists do not fully agree on the real value of companies. The patrimonial methods result from the data previously provided by the balance sheet, but we are not sure whether they will be the same in the future. The methods based on performance rely on information from the profit and loss account and consider receipts which may or may not be borne out by reality. The mixed methods combine the characteristics of the first two methods.
According to the current international financial accounting standards (IFRS), goodwill is no longer amortized, but an impairment test should be performed at the end of each year. Once an impairment loss is confirmed, it cannot be reversed. This study aims to compare the causes and impact of the goodwill impairment losses with prior researches. The cases of Kraft Heinz Company, Dalian Zeus Entertainment Co., Ltd, and Bayer Group that disclosed impairment losses in the fiscal year 2018 reporting under US GAAP, China GAAP and IFRS are analyzed and compared. Our findings based on the ROE, ROA, ROS and goodwill-to-assets ratio analysis of these three companies are concluded as (1)goodwill impairment losses harm the overall corporate performanceand show lagging information, and (2) goodwill impairment losses are relative with big bath, and (3) irrational mergers and acquisitions and large-scale write-offs prompt opportunistic management.
100 The example referenced in the Black Friday campaign is a good example for other companies to follow, based on an effective measurementand planning process of the activities. This campaign was, in fact, one of the most profitable to the company, through good MPM practices and everything that these involve, realizing the impact of good digital marketing performancemeasurement practices in the overall firm performance. Through this way of measuring, Forall Phones allocates its efforts according to the most profitable channels, type of ad, content, type of strategy, target, location, and products. Choosing hard metrics rather than soft metrics has its advantages, but the last ones should not be excluded from the analysis either. All types of metrics have their significant role. To be effective, they should be seen not as isolated metrics, but as an interconnected system, depending on one another, and are linked to top management objectives. Then, companies should understand the links that all actions have with each other and not rule out metrics such as engagement, satisfaction or awareness, a failure pointed out to Forall Phones. These kinds of measures can, inclusively, lead to an increase in revenue, and as a consequence, an increase not only in ROI, but also in brand equity. The use of subjective metrics has been one of the problems pointed to performancemeasurement, but only when they are used without any purpose, where there is no clear link between them and the value created by marketing. Therefore, it is important to measure not only, for instance, the number of views of a video ad on YouTube, but also what it has brought to the brand in terms of outcomes.
(2007) determined sustainable city compactness by using COPRAS method. Banaitiene et al. (2008) used COPRAS method to select a building’s life cycle. Kaklauskas et al. (2010) evaluated intelligent built environment alternatives in industrialized countries. Kanapeckiene et al. (2010) proposed Knowledge Based Decision Support System for Construction Projects Management (KDSS-CPM) to select a land parcel from the alternatives. Das et al. (2012) applied COPRAS method to measure relative performance of Indian technical institutions. Mulliner et al. (2013) evaluated the affordability of different housing locations by considering economic, environmental and social criteria. Chatterjee and Chakraborty (2014) used COPRAS method to select the most appropriate Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for a manufacturing firm. Also, COPRAS-G method was used for the selection of investment project (Popovic et al., 2012), the effective dwelling house walls (Zavadskas et al., 2008a), construction project manager (Zavadskas et al., 2008b), contractor (Zavadskas et al., 2008c), best web site (Bindu Madhuri et al., 2010) and material (Chatterjee & Chakraborty (2012); Maity et al. (2012)) The procedure of the COPRAS method consists of the steps as below (Chatterjee & Chakraborty, 2014):
How are we doing? Due to the current demand for excellence and transparency, hospitals should start collecting and analyzing data — a method to evaluate future improvements — about outcomes calling for quality from their practitioners in preparation for a not too distant future. Implementing an independent measurementand a reporting system — business intelligence — focused on patient safety with a view to eventually making the information available to the public, will have an impact on quality, as well as on consumer and patient satisfaction. An accurate and unbiased statistical analysis of surgical outcomes allows for an intelligent search of the risk factors, continuous improvement through responsiveness of the parts and the course of actions, as well as for a valid comparison with other institutions. The truth is the truth wherever it is found and to dismiss it because it comes from people with different views is a mistake. Undoubtedly, gathering accurate information is vital also because politicians, bureaucrats andcompany oficials are often wary about alarming citizens.
EARABLE electronics are increasingly prevailing because of the extensive applications for wireless body area networks (WBANs), wireless sensor area networks (WSANs) and wireless local area networks (WLANs). Wireless body area networks, as body centric communication technology, have the potential to provide unprecedented opportunities for monitoring in a variety of domains, such as ubiquitous real-time healthcare and fitness, sports and military. Antennas play a pivotal role in body-centric communications and arouse significant attention in research, especially regarding possible health risks. The general performance requirements for WBAN antennas are listed in the following:
Hypothesis H 6a , which foresees a significant and positive relationship between an enabling PMS mediated by psychological empowerment and task performance, was supported (p-value < 0.01). Th is indicates that by providing employees with an enabling PMS that associates the availability of information at all levels of a company with the possibility of actively handling it, understanding its logic, and using it as a support tool to meet their demands, and that favors learning, can make them view their work environment positively. Th ey will thus have the elements needed to execute their work adequately and will experience psychological empowerment. Perceiving intrinsic motivation in their work, employees will act more favorably in relation to the demands of their work context in order to obtain better results. Although Liden et al. (2000), Seibert et al. (2004), and Wang and Lee (2009) did not investigate SCG or PMS, their ﬁ ndings relate to characteristic elements of these systems, with indication that such elements could occur in a PMS, which is an aspect that is corroborated by this study and which jointly reinforces the elements noted in these studies.
In this master thesis was made investig ation of parent company’s influence on spin-off performance. Research questions were created in order to find out the reasons of spin-off creation, to define types of spin-off and parent-spin-off relationships in the post-spin-off period, to identify types of resources and knowledge, parent transfers to spin-off and to make evaluation of spin-off in post-spin-off performance. In order to find answer on created research questions qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis were used. Qualitative analysis implemented in the form of open-ended questionnaires was answered by 7 respondents, holding administrative and managerial positions in spin-off companies of USA and Canada. Quantitative analysis was made through financial ratios analysis of financial service and energy spin-off performance. During analysis of questionnaires was found that majority of respondents mentioned shareholder value maximization as the main reason of spin-off creation. Despite the fact, that spin-off considered in the literature like independent entity, 3 of 7 spin-offs were found dependent on their parent companies in resources, knowledge and services, while parent company was in a role of ‘manager’, ‘supplier’ and ‘distributor’ for spin-off. Majority of spin-offs got help from parent in the form of cash, employees and management. Among knowledge that was transferred from parent to spin-off was mentioned managerial, technical, technological, marketing, production and intellectual property. Based on the financial ratios performance analysis of energy spin-off was found out that energy spin-off, unrelated to its parent , since the year of separation continue to generate net loss, despite those fact that parent company of spin-off still shares with it resource and personnel. Based on financial ratio performance analysis of financial service spin-off was found out that spin-off performance had been improving slightly since separation from parent. Financial service spin-off have plans to become one of the leaders in the financial industry.
(2001) argues that technological innovativeness allows applying new methods to provide better operational progress and increase productivity and reduce costs. On the other hand the profit achieved from differentiation strategy causes provision of different products and services compared to the competitors. This leads to sustainable performance of the companies (Rajiv et al., 2014).Today, companies and institutions and individuals are encountering with intense global competition due to globalization. Companies should gain competitive advantage under this commercial pressure. Barney (1991) stated in this regard that the company needs to implement a strategy to create value compared to its potential competitors in order to have a sustainable competitive advantage.Eisenhardt and Martin (2000) stated that classification of cost leadership strategies is not possible as a long-term sustainable performance. Also Murray (1988) stated that cost management strategy is unavoidable. On the other hand differentiation strategy provides sustainable competitive advantage for companies. Recent studies by Banker, Mashruwala and Tripathy(2014) showed that differentiation strategy provides higher and more sustainable financial performance in long- term.On the other hand, innovativeness is one of the important subjects. It is one of the most important aspects in entrepreneurship orientation that implements differentiation strategy. It provides higher performance for the company. Researches have shown that there is a relationship between entrepreneurship orientation, innovativeness and differentiation strategy (Zahir et al., 2015).Small businesses are able to create technological innovativeness in different economic environments because of their inherent capability. simple organizational structure, appropriate internal communications, better centralization, quick decision-making, more flexibility and so on can be considered of their unique features. They have inherent advantages for technological innovativeness capabilities. These small businesses have dynamic and
In the majority of the cases the analytical approach that is used is the regression complemented with Pearson correlations. However, there are some articles that use more powerful methods, such as two- stage least square or generalized method of moments. With the application of the regression most of the authors choose to include control variables in the regression model. The majority decided to control the size of the firm using the natural log of assets. Some had used a ratio to control the effect of leverage dividing the total debt by the total assets.
Applying the IFRS definitely offers a series o advantages for Romanian companies. The advantages of adopting IFRS shows that this is an opportunity for Romanian companies to optimize the manner in which: evaluate and measure internal performance, communicate with the exterior regarding more information, faster and offered with a higher frequency, they obtain a competitive advantage, a greater value for shareholders, thus responding to market. Applying IFRS definitely offers some advantages for Romanian companies. This is noticed by most companies (50%) that consider that the application of these accounting standards will improve the company image. Thus, 30% of businesses surveyed considered that the main advantage of applying these accounting rules is the possibility of strengthening the international financial statements for multinational companies and potential increase of foreign investors confidence in accounting information, while 28% believe that the financial institutions will increase their confidence in the account information provided by companies credited.
one of the PerformanceMeasurement System. According to Harvard Business School Publishing (2007) definition, “a Performance System is perceived as a formal performancemeasurement, a set of strategic objectives andperformance metrics, including key performance indicators (KPI), applied throughout the entire enterprise. Thus, a PMS gives executives and managers a comprehensive, high-level view of their organization’s performanceand an understanding of how the company’s different parts work together to produce business results. In many companies that use a PMS, senior executives advocate adoption of the system and manage its implementation. In order to be effective, a PMS, once it has been established, everybody in the organization contributes to and uses it, defining individual goals that support unit andcompany-level goals and they generate performance data that their supervisors then input into the system”.
Despite the advantages brought for the accounting information (comparability, predictive capacity, neutrality, relevance), there are voices who criticise the fair value arguing that it induces volatility in measuring the performance of the entity when it is based on assessments, because there is no functional market. In this context of the deformation of the real image of the companyperformance by taking into account both the results obtained as well as the results no-realized based on the data assessed using models, users’ interest for the Profit and Loss Account decreases in favour of the Cash Flow Statement (Bernheim.Y, 1999).
Content validity (logical validity) refers to the extent to which a scale truly measured represents all facets of a given construct that is intended to measure. It is the degree to which an instrument has an appropriate sample of items for the construct being measured and is an important procedure in scale development. In other words, content validity refers to how accurately an assessment or measurement tool taps into the various aspects of the specific construct in question, do the questions really assess the construct in question, or are the responses by the person answering the questions influenced by other factors? Content validity is most often measured by relying on the knowledge of people who are familiar with the construct being measured. Theses subject-matter experts are usually provided with access to the measurement tool and are asked to provide feedback on how well each question measures the construct in question. Their feedback is then analyzed and informed decisions can be made about the effectiveness of each question. Assessment andmeasurement tool like surveys and questionnaires are quite common in the social and behavioral sciences. For instance, a depression scale may lack content validity if it only assesses the affective dimensions of depression without taking into account the behavioral dimension. Content validity index (CVI) is the most widely used index in quantitative evaluation.
The firms included in this research are ISE (Istanbul Stock Exchange) and SSE (Shenzhen Stock Exchange) listed manufacturing companies in 2006 and 2005. Data was collected from CorporateInformation.com. This site holds "Best of the Web" recognition from FORBES Magazine. BARRON's Magazine featured the site as one of the best sources of company information for investors. This site is also one of the few sources in the world for English language reports on many companies in Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe that do not release their results in English. Data of 166 Chinese and 65 Turkish firms were gathered. After excluding the firms with missing values and as outliers at 5% level of significance by the test of Mahalanobis Distance, the sample for analysis was made up of 126 Chinese and 47 Turkish manufacturing firms.
Bias in clinical research can be described as systematic error that can result in false treatment effect estimates . Bias may cause a investigators to misinterpret the result of any research ﬁnding. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely recognized as being the best design for avoiding and/or minimizing bias. Blinding, although not possible in every study, is an important methodological technique to help reduce the inﬂuence bias may have on the results of an evaluation [2–9]. Blinding refers to keeping key persons, such as participants, health care providers, and outcome assessors, unaware of the treatment administered or of the true hypothesis of the trial [3,5,6]. Blinding of participants and health care providers prevents performance bias that occurs if additional therapeutic interventions (i.e., cointerventions) are provided preferentially in one of the comparison groups . Blinding of outcome assessors minimizes the risk of detection bias (i.e., observer, ascertainment, assessment bias). This type of bias occurs if participant assignment inﬂuences the process of outcome assessment . For example, non- blinded neurologists assessing the outcome from a trial  demonstrated an apparent treatment beneﬁt, whereas blinded neurologists did not. Finally, blinding of data analysts can also prevent bias, as knowledge of the intervention received may inﬂuence the choice of analytical strategies andmethods . Empirical evidence has demonstrated that lack of reporting of double blinding is responsible for biased treatment estimates [1,2,11–13].
As atividades empresariais e as dinâmicas do mercado têm influenciado realidades de norte a sul. O crescente alarmismo dos stakeholders tem provocado uma maior demanda pela responsabilidade empresarial, ao que se junta um implícito benefício financeiro que também tem acelerado o debate entre os gestores. Embora abundantemente abordados, os conceitos em torno deste tema, tal como a sua potencial influencia sobre os negócios, continuam sem reunir consensos. O sector industrial aparenta ter grande influência na divulgação de informação empresarial mas ainda assim as investigações em determinadas indústrias são raras ou inexistentes. O presente documento tem como objectivo analisar a divulgação de informação sobre a responsabilidade social empresarial (CSD) através dos indicadores de performance disponibilizados pela GRI. A amostra consiste em todas as empresas do sector da saúde - produtos e serviços – cotadas em bolsa e presentes na base de dados mundial da GRI para o ano 2012. Os resultados sugerem a existência de diferenças significativas na CSD entre os vários continentes, uma importante valorização da Auditoria Externa e uma possível relação entre a CSD e a Performance Financeira das Empresas (CFP). Este estudo surge como um contributo válido para a literatura facilitando um melhor entendimento deste fenómeno na sua globalidade.
basic system embedded within these extensions, is still MRP, an approach that has been heavily criticised partly because its centralised nature requires a large amount of data handling and the need to maintain highly accurate stock records. Nevertheless, it is essential for companies to co- ordinate deliveries and a wide range of other activities and so MRP has continued to be used even though the data handling may preclude responsiveness. The choice of parameters available within an MRP system and the differences between companies and their markets mean that it is unlikely that any two MRP systems are identical even if the companies use the same software. JIT and kanban systems also have great variety in the way that they have been implemented. In practice the same label, whether MRP or JIT, may be used to describe systems with different structures, different parameter values and very different perform- ance. More confusing, but less frequently recognised, is that the labels, push and pull, that are commonly used to describe MRP and JIT systems are also defined in many different ways. Thus not only can different systems be described in the same way but the same systems may also be described in contradictory ways. This has been discussed in BONNEY et al. (1999a) and that same paper reports a simulation study that compares the performance of very simplified push and pull systems. The simulation indicates that under some specific conditions, push systems, appropriately defined, have similar potential for stock reduction as pull systems. The lack of precision with definitions has led to confusion within the literature and among production control practitioners. This suggests that to improve understanding it is essential to represent systems with clarity and desirable to represent them consistently.
A Careful examination of eq. (7) reveals that calibrating a differential pressure gage  (which the ASI is) in velocity units is not as easy as it may seem. Pressure and/or density are different at each pressure altitude and, even with V as the measure of velocity it means that a new scale would be needed for each pressure altitude. Such scaling is obviously impractical and so a scale based on standard day sea level conditions is defined by :