EncryptOnClick for AES Algorithm with 256 bit, Blowfish 2000 for Blowfish algorithm and Kryplite for DES algorithm. Based on the input which is distance and size, time that used to send data to receiver and throughput could be calculate. All of these calculation done in the MATLAB programming and the output produces time of data transfer. Based on the gained results the authors recommended choosing AES to achieve fast delivery of data and high throughput, and choosing Blowfish algorithm when larger size of data sending with smaller transmission rate. Kashani and Mahriyar in  analyzed video streaming characteristics inAdhocnetworks using several cryptography algorithms. The authors presented an application setup for secured video streaming inAdhocnetworks. Public key infrastructure approach was chosen to provide authentication at the network layer. They proposed a fully distributed certification authority (CA) for Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) based Adhocnetworks. The initial assumption was that the network contains predefined special nodes called shareholders. Shareholders can generate partial signatures. A node joining the network, can obtain a certificate only if it receives at least k partial signatures form k different shareholders ,a shareholder offering service can be identified from the broadcasted HELLO messages. On the other hand, different cryptography schemes were implemented and analyzed in the study; RC4, 3DES, AES-128, AES-256, Salsa20-128 and Salsa20-256 and the time required to encrypt different sizes of data were adopted as a performance metric. The results showed that for RC4, 3DES, AES-128, AES-256, Salsa20-128 and Salsa20-256 took less than 1500 ms to encrypt the 1 MB binary file. 3DES consumes the largest encryption time followed by Salsa20-256, Salsa20-128, AES-256, AES-128 and RC4 respectively.
Abstract —The mobileadhoc network (MANET) is nothing but the wireless connection ofmobile nodes which provides the communication and mobility among wireless nodes without the need of any physical infrastructure or centralized devices such as access point or base station. The communication in MANET is done by routing protocols. There are different categories of routing protocols introduced with different goals and objectives for MANETs such as proactive routing protocols (e.g. DSDV), reactive routing protocols (e.g. ADOV), geographic routing protocols (e.g. GRP), hybrid routing protocols etc. There are two important research problems with such routing protocols to address such as efficient load balancing and energy efficiency. In this paper, we are focusing on evaluation and analysisof efficient load balancing protocol design for MANET. Inefficient load balancing technique results in increasing routing overhead, poor packet delivery ratio, and other Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. In literature, there are a number ofdifferent methods proposed for improving the performance of routing protocols by efficient load balancing among mobile nodes communication. However, most of the methods suffer from various limitations. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for improved the QoS performance of load balancing approach as well as increasing the network lifetime. Evaluation of Network lifetime is out of scope of this paper.
Due to inherent specifications of MANETs, they face many security issues compared to present ordinary networks (Hoang et al, 2006). An attacker can contravention them by passively or actively attacking on MANETs (Rutvij et al, 2010). A passive attack is difficult to detect as the adversary obtains information without disturbing normal network operations; traffic analysis, traffic monitoring and eavesdropping are examples of passive attacks. On the other hand, active attack can be internal or external in which adversary alters information and thus, disturbs network operations; examples of such attack are impersonation, modification, fabrication, jamming, message replay, denial-of service. TABLE I. shows the characteristics and examples of active and passive attacks. Both active and passive attacks can be launched on any layer of the network protocol stack. Table II. The paper (Perkins et al, 2004) shows some examples of attacks on different layers.
Wireless MobileAd-HocNetworks is one of the attractive research field that growing exponentially in the last decade. it surrounded by much challenges that should be solved the improve establishment of such networks. Failure of wireless link is considered as one of popular challenges faced by MobileAd-HocNetworks (MANETs). As this type ofnetworks does not require any pre-exist hardware. As well as, every node have the ability of roaming where it can be connected to other nodes dynamically. Therefore, the network internal structure will be unpredictably changed frequently according to continuous activities between nodes that simultaneously update network topology in the basis of active ad-hoc nature. This model puts the functionality of routing operation in crucial angle in the area of research under mobilead- hoc network field due to highly dynamic nature. Adapting such kernel makes MANET indigence new routing techniques to settle these challenges. Thereafter, tremendous amount of routing protocols proposed to argue with ad-hoc nature. Thus, it is quite difficult to specify which protocols operate efficiently under differentmobilead-hoc scenarios. This paper examines some of the prominent routing protocols that are designed for mobilead-hocnetworks by describing their structures, operations, features and then comparing their various characteristics.
A large number of studies on multi-hop wireless networks have been devoted to system stability while maximizing metrics like throughput or utility. These metrics measure the performance of a system over a long time-scale. For a large class of applications such as video or voice over IP, embedded network control and for system design; metrics like delay are of prime importance . The delay performance of wireless networks, however, has largely been an open problem. This problem is notoriously difficult even in the context of wire line networks, primarily because of the complex interactions in the network (e.g., superposition, routing, departure, etc.) that make its analysis amenable only in very special cases like the product form networks. The problem is further exacerbated by the mutual interference inherent in wireless networks which, complicates both the scheduling mechanisms  and their analysis. Some novel analytical techniques to compute useful lower bound and delay estimates for wireless networks with single hop traffic were developed
A method for secure query processing inmobile databases has been presented in (Saha and Chowdhury, 2007). Queries are sent to the server through point-to- point channels by the mobile devices. Computation of the superset of results of many such queries is made by the mobile database server for broadcasting through a channel of larger bandwidth. The mobile devices can retrieve the required information by tuning in to that channel. Senders of the queries can view the results of both their queries and those of others in the same group. The undesirable aspect in this is, malicious users have access to the results f the queries sent by some other users. Saha and Chowdhury (2007) proposal of a method is made that denies any user doing so even when the results of multiple queries are broadcasted through the same channel and are accessible to all users. Tabassum et al. (2010), the authors discussed the various challenges in distributed processing of location dependent continuous queries in a mobile environment by studying the different scenarios in which both the querying unit and the object being queried are in motion. The authors discussed a classification ofdifferent s categories of location dependent queries and various solutions to such complex queries. Caching techniques enable faster access to data, minimizing the huge network traffic created because of the processing of location dependent queries in a wireless environment. The query results are cached for a further reduction of the data transfer and reusability of the results. The thrust area in this is the methods of processing and application of such location dependent queries (Tabassum et al., 2010). The study presents and classifies various methods of processing ofdifferent location dependent queries and data management problems in evaluation of such queries.
promise to offer high data rate over large areas to a large number of users where broadband is unavailable. This is the first industry wide standard that can be used for fixed wireless access with substantially higher bandwidth than most cellular networks , . Development of this standard facilitates low cost equipment, ensure interoperability, and reduce investment risk for operators. In the recent years, IEEE 802.16 working group has developed a number of standards for WiMAX. The first standard IEEE 802.16 was published in 2001 and focused on the frequency range between 10 and 66 GHz and required line-of-sight (LOS) propagation between the sender and the receiver . This reduces multipath distortion, thereby increases communication efficiency. Theoretically IEEE 802.16 can provide single channel data rates up to 75 Mbps on both the uplink and downlink. Providers could use multiple IEEE 802.16 channels for a single transmission to provide bandwidths of up to 350 Mbps . However, because of LOS transmission, cost-effective deployment is not possible. Consequently, several versions came with new features and techniques. IEEE 802.16-2004, has been developed to expand the scope to licensed and license-exempt bands from 2 to 11 GHz. IEEE 802.16-2004 specifies the air interface, including the Media Access Control (MAC) of wireless access for fixed operation in metropolitan area networks. Support for portable/mobile devices is considered in IEEE 802.16e standard, which is published in December 2005. WiMAX networks consist of a central radio Base Station (BS) and a number of Subscriber Stations (SSs). InMobile WiMAX network, BS (which is fixed) is connected to public network and can handle multiple sectors simultaneously and SSs are mobile.
TCP Vegas dynamically varies its sending window size based on fine-grained measurement of RTTs, whereas TCP Tahoe continues to increase its window size until packet loss is detected. While TCP Tahoe views packet losses as a sign of network congestions, TCP Vegas uses a sophisticated bandwidth estimation scheme, wherein it uses the difference between the expected and achieved flow rates to estimate the available bandwidth in the network. The idea is that when the expected and actual throughputs are almost equal, the network is not congested. In other words, in a congested scenario, the actual throughput will be much smaller than the expected. Thus, based on this estimate of network congestion, TCP Vegas updates the congestion window from the following equations:
Intrusion detection in MANETs, however, is challenging for a number of reasons [9-11]. These networks change their topologies dynamically due to node mobility; lack of concentration points where traffic can be analyzed for intrusions; utilize self configuring multi-party infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to malicious manipulation; and rely on wireless communication channels that provide limited bandwidth and are subject to noise and intermittent connectivity. To overcome these constraints, a number of decentralized intrusion detection approaches tailored specifically for MANETs have been proposed. These approaches, however, have focused almost exclusively on detecting malicious behavior with respect to MANET routing protocols and have provided little evidence that they are applicable to a broader range of threats, including attacks on conventional protocols, which also pose new problems in MANETs. This paper describes a generalized, cooperative intrusion detection architecture proposed as the foundation for all intrusion detection and supporting activities inmobileadhoc wireless networks.
Selective Acknowledgments (SACK)  is an extension of Reno which is used to overcome the flaws face by RENO and New-Reno, such as multiple drop packets’ detection and per RTT the retransmission of many lost packet. TCP SACK maintains the RENO’s slow start and fast-retransmits algorithms. If packet loss is not sensed by the altered mechanism then Sack also has the Tahoe’s coarse grained timeout. TCP SACK makes inquiries for the segments that is not cumulatively recognized but should be selectively accepted. Therefore all acknowledgements have a block that defines the recognized segments. Each time when sender move in Fast Recovery then it prepares a flexible pipe that is an estimation outstanding data in the network and set the Contention window to half of the existing size. When the window size goes lesser than Contention window then it checks the non-received segment and transmits that segment. It sends a new packet if no outstanding segments exist . As a result in one RTT many lost segments can be sent.
A MobileAdHocNetworks (MANET) is a collection ofmobile nodes that can communicate with each other using multi-hop wireless links without utilizing any fixed based- station infrastructure and centralized management. Each mobile node in the network acts as both a host generating flows or being destination of flows and a router forwarding flows directed to other nodes. With the popularity ofadhocnetworks, many routing protocols have been designed for route discovery and route maintenance. They are mostly designed for best effort transmission without any guarantee of quality of transmissions. Some of the most famous routing protocols are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Adhoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR), and Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP). In MAC layer, one of the most popular solutions is IEEE 802.11. At the same time, Quality of Service (QoS) models inadhocnetworks become more and more required because more and more real time and multimedia applications are implemented on the network. In MAC layer, IEEE 802.11e is a very popular issue discussed to set the priority to users. In routing layer, QoS are guaranteed in terms of data rate, delay, and jitter and so
emission record (secretion table) ST i near node i that regard as pheromone displaying the integrity of routing beginning at node i to through instantaneous node ni includes a value showing the predictable integrity of departing from i above adjacent ni to attain target end d . This integrity is derivative of arrangement of path peer-to- peer delay and series of hops. These eminent procedures are generally utilized in MANETs. Merging the count of hops including peer-to-peer delay among instantaneous node ni to present node i and target end node d is a method of rustling out most probably massive swings in time approximates congregated by swarm agents. The filling of the secretion tables is dynamic in view of the fact that SAHR exclusively retain information concerning target ends that are on duty throughout a conversation assemblage and because of constant alteration near the adjacent nodes. C.Route Detection:
VANETs are an emerging technology which adds the capabilities of the new generation of wireless networks to vehicles. In-car users want to have connectivity to other networks like the internet. Enabling Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for vehicle needs vehicle-to-vehicle and also vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. To collect data from VANETs, we need an efficient protocol. An excellent data gathering protocol needs to use minimum communication time and network resources while still providing low delay and high delivery rates. There are different ap- proaches to making data from a node reach a gateway node: one is to have data delivery routes between each node and a gateway node, created and maintained by routing protocols; or data can be forwarded to a gateway node using hop-by-hop decisions, according to which one or more nodes forward packets until the gateway is reached. The latter class can be further divided ac- cording to the destination of the data, into data dissemination protocols, which deliver all data to all nodes, including the gateway nodes, configuring a network broadcast; and unicast/multicast/- geocast protocols, which deliver data to a subset of nodes only. We will present, in the following section, the state-of-the-art on these two types of protocols.
protocol instead of IP addresses. There are range of multi- hop routing protocols developed over the years e.g. AODV, DSR, OLR are the few of them. The VANET plays an important role in the development of Vehicular- centered applications where cars collect the local information about the road conditions distribute this information locally and overwhelm local information from the nearby vehicles. Apart from the safety information the non-safety information are also provided to the commuters, for this purpose the Internet Gateways (IGWs) are installed along the roadside to provide a temporary internet access. Though, mobility management is require to handle the mobility of a vehicle in IGW to ensure that the requested data is from the internet always deliver to the appropriate vehicle through IGW. The vehicle must also be able to discover the IGW within VANET even its multi-hop away. To address these problems the IEEE 802.11p task group made some enhancement to the MAC layer for better support of safety and non-safety applications and PHY layer to support communication distance up to 1000m. Also to enhance larger distance, multi-hop communication is to be supported in efficient way. By enforcing such a technology in transportation, congestion problems could be solved out which could save billions of dollars of fuel, also millions of hours of waste of time on the road.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a fundamental protocol in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.TCP was well designed and optimized to work over wired networks where most packet loss occurs due to network congestion. In theory, TCP should not care whether it is running over wired networks, WLANs, or MobileAdhocNetworks (MANETs). In practice, it does matter because most TCP deployments have been carefully designed based on the assumption that congestion is the main factor of network instability. However, MANETs have other dominating factors that cause network instability. Forgetting the impact of these factors violates some design principles of TCP congestion control and open questions for future research to address. This study aims to introduce a model that shows the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. To achieve this aim, Design Research Methodology (DRM) proposed by BLESSING was used as a guide to present this model. The proposed model describes the existing situation of TCP congestion control. Furthermore, it points to the factors that are most suitable to be addressed by researchers in order to improve TCP performance. This research proposes a novel model to present the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. The model is expected to serve as a benchmark for any intended improvement and enhancement of TCP congestion control over MANET.
Qayyum et al. (2002) proposed multipoint relays in which each forward node determine the status of it neighbors based on its partial 2-hop information through node coverage. MPR is source depend, that is the forward node set it dependent on the source of the broadcast .The resultant forward node set depends on many factors, such as the location of neighbors, node priority, message propagation delay and back-off delay (Wu and Dai, 2004). Proposed a generic framework for distributed broadcasting inadhoc wireless networks. The approach is based on selecting a small subset of nodes to form a forward node set to carry out a broadcast process. The status of each node, forward or no forward is determined either by the node itself or by other nodes. Node status can be determined at different snapshots of network state along time without causing problems in broadcast coverage.
A mechanism that uses the concept of context is presented in (Saeed, Abbod, & Al- Raweshidy, 2008). This article describes a system that can adapt itself to changes in the network context and select the relevant parameters for choosing the best routing algorithm to handle the mentioned changes. In (Nickray, Dehyadgari, & Afzali-kush, 2009) the use of a society of context-aware agents to take decisions about packet routing is presented. (Das, Wu, Chandra, & Charlie Hu, 2008) describe a procedure (including context defined metrics) for finding efficient routes in a self-organizing way. Finally, (Shah & Qian, 2009) present a solution based on simple parameters like the velocity of nodes and the distance between them to determine the route lifetime in the network. This last solution shows good results when compared with another algorithms that do not use context information; this suggests that context can be useful when defining a new routing algorithm.
Abstract- AdHoc network is more convenient and cheaper than the networks with infrastructure in the usage and setup. As to wire network, the router and the terminals are also existed inAdHoc network. Compared with the roles of nodes in wire network, the major differences are which act two different roles meanwhile inAdHoc network. In practice, it is not only to research in communication security but also to setup the correct route becomes a very important subject. In this paper, I propose a new secure routing protocol based on IDMAC (Identity-Based Message Access code). According to my analysis, this scheme can prevent the problems of routing forging, modifying, and identity authentication on the Ad-Hoc network. Furthermore, I use NS2 (Network Simulator) to simulate our scheme and discuss how well the efficiency is from the simulation results.
Our main concern in this paper is to introduce a model that increases the MANET life time through load balancing multipath new technique representing parallism in sending data using 100% disjoint multiple paths (all selected paths sending data at the same time). We applied the load balancing concept to distribute data packets on the generated disjoint paths to solve the overloading problem and to prevent node starvation in next few sections. We will divide LBPRP proposed protocol into three parts, first part describe how can we select 100% disjoint paths (section 3.1), second part distributing traffic among paths to achieve load balancing in sending data (section 3.2) and if one of paths is broken we will use path maintenance in third step (section 3.3).
Intrusion Detection System (IDS) provides additional security for the most vulnerable Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET). Use of Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) in the design of IDS is proven to be efficient in detecting routing attacks in MANETs. Clustering is a vital means in the detection process of FIS based hybrid IDS. This study describes the design of such a system to detect black hole attack in MANET that uses Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol. It analyses the effect of two clustering algorithms and also prescribes the suitable clustering algorithm for the above-mentioned IDS. MANETs with various traffic scenarios were simulated and the data set required for the IDS is extracted. A hybrid IDS is designed using Sugeno type-2 FIS to detect black hole attack. From the experimental results, it is derived that the subtractive clustering algorithm produces 97% efficient detection while FCM offers 91%. It has been found that the subtractive clustering algorithm is more fit and efficient than the Fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM) for the FIS based detection system.