Top PDF Comparative Study of Hydrogen, Biodiesel, CNG & Mixture of Hydrogen & Natural Gas as Fuels in Internal Combustion Engine

Comparative Study of Hydrogen, Biodiesel, CNG & Mixture of Hydrogen & Natural Gas as Fuels in Internal Combustion Engine

Comparative Study of Hydrogen, Biodiesel, CNG & Mixture of Hydrogen & Natural Gas as Fuels in Internal Combustion Engine

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Comparative Study of Kinetic Mechanisms for Natural Gas Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine

Comparative Study of Kinetic Mechanisms for Natural Gas Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine

Fig. 3 shows the path by how the flame propagates. Thin zone of intense chemical reaction propagates through the unburned fuel-air mixture and this thin reaction zone is commonly referred to as a flame. Behind the flame, there are the hot products of combustion and front of this flame are the hot mixture of reactants. As the flame moves across the combustion space, the temperature and pressure rises in the unburned gas. Under certain conditions, rapid oxidation reactions occur at many locations within the unburned gas leading to very rapid combustion throughout the volume [3]. When the selected fuels is CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) containing methane as major component. This CNG containing fuel mixture (CNG + unburned residues from previous cycle) promises the good thermal efficiencies comparable to those accomplished by the high compression ratios, maintaining the smoke free operation of SI (Spark Ignition) engines and producing slightly lower NO x emissions [4]. In recent years, CNG
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Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

Abstract: The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, specific fuel consumption and other technical and economic parameters. Approach: Several alternative fuels has been recognized as having a significant potential for producing lower overall pollutant emissions compared to diesel fuel. Natural gas, which composed predominately by identified as a leading candidate for transportation applications among these fuels for availability, environmental compatibility and natural gas is that it can be used in conventional diesel engines. Results: Some advantages of CNG as a fuel are octane number is very good for SI engine fuel, engines can be operate with a high compression ratio, less engine emissions and less aldehydes. In the diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas with the port injection (sequential) or trans-intake valve-injection system, a high-speed gas jet was pulsed from the intake port through the open intake valve into the combustion chamber, where it caused effects of turbulence and charge stratification particularly at engine parts load operations. The system was able to diminish the cyclic variations and to expand the limit of lean operation of the engine. The flexibility of gas pulse timing offers the potential advantage of lower emissions and fuel consumption. There are several advantages of port injection. The better possibility CNG engine is to equalize the air-fuel ratio of the cylinders, optimization of the gas injection timing and of the gas pressure for different operating conditions. Conclusion: The fuel nozzle injector multi holes geometries development was to produce optimum fuel air mixing and increasing the volumetric efficiency of the engine that will promote a comparable engine performance and efficiency.
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AN INVESTIGATION ON S.I ENGINE USING HYDROGEN AND CNG BLENDS

AN INVESTIGATION ON S.I ENGINE USING HYDROGEN AND CNG BLENDS

Gaseous fuel mix uniformly with air which burns precisely during combustion than liquid fuels. It has minimum carbon deposition & negligible physical delay. Natural gas is the mixture of methane (99% of total volume) non methane hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, and butane and in some cases trace of higher hydro carbons as well as inert gases like nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide hydrogen sulphide, and sometimes water. NG reserves are 5288.5 trillion cubic feet which is larger than crude oil. Petroleum one 1000 billion barrel going to consumed in about 40 years. It is observed that CNG reduces PM by 90 % and NOx by 50 % compare to diesel engine. With CNG 42.5 % reduction in CO compared as gasoline and THC have increased with CNG with marginal decrease in NOx. CNG H/C ratio is approx. in the range of 3.7 to 4.0. CNG due to its potential for low PM and carbon based emissions such as HC, CO, PM, etc is looked as best alternative fuel. It has cleaner combustion characteristic and plentiful reserves. Current gasoline engine can be modified due to (stiochometric mixture, closed looped fuel control and exhaust catalyst) for CNG. More research & development work is going on worldwide to investigate various aspects of CNG in SI engines. CNG has simple chemical structure & wide flammability range and absence of fuel evaporation. Its high octane number (>130) give the engine high anti-knocking capability and allows it to operate at even high compression Ratio. CNG poor lean burn ability leading to incomplete combustion, High misfire ratio and large cycle by cycle variation at Lean Mixture combustion can be improved by adding Hydrogen. Hydrogen is able to burn at ultra lean at an equivalence ratio of 0.1, comparing methane Ø=0.53 and Gasoline Ø=0.7. Hydrogen quenching distance of 0.064 cm is approx 1/3 that of methane or gasoline. With modern technology CO 2 emission
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Influence of thermo hydrogen treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy

Influence of thermo hydrogen treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy

T itanium alloys are widely used in various fields because of their characteristics of low density, high strength, corrosion resistance and high temperature resistance. Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy is a kind of important structural material used under low temperature in the aerospace field. To meet the need of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy castings with high strength and high fatigue resistance, this work intends to research the inluence of thermo hydrogen treatment (THT) on this alloy.

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The specific cleavage of lactone linkage to open-loop in cyclic lipopeptide during negative ESI tandem mass spectrometry: the hydrogen bond interaction effect of 4-ethyl guaiacol.

The specific cleavage of lactone linkage to open-loop in cyclic lipopeptide during negative ESI tandem mass spectrometry: the hydrogen bond interaction effect of 4-ethyl guaiacol.

Rapid developments and technological advances in the field of mass spectrometry have made electrospray ionization (ESI)- tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) a powerful tool for the analysis of peptides and proteins [1–2] with the capability to routinely identify sequences of tens of thousands of proteins [3–4]. Most analyses were performed using positive ion mode because the ionization of peptides and proteins in negative ion mode is relatively limited [5]. However experiments in negative ionization mode can also reveal important information in the investigation of peptide and protein structure and function [6]. Hydrophobic amide groups are typically positioned at the C-termini of peptides and are thought to be the key binding sites for biological activity. Negative ion mode can be used to more easily distinguish these amide groups as they are easily deprotonated [8]. Several works have been reported that utilized negative ion mode to study drugs, peptides, and proteins [7–8]. Cassady observed different fragmen- tation patterns in negative ion mode between nearly identical peptides which can provide insight into the structure of the peptides and improved identification of unknown peptides [9]. Moore utilized negative ion mode to investigate the fragmentation chemistry of anionic, hydrogen-deficient and radical peptides [10].
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O uso do hidrogênio em motores de combustão interna centro universitário do Sul de Minas/  The use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines University Center of Southern Minas

O uso do hidrogênio em motores de combustão interna centro universitário do Sul de Minas/ The use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines University Center of Southern Minas

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 5, n. 12, p.29041-29069 dec 2019 . ISSN 2525-8761 Para o conhecimento da razão entre o ar e o combustível num motor de combustão interna no ciclo Otto, o fator lambda (λ) se torna um elemento extremamente utilizado para avaliar as formas de operação que possam melhorar o desempenho desse motor. Como consequência, acarretará numa redução nas emissões de poluentes, tendo em vista que, os gases são liberados através da queima destes elementos (SCHIRMER; OLANYK; RIBEIRO, 2017).

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CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

The shaping of an oval and barrel shape of the piston during milling is carried out by the “contact and trace” method. For machining of piston elements like cooling pockets, and for pin holes, the machine must be equipped with a turret drive and it should has the ability to use the rotation of the main spindle as the feed motion. For this scheme any additional equipment for the machine is not required. Thus it has low cost, but there is a significant drawback. To ensure the required quality of the machined surface cutting line width should be about 0.05 mm, and it means that the machining time will be much greater than in case of turning schemes.
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Quím. Nova  vol.39 número4

Quím. Nova vol.39 número4

This paper reports the use of cryolite from the Pitinga Mine (Amazonas state, Brazil) as raw material in hydrogen luoride production. Samples were initially characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. They presented low silica content (< 4 wt.%). After milling, cryolite samples were digested with concentrated sulfuric acid under stirring (200 rpm) and variable temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio conditions. Under the best experimental conditions (140 °C, 3-5 h), 96 wt.% of luorine was recovered as hydrogen luoride. The application of a 2 3 full factorial design showed that temperature and reaction time were relevant parameters
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A theoretical Study of H2 Diffusion and adsorption into Carbon Nanotubes using Monte Carlo Simulations

A theoretical Study of H2 Diffusion and adsorption into Carbon Nanotubes using Monte Carlo Simulations

The phenomenon takes the name from the observation of pollen grains suspended in water performed by Robert Brown in 1827[108]. The characteristic of such motion is the high frequency of collisions and the consequent very short mean free path. This makes displacements practically isotropic, since after so many collisions the particle no longer “remembers” the previous trajectory. It is worth to notice the affinity of such kind of situation with stochastic methods and MC methods. In such context, for statistical reasons, particles will tend to diffuse from zones with high concentration towards others where it is low. The explanation lies, of course, in the isotropy of displacements and, consequently, each particle diffuses with the same probability, so in absolute terms (i.e. number of particles ◊ probability) the flux will be higher. Analytically the problem was solved by Einstein in 1905[26] for a one dimensional system where N non-interacting particles, at t = 0 are released all in the position x = 0 and then left free to diffuse. The density fl(x, t) is expanded in a Taylor series, so that most of the terms either vanish by symmetry or are neglected. The diffusion coefficient D is then related to the mean square displacement by the equation
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Mathematical Simulation of Eccentricity in Spark Plug and its Effects on Combustion Parameters in Spark Ignition Engine

Mathematical Simulation of Eccentricity in Spark Plug and its Effects on Combustion Parameters in Spark Ignition Engine

In the present simulation a relatively simple case of particular interest in connection with automotive engines is considered. The geometry is shown in figure 1. The combustion chamber is a right circular cylinder of radius ‘R’ with variable height ‘h’. The spark plug is eccentric by a distance ‘RS’ from the cylinder axis. It is assumed that the flame spreads as a spherical wave from the point of ignition. Tables 1 and 2 give the engine data for generating the simulated results and experimental pressure crank angle diagram for validation.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

decoration in Airtam "the sculpture with the busts of musicians, gift-bearers was subjected to the unified principle of division of the entire space into rhythmic segments" [47, 86].As an example, one may consider the case when the sculpture had a religious or symbolic significance, and was a crucial element in resolving the entire interior ("Hall of Warriors" in Toprak-kale). But on the whole, in contrast to a more constrained medieval sculpture, antique one differed in realistic nature (right arrangement of the figures), expressiveness (the types of faces and their emotions), naturalness (in different curves of the body), through which the aesthetic sides of the structures were emphasized. Monumental characters of the structures, their ideological concepts (for example, the idea of greatness) were emphasized by means of sculpture. And, the most important aspect, the sculpture differed in architectonic manner (Buddhas - under the arches, gandharvas– between the acanthuses), as the determinant factor was still the scale of the monument, the height of the walls, the conditions of observation, the very architectonics of the interior. A high quality performance, especially in the Greco-Bactrian period, testified to the high skills of the artists, in the best traditions of Hellenic arts. "The artist could be acourt master from Seleucid accompanying the king to a distant Bactria" [30, 190]. It is assumed that in Bactria existed at least three sculptural schools; their students were familiar with Asia Minor sculpture schools [48, 125p]. Smooth walls of buildings were divided not only horizontally –by friezes, zofors, but also vertically - through door and window openings, columns and pilasters. The synthesis of architecture and decorative plastic forms, generally typical for later Hellenistic states, could be seen in the ancient Bactrian capitals - Corinthian and composite ones, representing a complete architectural form. Professional masters "were widely using the approach of architectonic
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Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

The effect of the different types of fuel fed to the gas engine is presented in Error! Reference source not found.3. It can be seen that the base case and natural gas 1 had higher fuel heat content compared to landfill gas, biogas and sewage gas. The highest value was the base case at 8826kW which was approximately four times that of landfill gas with the lowest value of 2360kW. This is explainable as the proportions of combustible components in landfill gas are much lower than other fuels. Landfill gas gave the lowest power output form the gas engine, which is owing to its fuel heat content. As a result, the efficiency and exhaust gas temperature showed similar trend. The lower heating value (LHV) of the different fuels also explains the observable trends in the power output, efficiency and exhaust temperature. Hence gas engines can operate on poor fuels such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas but integrating gas engines that operates on biogas with bottoming cycles can offer potential benefit compared to using landfill and sewage gas due to the exhaust temperatures as seen in Error! Reference source not found.3. It can be concluded that the power output, efficiency and exhaust temperature depends on the LHV of the fuel.
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Design Analysis and Optimization of Internal Combustion Engine Piston using CAE tool ANSYS

Design Analysis and Optimization of Internal Combustion Engine Piston using CAE tool ANSYS

In this study work there are two steps of analysis of the piston they are Designing and Analysis. Firstly design the model of the piston in giving design specification on the modelling software like INVENTOR . Then giving it the constraints which are act on the working condition of the piston after import the model of the piston into the analysis software ANSYS in IGES format. Then the analysis become completed on the different parameters(temperature, stress, deformation) and easily analysis the result. In this work the piston become optimized after the reducing the material of the piston. the mass and volume of the piston become reduced. The deformation also increased after the optimization which is responsible for the stress distribution on the piston head or piston crown.
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Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

Data for this study was collected from the banking hall of Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB) Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch. The methods used during the data collection were direct observation and personal interview and questionnaire administering. The data gathered were the daily record of queuing system over a month. The variables measured included arrival and service rate per hour. They were analyzed for simultaneous efficiency in customer satisfaction and economic cost minimization through the use of a multi-channel single-line queuing model, which were compared for a number of queue performances such as; the average number of customers in the queue and in the system, average time each customer spends in the queue and in the system and the probability of the system being idle. The following assumptions were made for modeling the queuing system at Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB) Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch.
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COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN-METHANE MIXTURES ON ACTIVATED CARBON AND 5A MOLECULAR SIEVE

COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN-METHANE MIXTURES ON ACTIVATED CARBON AND 5A MOLECULAR SIEVE

A large spectrum of inorganic (silica gels, alumina, zeolites), organic (activated carbons) and polymeric adsorbents is commercially available to carry out many separations of practical interest. These adsorbents offer a wide range of physical (micro- and macro-porosity, particle shape, size and strength) and chemical (hydrophobicity, surface polarity and ion exchangeability) characteristics to choose from. Each or all of these properties can play a role in the separation process. Activated carbon and 5A molecular sieves were selected as the best adsorbents for hydrogen recovery by adsorption processes (Teiseh and Capareda, 2010). Activated carbons contain a full range of pore sizes. Control of the pore sizes and their distribution in the manufacturing process allows a broad range of adsorbents to be available, offering widely differing selectivity. One advantage of activated carbon is that the adsorption of organic molecules tends to be non-specific. Zeolites are distinct from other adsorbents in that, for each type, there is no distribution of pore size because the crystal lattice into which the adsorbate molecules can or cannot enter is precisely uniform. For this reason zeolites are capable of separating effectively on the basis of size and they have been assigned the popular description of molecular sieves. Many zeolites are extremely polar and therefore separations may be effected using both molecular sieving and internal surface property effects (Suzuki, 1990).
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

In polycrystalline blades of aircraft engine turbines, the size and shape of the grain constitutes one of the most significant quality control criteria of the casts made. In industrial practice, the macrostructure of the airfoil and the blade root is evaluated in terms of the presence of equiaxed, columnar and frozen grains. The grain size has a significant influence on the mechanical properties, creep resistance as well as heat- and high-temperature creep resistance of the blades [10-14].
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MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENTS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT ONBOARD TO OPERATING SHIPS

MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENTS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT ONBOARD TO OPERATING SHIPS

Abstract: The operating ship, and especially those ones older than 10 years, is the most affected by the IMO enforced standards, because of the deficiency and insufficient applicable instruments as existing in the international practice, due to the technique misalignments and the implementation costs impact against the freight rate levels. Once the structure of the world fleet counts 32% share of the old ships as reported for 2015, the conception of new improvement methods becomes very important and most of the specialized companies and seeking for practical solutions in respect of energy efficiency. Overcoming these needs, the approached research as presented in the paperwork is proposing a new algorithm for cost-benefit analysis, conceived by the authors as a pragmatic solution for optimizing the energy efficiency onboard the old operating ships, exceeding 10 years in service.
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Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

In an all-Electric Vehicle (EV) there is no ICE, but all other components exist including batteries with excessive power. EVs and HEVs are studied by numerous authors in the past, one comprehensive study is that of Chan [1] . First full-scale hybrid vehicle work in Turkey is Doblo/Tofas example realized at Marmara Research Centre [2] . There have been university theses and an industry project constitutes the basics of this study [3-7] . One of the main contribution is that of Gokce [4] , energy conservation and energy balance method is adopted. The input-output feedback linearization technique combined with an adaptive backstopping observer in stator reference frame the induction motor [5] using in series hybrid electric vehicle is controlled [8] .
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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