Until 7 days of age, birds received a commercial mash diet containing 28.0% crude protein and 3000 kcal (12.5 MJ) of metabolizable energy. They were fed a mash diet containing 25.0% crude protein and 12.15 MJ (2900 kcal) ME from to 28 days, and a diet containing 21.0% CP and 11.80 MJ (2820 kcal) ME from to 42 days of growth. At 33 and 42 days of age, birds were weighed individually to 0.1-g accuracy using a Medicat electronic balance. After each weighing, ive males and ive females whose body weight was close to the median value were selected. After slaughter, plucking and evisceration, their carcasses were dissected according to the method described by Ziołecki and Doruchowski . Each carcass was separated into neck, neck skin, wings with skin, breast muscles, leg muscles, and skin with subcutaneous fat. The remainder of the carcass was the skeleton with a certain amount of skeletal muscles. Fifteen minutes after slaughter but before dissection, pH15 was measured in breast muscles (m. supericialis) and leg muscles (thigh). pH15 was determined using a CP-401 device (Elmetron).
Differences in the carcass meat content between cattle even of the same production type but different with regard to breed can be attributed, primarily, to the mechanisms that control processes of muscle growth and development. This is achieved by way of diameter increment of muscle fibres which is the most common phenomenon [M łynek and Guli ński 2007, Koohmaraie et al. 2002] described as hypertrophy. However, weight increments resulting from the increase in the number of muscle fibres – hyperplasia, leads to faster meat increases and higher meatiness. These phenomena are confirmed by investigations conducted by Wegner et al. . It is evident from these experi- ments that cattle of the Belgian Blue breed, characterised by faster increments, was also characterised by a higher number of fibres incomparison with the German cattle of Angus, Galloway and Black and White, despite the application of the same rearing system. At the same time, fattening resulted in significant changes in the fibre thickness in all breeds.
of mathematical expressions and functions is also important in determining these changes (Karadavut et al., 2010). Results that cannot be biologically interpreted limit the beneﬁts and successes of a study. Mathematical models developed with the use of growth data collected at different periods enable biological processes to be explained and the necessary growth-related assessments to be made (Behr et al., 2001). Growth models may also provide valuable data regarding the growth potential of the animals studied (Tarhan and Sezer, 2004). Nonetheless, it is also important to increase the reliability of such data. To this end, it is necessary to improve the raising conditions of the animals (Oguz and Turkmut, 1999). This is because environmental conditions, as well as rapid changes in these conditions, can have a positive as well as a negative impact on growth (Barbato, 1991). Anthony et al. (1986) described how an ideal growth model should be able to assess all aspects relating to growth. Karadavut et al. (2014) demonstrated that growth curves for live weight could be used as selection criteria for quail. Colak et al. (2006) explained that growth models not only provide information regarding the future growth and development of animals, but also enable raisers to identify and separate the animals to be used for breeding at earlier ages, determine the suitable cutting age, and assess the general health of the animals.
from two companies (A and B) at two storage times (5 and 15 days after packing). A total of 480 eggs were kept at room temperature and distributed in a completely randomized design in 2x2factorial arrangement (companies and storage time). The results indicated that trays from company B presented higher weight, as well as mean egg weight. However, the eggs in trays from company A showed greater uniformity. Evaluating the external quality, we found that above 90% of eggshell were considered with total integrity, and no difference for
The principle of divine control is very important in discussions con- cerning the relation between the Creator and His creatures. These seem to be based on two assumptions. The irst assumption is that God can achieve all His purposes in the created world (divine providence) if and only if He controls every existing being. Therefore, divine control must be perfect and unrestricted (divine volitions must be determined in every respect). Maximal possible control consists in the fact that God creates ex nihilo every being and subsequently conserves them. The second assumption is Anselmian: God is the greatest possible being one can conceive. A perfect being has everything under its control and a perfect being controls everything in the most perfect way possible. Furthermore, the best way to control everything is to create every being out of nothing and to create it as absolutely depen- dent in existence and nature upon God’s will. Omnipotence thus means to conserve continuously all created beings. Continuous creation is the best way to express divine perfection: perfect power and perfect will. Therefore, all contingent beings exist this or that way as long as divine power is acting and divine will wills itself to act upon a given being.
In particular, it remains unclear whether reward-based choice takes place in a single core structure that has a dedicated valuecomparison function, or whether it occurs more broadly, as comparison steps are implemented in unison across different brain regions . Among brain regions associated with reward-based choice, we are particularly interested in the ventral striatum (VS) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) . Both regions are associat- ed with option evaluation and with valuecomparisonin neuroimaging and lesion studies [16– 24]. On the one hand, this similarity in response properties suggests that they may play similar roles in reward-based choice. On the other hand, much evidence points to distinct roles for the vmPFC and VS. Specifically, VS, like other striatal regions, is generally linked to learning, in- cluding habit learning, and to action selection, while vmPFC, like other prefrontal regions, is associated with executive control and flexible, online regulation of behavior [25–40]. Of course, there is a sizable literature on the contributions of ventral striatum to reward-based choice, in- cluding action selection [37–40]. These include learning, or action-selection–centered ap- proaches (e.g., actor-critic models, in which VS learns to predict future rewards, while PFC formulates a choice policy designed to maximize reward [41,42]), and gating or modulation theories, wherein the ventral striatum facilitates motor plans by disinhibiting motor plans [43,44]. Indeed, one recent paper found value coding in VS precedes choice but only follows choice in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; a structure that is adjacent to vmPFC), suggesting that it is VS, and not cortex, that directs the choice .
mechanical grinding and polishing. Back scattered electrons (BSE) were utilized in SEM in order to reveal difference in chemical compositions of microcomponents present in particular samples. The SEM investigations were used to reveal the distribution of graphite and other big particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), on the other hand, was applied for examination of nanosized secondary precipitates, i.e. vanadium or niobium carbides and/or nitrides (or carbonitrides). The thin foil technique was implemented for this purpose. The 3 mm disks were ground down on sand papers and then dimpled to about 0.1 mm thickness. Afterwards the disks were further thinned in an ion mill until a perforation had appeared. The TEM investigation was carried out by means of a JEOL 2010 ARP analytical scanning transmission electron microscope operating at acceleration voltage of 200 kV. Imaging was performed by conventional transmission mode while for chemical analysis (X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - EDS) the nanoprobe mode was utilized. The nanoprobe mode enabled to obtain electron probes approaching a few nanometers in diameter (practically about 10 nm because at smaller electron probes the number of X-ray counts is usually too low for analysis). The EDS analysis was performed by Oxford-Link system attached to the microscope. The Oxford- Link system was equipped with Si(Li) detector. This system detects all elements down to boron. In order to examine the crystallography of precipitates the Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) patterns analysis was also performed.
is the customer who gives the technical specification of the prod- uct and it is the customer who has to decide whether he can or cannot accept the price dictated by the manufacturer. Based on these restrictions, it is now the manufacturer who must decide whether he is able to execute the order (within the deadline ap- pointed and using the available facilities) and what will be the price of the product as dictated by the cost of production. Improv- ing the procedure of production costs estimation should improve the contract negotiations and make them more efficient. On the other hand, estimating the cost of production involves, among others, also the need to determine the type of material and treat- ment. The manufacturer can choose what materials he will use for the product and at what price, providing he can check which
We think that the variability of the posi- tional judgments explains why Vernier acu- ity is not routinely measured by ophthal- mologists. Our results show that for all age groups tested, the number of trials required to measure a mean Vernier threshold value with a confidence interval of 10% ranged from 100 to 700. The fact that this number did not differ with age agrees with previous results (4) and indicates that this feature is an intrinsic characteristic of the neural process involved in Vernier acuity. In fact, it is pos- sible that the cognitive ability of our age groups was not the same, with young adults and older subjects being more comfortable than children with a task that requires high levels of attention. Yet, the dispersion of the data was essentially the same for all age groups. An attentional process probably ex- plains why children have higher thresholds than adults, as suggested by some (23,24) and confirmed in the present study.
After a 16-year research effort by Embrapa Beef Cattle, Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Piatã was selected from among materials collected in Welega, Ethiopia, in the 1980s, and launched as a pasture grass in Brazil since May 2007. This forage plant flourishes early in the summer and shows a greater accumulation of leaves than those produced by the cultivars Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Xaraés or Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Marandu. Although it produces less forage mass than the xaraés cultivar, its stalks are slimmer, which favors management during the dry season. Its slow growth during the initial phase is an asset in an integrated planting system with annual crops. It also has favorable management features, such as low stalk lengthening rate, higher leaf blade:stalk ratio, forage accumulation during the dry period, less seasonality in production, when compared to Marandu and Xaraés grasses with high forage volumes during the dry season and high animal performance (EUCLIDES et al., 2008).
Traditionally meat quality is either eating quality or processing quality, therefore quality is directly associated with usage and is a multifaceted concept (Webb et al., 2005). Lawrie, (1991) stated that meat eating quality involves five attributes namely, colour, water holding capacity, tenderness, juiciness and flavour. All attributes are influenced by breed, sex, age, anatomical location, exercise, nutrition and internal variability. Color is an important criterion of raw or cooked meat and meat products. It reflects the proper composition of the products, particularly in relation of meat to other compounds, freshness of raw materials, texture, taste and proper conditions of storage (Klak et al., 2001; Alberti et al., 2002). Water holding capacity is the ability of meat to retain its own or added water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding, or pressing (Judge et al., 1989) . Cooking loss is one of the most important properties of sausage products as it is related to water holding capacity. There is variation in water holding capacity among different types of meat from different animal and muscles (Lawrie, 1991). Mukasa, (1981) defined texture of meat as the sensory manifestation of the structure of the meat and the manner in which the structure reacts to the force applied during biting. Simela et al., (2003) stated that meat tenderness and flavor are the most important components that determine meat quality. The Objective of this study is:
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
Abstract: The development of fisheries sector is intended to improve the role of creating a strong linkage with other sectors by increasing the value added, absorbing labor forces and increasing people’s income so that this can make the economy grow well. The value added is a value that increases due to a commodity that has been processed, transported or stored in a production. Lamongan and Pelabuhanratu regencies are one of fisheries centers on the north and the south coast of Java Island. The aim of this research was to know the value added and the business margin of fisheries from the processing and marketing aspects. The research was carried out in two locations; Northern coast (Lamongan regencies) and Shouther coasts (Pelabuhanratu regencies), Indoneisa. The data used were primary data; the people involved in the business including fishing, marketing and processing product. The results showed that the process of fisheries product yielded the value added and margin that were created from the incorporation of business benefit, added input contribution/ other input and direct reward for the labor forces. The value added and the business margin of product processing can reach 2 to 3 fold from the main input value. The value added and the business margin of fisheries product processing were very big. This was the source of economy growth there. The effort to develop the business of fisheries product processing in the small scale need to be supported with various programs especially in the market access and funding.
Presented paper contains evaluation of influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification. The investigated model is based on the heat conduction equation with a heat source and solved using the finite element method (FEM). The model is built with the use of enthalpy formulation for solidification and using an intermediate solid fraction growth model. The model sensitivity is studied with the use of Morris method, which is one of global sensitivity methods. Characteristic feature of the global methods is necessity to conduct a series of simulations applying the investigated model with appropriately chosen model parameters. The advantage of Morris method is possibility to reduce the number of necessary simulations. Results of the presented work allow to answer the question how generic sensitivity analysis results are, particularly if sensitivity analysis results depend only on model characteristics and not on things such as density of the finite element mesh or shape of the region. Results of this research allow to conclude that sensitivity analysis with use of Morris method depends only on characteristic of the investigated model.
Differently from what was observed in the present study, Barbosa Filho et al. (2007) reported that the timetable of evaluation influences the expression of bird behavior, since all the animals follow a biorhythm due to the biological behavior, which is mainly related to the aspect of the photoperiod. Rodrigues et al. (2007) evaluated the behavior of laying quails under conditions of thermal comfort and heat stress, and observed that the birds spent more time investigating the feathers in the afternoon, when they were subjected to comfortable conditions; and that under the comfortable conditions, they remained longer in the “stop” behavior than under stress conditions. Khalil et al. (2012) observed that quail had less physical activity, with a tendency to stay longer in the “stop” behavior when kept in hot environments (35°C).
Anakinra is a recombinant interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist. In animal studies, no harm to the fetus has been demonstrated. The drug is considered Category B but little has been reported about its safety in this setting (Table 2). Tocilizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IL-6 receptors and capable of blocking downstream signalling. The drug is considered Category C and no teratogenicity has been demonstrated in animal models, although at high dose there was increased risk of abortion (Table 2). Abatacept works by blocking interactions between antigen- presenting cells and T cells via binding to CD80/ CD86 on antigen-presenting cells, with subsequent inhibition of T cell activation. The drug is considered Category C and there are inadequate data to fully comment on its safety during pregnancy (Table 2), although animal studies saw no increased risk when exposed to the maximum recommended human dose. Current recommendations are to discontinue therapy at least 10 weeks before conception. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, depletes B cells. Animal studies are limited but show no teratogenic efect, although B cells have been demonstrated to be reduced in ofspring. 60
The study describes the technology of fabrication of composite layers in cast steel reinforced with titanium carbides. In the process under discussion, the reinforcing TiC phase is formed in situ from the substrates deposited on mould cavity, where the said substrates under the effect of heat supplied by molten metal poured into mould (1823K) undergo a synthesis in the SHS reaction. An outcome of this process is the formation, within the casting surface, of a layer from 550 to 1200µm thick. Carbides produced in this synthesis have the size from 0,5 to 20µm and a non-typical spheroidal shape. The hardness of the produced layer examined in function of the distance from the casting surface is from 700 to 1134 HV, and is determined by volume fraction of the reinforcing TiC phase. To better document the type of microstructure obtained in the produced material, metallographic and structural examinations were carried out using the method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis (EDS/EDX), and phase analysis (XRD). To check the mechanical properties of the examined material, hardness was measured by the Vickers test.
the remaining time of breeding. The basic composition of feeds was consistent with the recommendations . Twelve broiler chickens (six males and six females) were selected at random from each of the production sets. Carcasses were refrigerated over 18 hours in temperature of +4ºC. Dissection analysis was performed according to the Ziołecki and Doruchowski method . The following was separated from the carcass: breast and leg muscles, wings, neck without skin, skin from the neck, skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat and giblets (heart, muscular stomach and liver).