Conclusion: The developed and tested method ofcomplexfunctionalassessmentofthehipjoint enables our colleagues, dealing with trauma and diseases ofthehip, to use it in various research and scientific projects, as well as in general medical practice.
vivo, load is ap pli ed on who le fe mo ral head and in - de ed the se fac tors in fluen ce the me cha ni cal res - pon se in real life con di ti ons. The pro blem is that fe mo ral he ads are nei ther ho mo ge ne ous, nor per - fect sphe res with the same di men si ons, which in - du ces bias in the com pres si on re sults and li mits their re pro du ci bi lity. The re fo re, the lack of re pro - du ci bi lity does not al low us to have an ac cu ra te com pa ri son betwe en the two study groups. Howe - ver, com pa ring pa tients 1 and 5, who have the most alike age and ana to mic fe a tu res, sug gests that the bi o me cha ni cal be ha vi our is wor se for the pa ti ents that had a fra gi lity frac tu re than for tho se with os - te o arthri tis.
alterations in the peak torque ofhip muscles, especially for abductors and adductors in patients with hip OA. Arokoski et al. (2002) 33 analyzed hip muscle strength in patients with OA ofthehip and observed a strong correlation between peak torque and hip pain, as rated on a VAS, probably owing to thejoint involvement ofthe disease and hip muscle weakness in patients with OA. Comparisons of peak torque ofthehip between individuals with and without OA ofthehip revealed a lower peak torque for hip flexion and extension movements at velocities of 60 and 120 ˚ /s for patients with knee OA in comparison with controls. The flexor muscles were weaker and no significant difference between groups was observed during extension, demonstrating that the affected side was weaker than the non-affected side and that men with OA ofthehip have lower flexion strength than controls. Peak torque values obtained for hip abduction and adduction movements were also lower than in controls, indicating lower hip abductor and adductor muscle strength in patients with OA ofthehip. No studies analyzing isokinetic dynamometry values ofthehip in patients with OA ofthe knee are available in the literature. We found only reports of isokinetic assessments ofthehip in healthy individuals and patients with OA ofthehip. 31,32,34-36
Methods: Forty patients with a diagnosis of painful trapezio metacarpal osteoarthritis ofthe dominant hand were rando mized into 2 groups. The study group received the splint at baseline and used it during activities of daily living for 180 days and the control group used the splint only during the evaluations for the irst 90 days and during activities of daily living for the following 90 days. Pain, strength, hand func tion and dexterity (with and without splint) were measured by a blinded assessor at baseline, 45, 90 and 180 days. Results: The groups were homogenous at baseline for all out comes evaluated. Pain without the splint was signiicantly different between groups over time; the study group experi enced a decrease in pain beginning with the irst evaluation (45 days), whereas the control group achieved a lower pain score only at the end ofthe study, after having used the splint for 90 days. No signiicant differences between groups were found for the other parameters.
 Gossec, L.; Paternotte, S.; Maillefert, JF.; Combescure, C.; Conaghan, PG.; Davis, AM.; Gunther, KP.; Hawker, G.; Hochberg, M.; Katz, JN.; Kloppenburg, M.; Lim, K.; Lohmander, LS.; Mahomed, NN.; March, L.; Pavelka, K.; Punzi, L.; Roos, EM.; Sanchez-Riera, L.; Singh, JA.; Suarez-Almazor, ME.; Dougados, M.: The role of pain and functional impairment in the decision to recommend total joint replacement in hip and knee osteoarthritis: an international cross-sectional study of 1909 patients. Report ofthe OARSI-OMERACT Task Force on total joint replacement, National Library of Medicine, Vol. 19(2), 2010, pp:147-54.
Thehipjoint is a large and complex articulation and can be involved by numerous pathologic conditions like congenital and developmental, infective, arthritic, and neoplastic. Early diagnosis and characterisation of pathology has vital role in proper management and follow up ofthe disease for the clinicians. Present study was conducted in 45 patients who underwent clinical, radiological, and pathological examination in GMCH. Maximum no of patient between age group of 10-30 yrs. male-female ratio was 1.8:1 and 30% cases are unilateral. FSE STAIR images were most useful in delineating pathologies. Gadolinium-enhanced scan were used to evaluate the extent ofthe disease and the pattern of involvement. AVN was the most common pathology detected comprising 29%. The next common abnormality detected was infective arthritis found in 26% of cases. In case of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, there was abnormal linear increase in the signal intensity at junction ofthe epiphyseal cartilage. Ultrasonography is useful for the screening of paediatric hip cases and also for guided aspiration for histopathology. CT scan shows better resolution of soft tissue then the radiograph. The importance of early diagnosis can be gauzed from the fact that early initiation of treatment creates the difference between a responsible, worthwhile life, and a cripple handicapped life. The role of imaging can never be undermined considering the fact that early suspicion and detection is within the realms of imaging.
Results: it was found that there was 100% fixation ofthe acetabula after a mean of 29.5 months. One case underwent removal ofthe implanted components due to infection. Conclusions: there is still no consensus regarding the best option for reconstructing hips with bone loss. However, revision using a trabecular metal wedge has presented excellent short- and medium-term results. This qualifies it as an important tool for achieving a fixed and stable acetabular component.
Since we had constructed the deletion ofthe gene for subunit NB8M in a strain expressing the 30-kDa subunit with a his-tag, we could purify the subcomplex using dodecyl-maltoside as a detergent by the same affinity-purification protocol established previously for holo-complex I . The subcomplex eluted as a symmetrical peak from the final size exclusion column and as judged by its specific NADH:HAR oxidoreductase activity was of similar purity (unpublished data). To determine the subunit composition of subcomplex nb8mD we applied doubled sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis (dSDS-PAGE; ) and laser induced liquid bead ion desorption (LILBID) and electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) as three complementary proteomic approaches that together allowed reliable identification of all subunits present. dSDS-PAGE is especially suited to separate highly hydrophobic proteins that migrate above the diagonal in these gels (Figure 2). LILBID-MS at high laser intensity dissociates non-covalently bound subunits of enzyme complexes and generates a complete mass fingerprint in a single experiment (Figure S2). Most subunits present in the subcomplex were clearly identified by all three methods. In cases where there were weak or overlapping spots in dSDS-PAGE, non- separated peaks in LILBID-MS, or difficulties in identifying specific subunits by ESI-MS, the other methods still allowed to decide whether a subunit was present or not. We found that 14 subunits were missing in subcomplex nb8mD (Table 1) adding to a total molecular mass of 281,189 Da. Most notably the two mitochondrially coded Na +
the last few years, Rabinovich and colleagues developed an approach centering on (cognitive) change via the introduction of heteroclinic cycles [52,53], which is similar in spirit to ours in several ways, importantly so in focusing on the time structure of cognitive processes. In a nutshell, in their approach the system (cognitive agent) sequentially transits from one unstable equilib- rium point (a saddle) to another. Due to the nature ofthe equilibrium points, the transitions are typically fast and short lived relative to the time spent in their neighborhood (i.e., time-scale separation). A drawback of sequences built on equilibrium points, however, is that their corresponding processes are functionally rather constrained. True, while dynamical objects more complex than (unstable) equilibrium points, such as limit cycles or even chaotic attractors, can be placed at the nodes of a heteroclinic sequence [84,85], this potential has to our best knowledge not yet been applied to behavioral and cognitive modeling. The limitation to transitions among equilibrium points limits the explicit formulation ofthe ‘shape’ of given dynamical processes and provides no obvious entry points to their classification. In contrast, our hypothesized range of possible (low-dimensional) dynamical objects (SFM) provides a natural entry point to the classification of cognitive events [84,85]. Moreover, heteroclinic cycles become slower and slower as a trajectory approaches a saddle point (or subspace), and, importantly, the timing of transitions or the effect of a week perturbation scale with the amount of noise so that robust timing is difficult to achieve. In contrast, in the present implementation, feedback ensures the robust timing of transitions
covary, there is no objective standard to assess whether there are theoretically justifiable shared method effects, such as similar wording. Other limitations relate to differences in sample recruitment between the Dutch and Canadian English and French samples. Whereas the English-speaking patients were recruited from 15 centers from across Canada, Dutch patients were recruited through the Dutch patient organization. Therefore, medical data in the English and French samples were based on medical records, in contrast to the Dutch sample for which these were self-reported, and there were large differences in disease duration. However, the analysis correcting for differences in demographics and disease characteristics between samples yielded virtually the same results as the non-corrected model, which suggests that differences in sampling did not likely influence the results substantially. In addition, our English-speaking and French- speaking data were both collected from Canadian patients. Both language and cultural differences related to the construct being measured may affect measurement, and thus, DIF. Therefore, it remains to be elucidated to which extend our results generalize to other French-speaking countries. Finally, a potential disadvantage ofthe MIMIC model, that was used in the present study, compared with other models to assess DIF is, that MIMIC does not test for non-uniform DIF. Non-uniform DIF means that the amount of DIF is unequal for different levels ofthe outcome of interest, in our case fatigue. On the other hand, MIMIC models do allow for adjustment for important covariates that may differ between comparison groups, which is an important strength ofthe model, especially given the differences in sampling in the present paper.
The structure ofthe remelting zone ofthe steel C90 steel be- fore conventional tempering consitute cells, dendritic cells, sur- rounded with the cementite, inside of which there is a plate mar- tensite and retained austenite, whereas the structure HS 6-5-2 steel consititute cells, dendritic cells and dendrites surrounded with the eutectic, inside of which there is a plate martensite and retained austenite. Such a structure is characterized with the similar micro- hardness (790-800 HV0,065) and intensity ofthe tribilogical wear.
than they produce, which means over the real incomes obtained through social work. Văduva, . We are talking about New Zeeland. Most countries present important sovereign debts , an increasing deficit between incomes and expenses, practical risks of making new loans that bring them close to the insolvency area or to bankruptcy The European Commission, . Such a process is explained by the confusion between the exigencies of social economy – based on work – and the passive social protection policies, which ignore or place labor between brackets . )nstead ofthe minimum guaranteed salary, some irrational social policies have promoted the minimum guaranteed income, independent from the work resources ofthe beneficiaries, poverty is perceived as a state characterizing the majority Vîrjan , p. . Successes, but also limits recorded in the labor market today are similar to those defining the reform ofthe Romanian economy as a whole Aceleanu and Cretu , p. , marked by a public‐private partnership are organizationally weak and frail, the tensions between labor market structures and mechanisms that interfere with legislative‐institutional tensions.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is a common form of sport injuries and it is a leading cause of pain and disability in common man and sportsman worldwide. Rate of this injury is 1 per 10, 000 persons in common man whereas lateral ligament injuries account for 15 to 25% of all sports injuries. Lateral ankle sprains are one ofthe most common injuries sustained in sports and exercise activities. It is one ofthe most common soft tissue injury encountered in clinical practice. Complications such as prolonged ankle pain, a high recurrence rate, and chronic laxity underline the importance of careful diagnosis and treatment of ankle sprain. Physical therapy such as cryotherapy and taping technique are frequently used and have been cited that use of cryotherapy and taping technique have shown significant improvement in relieving pain and improving functional ability. OBJECTIVES: This study is intended to find and compare the effectiveness of Cryotherapy and exercises versus taping and exercises in acute lateral ankle sprain. DESIGN: A comparative study. SETTING: Kempegowda department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation unit-Kempegowda institute of physiotherapy. SUBJECTS: 40 patients (20 in each group). INTERVENTION: Forty males and female patients with lateral ankle sprain belonging to an age group of 15-35 years were selected for the study who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were divided into two groups. Group A was treated with Cryotherapy and exercises and group B was treated with taping and exercises with a frequency of 7 sittings for one week. Treatment outcomes were assessed using VAS , ROM , and LEFS for pain and functional ability. OUTCOME MEASURES: VAS to measure pain intensity, ROM for stiffness and Lower extremity functional scale for functional ability. RESULT: In comparison with VAS, ROM and LEFS, Group B shows significant improvement of all the parameters than Group A. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Study findings concluded that group B-Taping with exercises gave better response and is more effective than Cryotherapy with exercises in reducing pain and enhancing functional performance in patients with lateral ankle sprain.
was based on plastic contrast. For example, to emphasize the central part among the other composition, the architect 'in the middle third ofthe main wall had arranged an extensive (5.60 m) but shallow (75 cm) niche‖ [16, 46p]. The building itself was small in scale, and to emphasize its monumentality and visually to expand its interior, the sculptors correlated the height of zofor (1.40 m) to 6-meter span ofthe building. Frieze made with account ofthe angle of perspective, was decorated with garlands, supported by frames of children. The images ofthe frieze were original in the "very understanding ofthe ideal of human beauty and its artistic expression in plastic forms" [44, 61p]. Often in these images there was observed a deliberate asymmetry (in the faces), the disproportion (in the figures), aimed to correct the visual angle. For the sculpture in Toprak-kala "a rhythmic repetition of similar sculptural groups, determining architectonic division of interior, was characteristic" . The style and the manner of sculpture, for example, of friezes were the same as of acanthus, volutes. So, it can be assumed that the ancient sculptors have been actively involved not only in the development of sculptures, but in architectural and decorative compositions (especially of capitals), and the connection between the latters was very tight. In general, the nature of decoration ofthe premises depended on the functions ofthe latter: "household and service rooms were modestly furnished, as for residential and ceremonial rooms they were finished with the appropriate splendor‖ [46, 67p]. The sculpture, obeying the architecture, served as an element of its design. In Bactria a monumental sculpture "was designed primarily to be installed in the temples" [22, 901p]. In architectural
Rebonding of sand mix is a common practice in foundry engineering. The sand mix contains used sand whose grains are already coated with the rebonding material. Rebonding ofthe used sand [3,4] involves disintegration of grain agglomerates and uniform distribution ofthe rebodning agent in the entire volume ofthe sand mix batch, coating of sand grains with the rebonding agent and activation of thus formed coating. Turbine (rotor) mixers are now in widespread use as they feature high efficiency and short mixing cycles.
The major limitation of this study concerned the lack of control of muscular activity and ofthe pressure or lung volume during the VM. Although volunteers were instructed to relax the quadriceps during hip flexion, this was not confirmed by means of electromyography monitoring, which would help to detect involuntary muscle contraction. The absence of data about the actual pressure or lung volume during the VM precluded the observation ofthe isolated effect ofthe VM on BP. Notably, subjects might have performed the maneuver with different volumes and pressures, which could have influenced the hemodynamic responses. However, in real training sets, these variables are not controlled, and we tried to reproduce what is actually observed during stretching routines. Because subjects were quite homogeneous with regard to age and physical fitness level, possible variations in VM performance likely did not
In order to evaluate the performance ofthe postural control system, the body’s anterior-posterior and medial-lateral oscillation was analyzed by a kinematics system while maintaining a standing position. To do so, the participants were asked to remain barefooted with their arms down along the body, looking at a ixed point on the wall 2 meters away while remaining as still as possible for 30 seconds in three conditions: Condition 1 (EO): Upright posture with eyes opened and with 2 feet on the loor, parallel and aligned with the shoulders; Condition 2 (EC): upright posture with eyes closed and 2 feet on the loor; Condition 3 (ST): upright posture with eyes open and semi-tandem base 16 with the feet placed one in front ofthe
In order to achieve an effective polycentric development, it is necessary to identify those cities that have the best chance to become the driving forces of regional development. Targeting this goal also requires assessing the ability of cities to generate and disperse development opportunities. This capacity is strongly influenced by: (a) the size ofthe city, which is often related to the level and spatial extent of infrastructure and services; (b) the activity profile; (c) the extent to which it is geared towards innovative sources of revenue and jobs. From a technical standpoint, the analyses reveal significant discrepancies within the series of municipalities and county seat concerning an unbalanced development ofthe national territory, which requires the implementation of national policies that build on the strengths of cities and highlight priority national projects. There are county seats (usually major cities in Romania) which have high values for all five sections of analysis and municipalities that have low values for all five sections. A scientific definition in the specific context of Romania is especially important to help identify potential areas, priority areas for interventions and sizes that can foster polycentric development. This scientific methodology clearly defines intra-regional, inter-regional and cross-border functional urban areas. Increased attractiveness is another important dimension of policentricity in county residence cities, a great responsibility in this regard returning to local authorities. In terms of spatial planning, polycentric development should pay more attention to the creation of corridors and roads linking urban centres. A multimodal transport system is of paramount importance to ensure connectivity and to broaden the scope ofthe labour market. Polycentric development is an effective way to alleviate regional imbalances and strengthen territorial cohesion by developing the transport infrastructure and supporting foreign investments. For this reason, policentricity is largely a function of connectivity, indicating the frequency and form of exchanges between urban centres, which requires the connection ofthe Transport Strategy with the Spatial Planning Strategy. The transport cartogram (Figure 4) also indicates the need to construct new airports, especially in the Brașov area, perhaps leading to a more rapid regional development, or in Galați-Brăila area, taking into account the size ofthe population concentrated in that area and also the need for massive investments to develop the region.
I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism ofthe created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage ofthe non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because ofthe chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).