Producedwater is water trapped in underground reservoir rocks and is brought to surface along with crude oil and gas. Besides elevated concentration of heavy metals such as barium, uranium, cadmium, chromium, strontium and lead, producedwater contains dispersed oil droplets and dissolved organic compounds and significant amount of anion such as carbonate, bromide sulfate. The largest volume of waste in the upstream petroleum industry is producedwater. The total volume ofproducedwater in the united states is roughly 21 billion/year . Sources of this water may include flow from above or below or within the hydrocarbon zone, or flow from injected fluids and additives resulting from production activities . Producedwater is usually very salty and may contain suspended and dissolved solids, residual hydrocarbons, numerous organic species, heavy metals, naturally occurring radioactive and chemicals used in hydrocarbon extraction [3,4].
Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatmentsof 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
Components (each a linear combination of all P variables), which display variance-maximised interrelationships be- tween variables (Esbensen 2010, Esbensen et al. 2015). PCA score plots display groupings, or clusters, of samples based on compositional similarities, as described by the variable correlations (shown in accompanying loading plots). They also quantify the proportion of total dataset variance that can be modelled by each component, see Fig. 2. All data analyses in this work are based on auto-scaled data. The data analysis was performed in two steps. Step one is a PCA analysis of all 33 samples to investigate relation- ships between seawater and reservoir water (Fig. 2A, B). Based hereon, pure seawater and the samples produced from Skjold, Dan B, Dan F and Halfdan, which repre- sent extensively seawater-flooded reservoirs, were removed
in the rhizosphere by increasing the availability of nutrients and/or sources of labile carbon (MOREIRA; SIQUEIRA, 2006). The researchers Qiu, Huang and Lin (2014) investigated the effects of fertiliser application on communities of bacteria and fungi in an area cultivated with medicinal plants (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze). They found high levels of soil nutrients, including organic matter (30.03%), as a function of the application of organic fertiliser, with an increase in the diversity of the soil bacterial communities, as well as significant changes in the structure of the soil fungal communities. Furthermore, Bonilla et al. (2012) investigated the effects of organic additives and soil management on the population-size of microorganisms in soil cultivated with avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.), and reported an increase in the population of certain microbial groups in the soil, due to the addition of fertiliser.
Behaviour of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is shown in Figures 3E and 3F. It can be seen that treatments with mulching were superior in relation to those with no mulching. In all treatments, there is a gradual increase, culminating in the greatest maximum LAI in the period between 75 and 90 DAG, and then decreasing until the end of the crop cycle. The treatment with the best performance was L3, with a maximum value of 2.22 at 75 DAG. The lowest LAI value was 0.63 for treatment L1at 120 DAG. The WM treatment produced a maximum LAI value of 2.18, significantly surpassing the NM treatment with 1.80. This result is associated with the lower availability ofwater in the soil causing a reduction in leaf area due to the drying out or fall of the leaves.
Abstract - Studies of the impact of agricultural activities on soil may be performed using microarthropods as indicators of soil disturbance. For that, taxonomic identification of microarthropods is usually done to the order, class, or even species level. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the microarthropod assemblage identified to class or order levels responds to environmental variation in a similar manner to the assemblage identified to species level, in this case, edaphic Mesostigmata mites. Sunflower and castor bean cultures were planted in a semiarid area and followed during one dry and one rainy season. Producedwater from oil exploration filtered and treated by reverse osmosis, and groundwater were used for irrigation. Microarthropods were collected in both crops and seasons, under three irrigation treatments, and in a native forest. The abundance of microarthropods and species of mites was correlated, although richness was not. The response of abundance and richness to environmental conditions was similar between assemblages in the sunflower crop. The microarthropod group Diplura was the only group affected by irrigation treatment. Both assemblages (all microarthropods and Mesostigmata mites) have similar responses to general environmental patterns, such as vegetation cover and seasonality. However, the general microarthropod assemblage seems to be more sensitive to irrigation impact than the Mesostigmata assemblage.
ABSTRACT. This study aimed to quantify and compare water balance components over the course of a year for different Pinus taeda planting densities in an oxisol in southern Brazil. This experiment was conducted on 6-year-old trees in a clay oxisol at the Monte Alegre Farm, a property of the Klabin Company. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates and five treatments with different amounts of soil coverage: T100 (100% coverage - standard planting coverage); (T75, 75; T50, 50; and T25, 25%), and; T0 (without cover - clearcutting). The soil water storage and actual evapotranspiration under non-standard conditions were determined in a weekly estimated soil water balance (SWB) with measured components. By the end of the year, the treatments had not reached field capacity or wilting point storage. The average value of total downward drainage was 100.2 mm, and the highest values occurred in the T75 and T100 treatments. The lowest population density (T25) had the highest actual evapotranspiration (ETr), due to the growth of the remaining Pinus taeda trees. The highest evapotranspiration occurred in September, due to the resumption of Pinus taeda growth.
Plant growth parameters and nutrient contents in roots and aerial parts were also influenced by the types ofwater used and by the cycles of production of flower stems (Tables 5 and 6). Plant performance was satisfactory and very similar in irrigated plots with PWO and GW, in comparison to the irrigation with PWF (Table 5), in which a lower production of biomass was detected during the first production cycle. Also, the treatment with PWF was unfavorable for the radial growth of plant stems, during the third cycle, in comparison to treatment with PWO. These effects on plant performance may have been due to the accumulation of salts in the soil profile, especially exchangeable sodium. However, an occasional reduction of shoot growth and biomass production does not necessarily imply a loss of commercial value of sunflower stems (Maciel et al., 2012; Oliveira et al., 2014). The strong growth of shoots is undesirable for ornamental plants, and there is a preference for ornamental sunflowers with small heads measuring less than 15 cm of diameter (Carrillo-Ávila et al., 2015).
ABSTRACT - The experiment was carried out in pots in a glasshouse, with one plant per pot and nine repetitions per treatment. The treatments consisted of free or restricted leaves, submited to 90-100% or 60-70% soil field capacity (FC). Only independent effects ofwater availability or leaf movement were observed on yield components. Plants under well-watered conditions and with freely orienting leaves were taller, and had a larger number of ramifications. The greater development favored the setting of a higher number of inflorescences per plant in these treatments. This behavior resulted in a high number of flowers, green and mature legumes per plant, thus resulting in high seed production which was the most evident response to water availability. Although individual seed weight was higher in the water stress treatment, total seed production was higher for well- watered plants, with no statistically significant effect of leaf movements.
A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP) using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP) in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluated for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sedimentary solids (SS). The efficiency of physicochemical processes for clarifying the waterand disinfection was evaluated through analysis of pH, turbidity, color, aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates and dissolved total solids (DTS). In the reuse of the water, acute toxicity for the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis was also evaluated.
The Malaysia government is proactive in supporting and promoting ICT usage just like its Singapore counterpart. Internet usage has been found to be relatively mature in a consumer satisfactory survey conducted by the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (2004a). Four out of ten Internet users access e- government services for registration and information purposes. Further more, the World Bank has classified Malaysia as an upper-middle-income country (ITU, MCMC, 2004a). Malaysia’s Personal Computer (PC) penetration rate stood at 16.6 percent (ITU, 2004a). The cost of dial-up Internet access has been kept relatively low with subscribers being able to connect to a dial-up point of presence at local call rates (see table 2). Commercial broadband services were first launched by Time dotcom (TIME) in June 2001. At the end of 2003, there were a total of 110,247 subscribers. According to ITU 2004a, this translates to subscriber penetration rate of 0.44 percent or a household broadband penetration rate of 1.98 percent. Around 98 percent of all broadband connections are over direct exchange line (DSL).
When subjecting the plant to stressful conditions that limit its development, the resources intended to the growth of idioblasts and the production of essential oils are channeled into other forms of adjustment and adaptation, for example, the production of free proline for osmotic cell adjustment (Bohnert et al. 1995, Alvarenga et al. 2011, Krishania et al. 2013). Furthermore, as water availability in the soil becomes restricted, the amount of idioblasts does not imply a higher essential oil production (Figure 2). This behavior represents a morphological adjustment attributed to the decrease of idioblasts with an increasing water restriction, and the sparing of resources to produce organic substances for osmotic adaptation, stomatal movement regulation and depletion of free radicals (Taiz et al. 2017). The results reflect the species phenotypic plasticity to stress, when growing under different water soil availability conditions.
Cultural practices of pruning the weeds were undertaken as needed. Pruning process was done manually to avoid rearranging the soil particles on the top layer. A modified frame driven penetrometer (Sintech 2/G, 2000) was used for this research that combines attributes from both the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE, 2004) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, 1995) standard penetrometer specifications. A cone apex angle of 30 o was chosen and penetration rate of 1.65 cm s -1 was used, instead of 3 (ASAE, 2004) or 2 cm s -1 (ASTM, 1995). It should be noted that cone index (CI) has been shown to be relatively insensitive to penetration speed (Waldron and Constantin, 1970; Anderson et al., 1980). A constant penetration has been shown to be a more important variable than velocity when using a penetrometer to determine mechanical impedance (Freitag, 1967; Hooks and Jansen, 1985). Push rate was maintained within a standard deviation of less than 0.5 cm s -1 . Measurements were accomplished before planting and after harvesting and these were replicated four times within each pot. The pots were dismantled after the final harvest of 65days. Weekly leaf temperature readings were taken with infrared Mini-TempTest (#39642-0 with an accuracy of 28 ± 2 o C).
were pig iron, steel scrap, Fe-75%Si, Fe-80%V and Fe-80%Nb and Fe-80%Mn-8%N. The metal was preheated at 1500 o C and then poured into sand mould to get normalized Y-shaped castings. Spheroidizing and inoculation process was made in gating system using Fe-Si-5%Mg alloy, and Foundrysil inoculant containing 0,5 % Ce in amounts 1,0 % and 0,8 % with relation to bath weight, respectively. One of the purpose of our research is to develop a method of nanoparticles synthesis in ferritic matrix of ductile cast iron, which are supposed to increase its strength without affecting notably its ductility.
The xylem´s osmotic potential drops to its lowest levels in a leafless bushy plant whose transpiration is zero. If it was connected by a manometer to the highest part of a pot plant, from where most of the shoots were removed, it could possible to demonstrated the development of a positive pressure in the xylem by the water osmotic absorption (Sutcliffe, 1980). The water potential gradient that occurs between an external solution and the plant’s xylem sap that is exudating is due to the tension development (ψ p negative) in the
The aroma descriptors and volatile compounds confirmed essentials information about the Osabella and Oves red wines. The results indicate that the grape composition of each wine mainly influences the sensory quality and the presence of volatile compounds in red wine. On addition to grape variety, the production process also contributes to the final sensory expression of the wine. According to PCA, fruity descriptors were the primary contributor to the aroma profile of the analyzed wines due to the presence of ethyl acetate and esters, especially in the wine coded as QM, which exhibited the highest variety of compounds. However, considering the continuous growth of Brazilian wine production and the importance of volatile compounds for their flavor, further characterization studies are essential to improve the method of producing such beverages.
Postharvest disease control under field conditions There were significant differences among treatments for incidence of diseased fruits and fruits with anthracnose (Table 1). As the crop seasons did not differ (p>0.05) with respect to incidence of diseased fruits, the data were analyzed together. The products azoxystrobin, thiabendazole, difenoconazole+azoxystrobin and acibenzolar-S-methyl+azoxystrobin, when added to the treatment already adopted by the farmer, reduced by 13.3 to 26.4% the number of fruits showing rot symptoms, while anthracnose control was only obtained with azoxystrobin, which led to a reduction of 34.4% in the incidence, relative to control. The mean incidence of diseased fruits and fruits with anthracnose at 15 days of storage at 25ºC and 80-85% RH was 66.5 and 56.1%, respectively. Lasiodiplodia and Fusicoccum rots were found at lower incidences, showing means of 13.1 and 1.2%, respectively, and no differences among treatments. Anthracnose was the major disease detected; according to Darvas (1981), its control is difficult even after application of the recommended fungicides. Currently, the fungicides registered in Brazil for anthracnose control in avocado trees are the copper fungicides copper oxychloride and cuprous oxide, the mixture mancozeb+copper oxychloride and the systemic fungicides difenoconazole and thiabendazole; the latter can be applied in the field and in the postharvest (BRASIL, 2017). In Europe and South Africa, the fungicide azoxystrobin is also registered for the control of this disease in the field (PIP, 2011; HSE, 2014), which is a possibility in Brazil. Reduced occurrence of rots in ‘Hass’ avocados was obtained by means of eight monthly fungicide sprayings, and the best results were obtained with copper hydroxide, followed by azoxystrobin and carbendazim (EVERETT et al., 2005); however, control failure occurs due to the high frequency of rainfall, which washes the copper fungicides. According to Duvenhage (2002), anthracnose control using copper oxychloride was more effective when followed by one application of azoxystrobin, corroborating the results obtained in the present study, in which three applications of azoxystrobin were performed. In the evaluation of fungicides for anthracnose control in mango tree, azoxystrobin (75 mg L -1 ) + paraffin mineral oil at 0.5% showed the lowest
The first treatment group was exposed to distilled water (negative control), and this water was the same as used to dilute the plant extracts and the acaricide. The second treatment group was exposed to alcohol (70º GL). The third treatment group was exposed to 12.5% amitraz (amidine at a concen- tration of 0.025% after dilution), which was a contact acari- cide that had previously been tested on the farm. The fourth and fifth treatment groups comprised 40 and 60% dilutions of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. ambrosioides, respectively. The teleogynes were immersed for five minutes in the res- pective treatments. They were then dried on absorbent paper and were fixed to Petri dishes that had previously been labeled, using double-sided adhesive tape. They were kept in a cham- ber under biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) conditions at 27ºC (± 1) and 80% relative humidity (± 5). They were monitored regarding oviposition and mortality every day for the next 18 days.
describe and understanding the evaluated of customer and customer behavior (Tuu & Olsen, 2011:29). Consumer behavior involves risk in the sense that any action of a consumer will produce consequences which he cannot anticipate with anything approximating certainty, and some of which at least are likely to be unpleasant (Bauer, 1960) and sacrifice to obtain a product (Zeithaml, 1988). Value of risk often in empirical study on customer behavior in foods (Knight et al., 2007:794), considering food is basic needs of customer every day. Perceived risk is not only related to consumers’ information acquisition and processing activity but to post- decision processes as well, where people will seek out information that confirms the wisdom of their decision (Horvat & Dosen, 2013:273). Consumer risk perception and its impacts on purchasing behavior are a critical component of the management of food safety (Yeung et al., 2010:306), perceived risk can be explained as consumers’ doubt on the results of their buying decisions (Arslan et al., 2013). It can be interpreted that perception of risk is sacrificed value of customer when buying products as result from selection until interpretation from alternative product. Described of organic product can be measure with financial risk, performance risk, physical risk and social risk (Yee et al., 2011:54). Research on the same years is delivered of measure of risk, especially food include health risk, performance risk, psychosocial risk, and financial risk (Tuu et al., 2011:368). Perception of risk have negative relationship with perception of quality (Kim & Lennon, 2013:33), and on last research found that perception of quality have negative relationship with perception of risk received by customer (Chen & Chang, 2005:521). Based on theoretical study which has been discussed, next determined research hypothesis.
The hot water flotation method is an old handmade practice of obtaining the pequi oil, as described by Pozo (1997). During the extraction by this method, the pequi fruits (putamen) were placed in a boiling water bath in an aluminum container for 40 minutes. Next, they were removed from the water bath and depulped using a spoon. Once cold, the pulp was boiled again in the same cooking water. As the oil drops started spreading out over the water surface, it was collected with a spoon, placed in a container, and heated until complete water evaporation.