Top PDF Composition and mineralization of organic compost derived from composting of fruit and vegetable waste

Composition and mineralization of organic compost derived from composting of fruit and vegetable waste

Composition and mineralization of organic compost derived from composting of fruit and vegetable waste

The materials used in the composition of the treatments were fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) from a supermarket chain, collected and stored in water tanks until reaching the volume required for the application of the weekly do- ses; rice husk (RH) from a grain processing business; and poultry manure (PM) from birds raised in suspended cages. The samples of organic waste were collected, crushed and dried in an oven with forced air at 65 °C until constant weight; ground and subjected to chemical analysis Tedesco et al. (1995) (Table 1).
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Morphogenesis of elephant grass fertilized with organic compost from solid waste in small ruminants

Morphogenesis of elephant grass fertilized with organic compost from solid waste in small ruminants

When comparing the effect of mineral fertilizer x fertilization with organic compost made from waste derived from production and slaughter of small ruminants through the contrast analysis in cycle 1, there were no significant (P>0.05) responses for any variable analyzed (Table 4), which reinforces the hypothesis of high mineralization of nitrogen from the organic compost, due to the low C: N ratio, increasing forage production rates in this growth cycle. Meanwhile, in cycles 2, 3 and 4, it was observed better values (P <0.05) for morphogenetic indices of elephant grass subjected to mineral fertilization, which demonstrates the need for supplemental nutrients. Organic fertilizers are not balanced sources of nutrients, requiring supplementation with mineral fertilizers.
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Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

The physical, chemical and microbiological parameters studied suggest that the use of the organic compost produced with vegetal and animal waste by the FZSP does not negatively influence the surface water quality of the studied area. Although it was not yet possible to reach a definitive conclusion regarding all environmental impacts in this work considering the low numbers of sampling, but we could not find strong evidence to assert otherwise with the current analyses. Moreover, this conclusion was made considering the viability of the composting process and organic compost as an economic alternative to maintain productivity while reducing the use of mineral fertilizers, which we know are strongly related with water pollution. This approach also appears to be a sustainable solution to decrease negative environmental impacts related to inappropriate waste disposal. This was the first study carried out in this agricultural environment using a highly sustainable organically produced vegetable and animal waste compost. Other studies with an environmental monitoring and water quality control will be able to provide more information about the environmental safety by the use of this product. Furthermore, new tools for microbiological community study, as metagenomic approaches are required for detailed exploration of the microbial populations in this aquatic environment as well as in the soil from the vegetable garden.
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Utilization of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) as Compost: A Case Study of Florida, South Africa

Utilization of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) as Compost: A Case Study of Florida, South Africa

Abstract— Abstract— Composting of municipal solid waste is one of the means of diverting organic waste from the waste streams thus eliminating the use of landfills. This process will ensure availability of cheaper materials which can enhance soil fertility thus leading to reduction of pollution and increasing life span of the landfill site. Availability of reliable data on waste composition and characterization studies will be invaluable to policy makers for formulation of policy on proper waste management. Also, quantification and characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) are vital tools for decision making for adequate planning on sustainable solid waste management (SSWM). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the physical composition of the various waste components and the chemical composition of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) that originate from Florida that are disposed at the Marie Louise landfill site (LS) in order to make a proposition on the complete diversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) from going to the landfill. A composition study was conducted during the winter in June 2016 at the site. From the results, organic was 11% for Dailies and 27% for Round collected refuse (RCR) collection services. Food waste sample was taken from the site to the testing facility and was analyzed for both the elemental and proximate analysis. From the elemental analysis; carbon was found to be 45.03%, hydrogen 6.20%, nitrogen 1.90%, oxygen 41.16%, the C: N ratio was 22.74 and from the proximate analysis; moisture content was 63.47%, ash 5.56%, volatile matter 22.63%, fixed carbon 8.77% and the empirical formula developed was C 28 H 46 NO 19 .
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ADDITION OF BOILER CHARCOAL WASTE TO COMPOST FOR USE AS SUBSTRATE FOR VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS

ADDITION OF BOILER CHARCOAL WASTE TO COMPOST FOR USE AS SUBSTRATE FOR VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS

The recovery of waste from the broiler production chain (BPC) is consistent with the principles of a circular economy. Besides turning waste into organic compost, its use as substrate for the production of vegetable seedlings further increases its economic value. However, it is necessary to adapt its characteristics to enable its use as substrate. To this end, the addition of boiler remnant charcoal wastes (BCW), another type of waste generated in the BPC, to the organic compost resulting from the composting of BPC waste with different bulking agents (BAs) was studied. The addition of BCW to agro-industrial compost reduced the electrical conductivity (EC) of substrates. Multiple linear regression showed that, of the 13 variables (physical, chemical and physicochemical) studied, three (EC, pH and N content) are sufficient to explain the seedling quality index (SQI). Simple nonlinear regression showed that, in order to achieve higher SQIs and easier removal of clod from tray, an additional 30% in weight of BCW is required for compost, using urban tree pruning, wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse BAs. The use of cotton and Napier grass waste as BAs is not recommended for BPC waste mixtures, as they cause a large increase in substrate EC.
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Growth of eucalyptus rooted cuttings in toxic organic waste compost of textile industry Priscila F. de Souza

Growth of eucalyptus rooted cuttings in toxic organic waste compost of textile industry Priscila F. de Souza

N concentration (Table 3) was 1.5 times higher than that observed in organic waste compound (0.92%), which is considered sufficient to supply N for sapling production (Lima et al., 2011). Comparing substrates, N concentrations may vary according to its composition. For substrates composed of sewage sludge, commercial substrate and subsoil, the N concentration varied from 0.7 to 1.01% (Gomes et al., 2013); yet for substrates composed of sewage sludge and carbonized rice husk, it ranged from 1.5 to 2.5% (Rocha et al., 2013). Thus, depending on the ratio of used compounds, it could contribute to all or part of sapling N needs. N concentrations lower than 1.2% favor net immobilization of the nutrient, and concentrations above 1.8% favor net mineralization (Moreira & Siqueira, 2006). However, it was found that N concentration of the compost was not fully mineralized, by analyzing the C/N ratio of 25 (Table 3), since for a high compost maturity degree, reasons below 12 are most considered (Jiménez & Garcia, 1992). This ratio is particularly important for N release, wherein the higher the C/N ratio, the lower the N availability is (Bortolon et al., 2009; Silva et al., 2010). Nonetheless, in eucalypt rooted cuttings production at reduced substrate volumes and frequent irrigation, the N in the substrate components may not be sufficient because it is easily leached. Thus, nitrogen fertilization added to the substrate and by fertigation is required, and that is why it was not observed nitrogen deficiency symptoms in plants for any of the assessed substrates.
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Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

Nevertheless, the mineralization of compost in the soil will determine the responses of the peach trees and depends on the composition of the compost, including the nutrient content and C/N ratio (Jordan et al., 2011; Sofo et al., 2005). The amount of compost applied to the surface will determine the contact area with the ground, which can slow the activity of the microbial biomass (Ramos, Benítez, García, & Robles, 2011) and affect the soil moisture and soil temperature (Montanaro, Dichio, Bati, & Xiloyannis, 2012). Thus, undertaking regional field experiments, especially experiments that evaluate more than one crop season, is necessary for evaluating the effects of applying organic composts. These experiments are scarce to non-existent for the edaphic and climatic conditions of the Serra Gaúcha of Rio Grande do Sul State. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status, yield and chemical composition of peaches from peach trees that were subjected to the application of different levels of organic compost to the soil.
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Effect of the calcination temperature on the composition and microstructure of hydroxyapatite derived from human and animal bone

Effect of the calcination temperature on the composition and microstructure of hydroxyapatite derived from human and animal bone

Although there is some controversy regarding the onset of chemical and structural changes as a consequence of heat treatment, it has been reported that changes in the mineral phase of bone are not significant until degradation and combustion of most of the more labile organic components occurs (around 500 8C) [13,14,18] . However, whereas 500–650 8C is accepted as the temperature range required to completely remove the organic phase of bone [13–18] , further heating to 800 8C may be necessary to eliminate possible pathogenic agents and obtain protein-free samples [6,20] . Regarding sample mineralogy, it is generally accepted that heat treatment promotes the crystal- linity of bone derived hydroxyapatite and increases the crystallite size [16–19] . Besides, some investigations have shown that heating above 700 8C causes the formation of new mineral phases (e.g., formation of CaO for apatites with Ca/ P > 1.67), depending on the ionic substitution of the starting apatite [4,14,17,18] , while other studies do not confirm these observations [16,19] . Additionally, on heating, bone experi- ences extensive changes in microstructure. The porous structure created due to the removal of organic constituents gradually condenses at elevated temperatures and a close interlocking structure is produced [12,18,21] . Consequently, the unique microporosity of native bone may be lost and osteocondutivity may thus be reduced. In fact, it has been shown that porosity is a key feature of bone grafts: high open porosity between 100 and 500 mm is important for vascular- ization whereas high microporosity of the material itself may support osteoconductivity [12,22] (recent in vitro and in vivo studies on bioceramics have demonstrated the biological sensitivity to the level of microporosity [11,23–25] ).
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Organic compost and irrigation on weight and protein content of Pereskia aculeata leaves

Organic compost and irrigation on weight and protein content of Pereskia aculeata leaves

Irrigation management under protected environment conditions can be based on soil, climate, and plant factors (FIGUEIRÊDO, 1998). However, agro-climate monitoring inside protected environments is difficulty due to the small space for the installation of measuring equipments (FERNANDES; CORÁ; ARAÚJO, 2004) and the high cost for the acquisition of precise sensors. These difficulties can be minimized by using data from nearby official climatological stations, with calibrated sensors, to estimate crop water requirements under protected environments.
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Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus

Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus

The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocata- lysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastroin- testinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopota- mus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantita- tive analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/ mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications.
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Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L.) 

Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L.) 

This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid profile of olive oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh of "Kaissy cultivar" olives, irradiated with 0, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation, and stored for 0, 6 and 12 months. Results on the fatty acid profile showed that the studied oils contained mostly oleic acid (68.15- 70.80%) followed by palmitic acid (14.38-15.89%) and linoleic acid (10.34- 12.51%). Generally, there are slight differences in the fatty acid profile between the oil extracted from whole olives and fruit flesh, but sometime significant (p<0.05). Also, the storage time influenced to a limited extent the fatty acid profile of both type of oils. Immediately after treatment, irradiation caused a significant (p<0.01) gradual decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid content and a significant (p<0.01) saturated fatty acid content increased in virgin olive oils.
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Chemical composition and variability of essential oils from the fruit peels of Citrus medica L. and mineral analysis of the fruit peels and soils

Chemical composition and variability of essential oils from the fruit peels of Citrus medica L. and mineral analysis of the fruit peels and soils

The C. medica fruit were collected in Pirenópolis (829 m altitude, 15º 00’ 14.5” South, 49º 54’16.4” West), Jandaia (560 m altitude, 17º 03’20.0” South, 50º16’40.3” West) and Santo Antônio do Descoberto (912 m altitude, 15º 56’24” South, 48º15’18” West) in the state of Goiás. The plants were identified by Dr. José Realino de Paula at the Federal University of Goiás, and the voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of that institution under registration numbers UFG/41405 (Santo Antônio do Descoberto), UFG/41493 (Pirenópolis) and UFG/41496 (Jandaia).
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Efficiency of garden waste compost teas on tomato growth and its

Efficiency of garden waste compost teas on tomato growth and its

post and vermicompost used in this study, which was de- scribed by Morales-Corts et al. (2014), in which compost contains a higher mineral quantity than vermicompost. We can confirm that the efficiency of nutrient extraction is greater in the case of compost tea than in vermicom- post tea. This fact was also described by Pant et al. (2012). It is important to note that the N and K levels, especially in ACT, make these teas potentially interesting as fertil- izers for growing crops. Segarra et al. (2009) support this finding, indicating that compost tea prepared from garden wastes was rich in inorganic salts. In general, EC values, which are related to nutrient composition, are higher in teas prepared from thermophilic compost than those of vermicompost. As regards the presence of potentially tox- ic elements, chemical sensitivity analysis ensured that the levels of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni and Cd were clearly below the allowable limits according to the legislation. Thus, as also indicated by Benito et al. (2005) and Moretti et al. (2015), consideration of the source of green material used in composting is important for ensuring the absence of toxic metals. The presence of IAA in compost and ver- micompost teas may be linked to the green waste mate- rial used in composting, and the presence of salicylic acid could be related to both microbial productions during composting, and to the origin of green material. The phy- tohormone values found in this study, especially salicylic acid were high comparable to those obtained by Pant et al. (2012). This could be due to the presence of salicylic acid in the bark used in composting (trees from the Sali- caceae and Cuppressaceae families). Both ACT and AVT presented humic acids in their composition, which could explain the positive effect on the growth of tomato plants. Mora et al. (2012) reported the coordinated positive ac- Figure 1 – The total dry weights (mean and standard deviation) of
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Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

brich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A., North- way, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time- of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 4478–4485, 2008.

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Composition, content of bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of fruit pulps from the Brazilian Amazon biome

Composition, content of bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of fruit pulps from the Brazilian Amazon biome

In the Amazon biome, the largest one in Brazil, the greatest extent of biodiversity in the world can be found (Costa et al., 2013). This biodiversity includes both flora and fauna, as well as fruit with unique sensory characteristics and increased nutrient levels (Dembitsky et al., 2011). Fruit species such as abiu (Pouteria caimito), achachairu (Garcinia humilis), araza (Eugenia stipitata), bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi), and yellow mangosteen (Garcinia xanthochymus) have widely appreciated flavors by Brazilian consumers and are fruits of moderate importance to the economy. They show potential for commercialization in both domestic and international markets (Rógez et al., 2004; Cavalcante et al., 2006; Lorenzi et al., 2006; Duarte, 2011; Souza et al., 2011; Garzón et al., 2012). These fruits are eaten raw; however, they can be used also in juices, ice creams, jams, and other sweets. Despite their nutritional and economic potential, these fruits lack an established commercialized market. They have still to be marketed properly because they are almost always picked from the wild. An additional consequence is that technical and scientific data on them are scarce, or nonexistent. These factors limit the consumption of these fruits to their regions of production; consequently, other national and international consumers (most of whom have more purchasing capacity) have limited access to them. Also, these fruits are not included in the Brazilian export basket items, a factor which leads to a loss in the productive potential of the Amazon region (Ribeiro & Ferreira, 2008).
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURES OF ESTERS OBTAINED FROM FOUR VEGETABLE OILS EXTRACTED FROMSEEDS OF BRAZILIAN CERRADO PLANTS.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURES OF ESTERS OBTAINED FROM FOUR VEGETABLE OILS EXTRACTED FROMSEEDS OF BRAZILIAN CERRADO PLANTS.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURES OF ESTERS OBTAINED FROM FOUR VEGETABLE OILS EXTRACTED FROMSEEDS OF BRAZILIAN CERRADO PLANTS. The seed oils from four plants (Scheelea phalerata, Butia capitata, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Terminalia cattapa) found in Mato Grosso do Sul were extracted at good yields. Alkaline transesterification of these seed oils to esters using methanol and ethanol was studied and also produced good yields. Oleic acid (30.5/32.3%), lauric acid (30.7/32.9%) methyl and ethyl esters, were the main components of transesterification of the oils from Scheelea phalerata and Syagrus romanzoffiana. Lauric acid (42.2%), capric acid (15.9%) and caprylic acid (14.6%) methyl and ethyl esters were the main ester components of transesterification of the oil from Butia capitata. Oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic acid (33.5%) and linoleic acid (22.6%) methyl and ethyl esters were the main components of transesterification of oil from Terminalia catappa. Based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, the first crystallization peak temperature of esters was observed. Esters derived from oils of the family Arecaceae (Scheelea phalerata, Butia capitata, Syagrus romanzoffiana) showed the lowest points of crystallization, despite having high levels of saturated fat. Esters of Terminalia cattapa oil, rich in unsaturated fat, showed the highest crystallization temperature. This difference in behavior is probably related to the high concentration of esters derived from lauric acid and palmitic acid.
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Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.)

Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.)

Results presented in table 3 indicate that compost significantly affected titratable acidity (TA) of fruit. The maximum titratable acidity was produced at 10 t ha -1 treatment with 10.5 g L -1 , while the minimum TA was in control with 7g L -1 . This result is the same trend with the findings of Santiago, et al. (2009) and Kashem and Warman (2009). It is likely that, in order to maintain the C:N ratio in the plants supplied with organic fertilizer, the extra C may have been used for the production of organic acids like citric acid and malic acid, which are responsible for the acidity of fruit [28]. Thus, our data confirmed previous workers that organic fertilizers increased levels of organic acids in fruits of pepper. The pH of fruit was significantly affected by compost treatments applied as shown in table 3. The highest fruit pH was in the lowest level of compost (5 t ha -1 ) with 5.83, while the lowest fruit pH was in control with 5.18; however, no significant difference was found between treatments:10 and 15 t ha -1 of compost. This result is the same trend with the findings of Giovanni, et al. (2011) and Toor, et al. (2006). The pH of fruit is correlated with acidity and acid content and citric acid is the primary organic acid found in most fruits (Wang and Lin, 2002). Fruits with low pH value ( grown in organic fertilizers) indicate more citric acid, which is beneficial for human consumption (Wang and Lin, 2002). Additionally, fruit with low pH is more suitable for ripening while it also improves shelf life (Hernandez- Perez, et al., 2005). Compost application significantly increased total soluble solid (Table 3). The level of 15 t ha -1 treatment produced the most total soluble solid (4.70
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Supplemental phytase derived from E. coli in different concentrations on performance, bone mineralization and cost of broilers diets

Supplemental phytase derived from E. coli in different concentrations on performance, bone mineralization and cost of broilers diets

Supplemental phytase derived from E. coli in different concentrations on performance, bone mineralization and cost of broilers diets GABRIEL V. DESSIMONI, NILVA K. SAKOMURA, DANIELLA CAROLINA Z. DONATO, LARISSA VARGAS, MIRELLA MELARÉ, LETÍCIA PACHECO & FELIPE S. DALÓLIO Abstract: The trial was conducted to evaluate the supplementation of E. coli phytase on performance, weight and ash of bones, as well as to determine the bioavailability of P and cost/benefit of its use in diets. A total 1,890 Cobb male day old chicks were assigned to six treatments and seven replicates with 45 birds each, distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were: Positive Control; Negative Control (NC1) - reduction of 0.06% av P; Negative Control 2 (NC2) - reduction of 0.12% av P; NC2 + Phytase (120 OTU); NC2 + Phytase (180 OTU); NC2 + Phytase (240 OTU), being 1 OTU equivalent to approximately 2 FTU. With different phytase inclusions, it was possible to verify a gradual increase on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, viability and even the bone characteristics of broilers fed diets containing reduction of P. The closest levels to the highest studied (240 OTU) showed the best results. The replacement of dicalcium phosphate by phytase supplementation is economically viable when the cost per OTU does not exceed US$ 1.4 × 10 -5 , US$1.2 × 10 -5 and US$ 1.0 × 10 -5 for the concentrations of 120, 180 and 240 OTU, respectively.
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Functionalization of waste-derived activated carbon for the removal of carbamazepine from water

Functionalization of waste-derived activated carbon for the removal of carbamazepine from water

The scarcity of water resources and the increasing environmental awareness along with the necessity for protection of natural ecosystems have lead many countries to introduce remediation and treatment technologies in national wastewater management plans [1]. However, conventional wastewater treatment processes tend to fail in the complete elimination of low concentration and recalcitrant contaminant compounds [2,3], whose long term and continuous exposure may cause known or suspected negative impacts in human health and ecological systems. These compounds, often called chemicals of emerging concern (CEC), are not commonly monitored and comprehend a broad group of chemicals for which regulatory criteria or quality standard is usually absent [4]. The Directive 2013/39 EU of the European Union reviews the list of priority substances in the field of water policy for which it establishes environmental quality standards. It also states the need for stimulation of the development of new, cheaper and more cost- effective water treatment technologies and it reports the lack of monitoring data for emerging pollutants currently not included in monitoring programmes in the European Union but that may pose a risk and thus, require regulation [5]. This Directive was complemented by the Decision 2015/495/EU and, more recently, by the Decision 2018/840/EU where several pharmaceuticals were included in the watch-list of compounds with environmental relevance [6,7].
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Phase, composition and growth mechanism for secondary organic aerosol from the ozonolysis of α-cedrene

Phase, composition and growth mechanism for secondary organic aerosol from the ozonolysis of α-cedrene

cedrene SOA formed in the flow reactor under dry conditions was measured in real time using a Xevo TQS triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Waters) equipped with a com- mercial DART ion source (IonSense, DART SVP with Vapur ® Interface). As DART-MS is a surface-sensitive technique, to ensure that the bulk of particles can be effectively probed, the aerosol stream exiting the flow reactor, in which the gas phase species

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