Top PDF Consumption of Dairy Products in Relation to Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Consumption of Dairy Products in Relation to Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Consumption of Dairy Products in Relation to Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they met all of the following criteria: (i) longitudi- nal study design; (ii) data related to consumption (quantitative amount; i.e. servings per day/ week, gram per day/week intake) of dairy products (including milk, yogurt, cheese, butter); the primary outcomes were: changes in body weight, either measured continuously (g/year) or binary as incident major weight gain (e.g. incidence of gaining a specific amount of weight, risk of overweight, abdominal obesity); the secondary outcomes were: changes in waist circumfer- ence; (iii) reported adjusted beta-coefficients with corresponding standard error or data neces- sary to calculate these (95% confidence intervals, (95% CI), standard deviations, p-values); (iv) mean differences with corresponding standard error in change in measure of adiposity over time between participants with the highest and lowest intake category; (v) adjusted odds/risk/ hazard ratios with corresponding 95% CI or standard error comparing the highest vs. lowest dairy intake category; (vi) when a study appeared to have been published in duplicate, the ver- sion containing the longest follow-up was selected; (vii) study participants were free of chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer) at baseline of study; (viii) only adults were included (minimum of 18 years of age).
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Adult consequences of late adolescent alcohol consumption: a systematic review of cohort studies.

Adult consequences of late adolescent alcohol consumption: a systematic review of cohort studies.

Quality appraisal of included studies was undertaken to evaluate the potential for bias and the adequacy of control for confounding. We gave particular attention to socioeconomic deprivation and other early life sources of vulnerability, as well as indications of other adolescent behavioural problems, in assessing confounding. We designated studies as having stronger capacity for casual inference in relation to the aims of this review if residual confounding in these areas was assessed as unlikely to be important by two reviewers and they had at least one of the following characteristics: (1) follow-up rates of 80% or greater; or (2) sample sizes of 1,000 participants or more. These characteristics identify two forms of bias at the individual study (attrition bias) and at the review level (small studies having disproportionate influence in reviews), respectively. Also if a study had both these characteristics, it was deemed to have stronger capacity for causal inference if both reviewers agreed there was reasonable control of confound- ing even though residual confounding was nevertheless still likely. We considered that adjustment for some factors while leaving major individual psychosocial confounders uncontrolled, did not constitute reasonable control of confounding. This subset of studies with stronger capacity for causal inference is individually discussed in the narrative presentation of results in order to summarise the evidence base. Two researchers agreed on all bar two studies (Kappa 0.91) [9,10], for which disagreements about the strength of control for confounding were resolved by discussion. Meta-analysis of pooled outcomes from these observa- tional studies was deemed inappropriate only after consideration of the nature of findings from included studies, because of the potentially misleading nature of such summary effect estimates in the context of uncontrolled bias and confounding [7].
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Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

All abstracts retrieved were examined independently by 2 investigators (DG and NN) who then retrieved the full text of potential articles. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, and if necessary, with a third author (CW). We included prospective cohort studies and case-cohort studies assessing the association of consumption of total dairy products or specific types of dairy products and T2DM. To be included in the analyses, articles needed to contain estimates of the relative risk (RR) (such as odds ratios [ORs], hazard ratios [HRs] or risk ratios) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We excluded animal studies, clinical trials, cross sectional studies, case-control studies, and studies that examined other associations. For the dose–response analysis, a quantitative measure of intake had to be provided. If the article lacked data, we attempted to contact the author.
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

The research model is designed to examine the impact of customers’ perception of e- commerce security, and national environmental factors on their acceptance of Internet banking in Malaysia and Singapore. Several models have been used to explain factors determining consumer acceptance of Internet banking (Straub et. al., 1997; Liao et. al., 1999; Sathye, 1999; Tan & Teo, 2000; Pavlou, 2003; Suh & Han, 2003; Brown et. al., 2003; Venkatesh et. al., 2003). For example: technology acceptance model (TAM) devices by Davis (1986) was used by Suh and Han (2003). According to Suh and Han (2003), one of the most widely used models for explaining the factors that affects user acceptance of information systems or information technology is TAM. Another model is Fishbein and Ajzen’s (1989) theory of reasoned action (TRA), which is based on Davis’s (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM). TRA model asserts that attitude towards a behavior is determined by relevant beliefs (Davis et. al., 1989). Other theories are the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) by Taylor and Todd (1995) and the diffusion of innovation theory, Rogers (1983). The decomposed TPB model, according to Tan and Teo (2000), uses constructs from the innovation literature such as relative advantage, compatibility, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control by decomposing them into more specific dimensions. While, Venkatesh et. al.’s (2003) unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) on the other hand posits four core determinants (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition) and four moderators (gender, age, experience and voluntariness of use) of the key relationships of intention and usage of information technology.
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Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government in the function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government in the context of the ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration of the completion of work, the licensing of the city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because of the support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results of the review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the
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Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Ductile iron is a modern construction material and offers wide range of mechanical properties with simultaneous high wear resistance and dumping capacity [1]. From foundry practice result that in many cases production of ductile iron ensure fulfillment the Standard regarding tensile strength as well as elongation but not always yield strength archives required value. Investigations enabling affirm whether the foregoing problem can be resolve by means of small additions of vanadium, niobium and nitrogen and heat treatment are the aim of this work.
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Effect of coffee consumption on the risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Effect of coffee consumption on the risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

A recent similar meta-analysis included papers published before June 2014 and was pub- lished in September 2014 [4]. This meta-analysis pooled the relative risks comparing the high- est versus lowest categories of coffee intake to obtain a summary estimate. There was a great difference in borderline of the highest and lowest categories of coffee intake among included studies, which could lead to methodological heterogeneity. A second serious error of the previ- ous meta-analysis is that studies with different outcome measures were included in their meta- analysis. For example, the Khan et al. Study [38] used mortality as the outcome measure, which are different from the other included studies using morbidity as the outcome measure. There- fore, their results are likely to be affected by clinical heterogeneity. Those misclassifications of outcome measures and coffee consumption categories made their conclusions be questioned. We searched literatures before December 2014 and included a new study. Four prospective co- hort studies included in the previous meta-analysis were excluded from our meta-analysis be- cause the outcome measure was not incidence of gastric cancer and the reference categories of those studies were not consistent with that of our study. Our meta-analysis also has many ad- vantages compared to the previous study. First, some studies have suggested that the relation- ship between coffee consumption and gastric cancer is related to anatomic location. In our study, meta-analyses were performed separately for cardia cancer and gastric non-cardia can- cer. Second, consistent results from the sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and dose-re- sponse analysis indicated that our results were robust and reliable. Finally, publication bias is likely to have appreciably influenced their results. In our meta-analysis, more stringent inclu- sion criteria materially change the P values from Egger’s and Begg’s tests, together with the ab- sence of significant asymmetry in the funnel plot, indicate no evidence of publication bias.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

We provide a Monte Carlo study to analyze some basic statistical properties of our proposed estimators. We then use the dataset from Ryan (2012) to estimate a dynamic game played between …rms in the US Portland cement industry. In our version of the game, …rms choose whether to enter the market as well as decide on the capacity level of operation (…ve di¤erent levels). We assume …rms compete in a capacity constrained Cournot game, so the period pro…t can be estimated directly from the data as done in Ryan. The remaining part of the payo¤ consists of …xed operating costs and 25 switching cost parameters. Other dynamic parameters we estimate include the discount factor and …xed operating cost. We estimate the model twice. Once using the data from before 1990, and once after 1990, which coincides with the date of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Our switching costs estimates generally appear sensible, having correct signs and relative magnitudes. They show that …rms entering the market with a higher capacity level incur larger costs, and suggest that increasing capacity level is generally costly while a reduction can return some revenue. We also …nd that operating and entry costs are generally higher after the 1990 CAAA, which supports Ryan’s key …nding. We are also able to estimate the discount factor with reasonable precision.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management of the Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance of the Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one of the forms of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
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Fat Intake Is Not Linked to Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

Fat Intake Is Not Linked to Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

A previous meta-analysis [12], of 29 observational studies with 5 cohort studies, found that only total fat consumption was associated with an increased risk for Pca (RR = 1.2). Consum- ing 45g of total fat per day (5 studies, combined RR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.25) or saturated fat (4 studies, combined RR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.70) increased the risk for advanced stage Pca. The meta-analysis was well-designed, but most of the studies included were case-controlled with considerable heterogeneity, which may account for the low grade of evidence. Another systematic review [48] that contained only 5 studies (including one cohort study) claimed that saturated fat consumption was associated with advanced Pca. However, their limited study numbers and sample size may explain the low statistical power of their results. The present meta-analysis is based on large numbers of cohort studies and we found no association between fat intake and the risk for Pca. Our results are similar to a meta-analysis by Chua et al [15]. Our meta-analysis included more high quality cohorts and prepared with more flexible design, may be credible. There were also reviews on this topic [13, 14], but the lack of systematic statistical analysis and less rigorous design may lead to a loss of credibility.
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Instrumentos de educação alimentar e nutricional para crianças em idade pré-escolar: necessidades e desafios atuais

Instrumentos de educação alimentar e nutricional para crianças em idade pré-escolar: necessidades e desafios atuais

A child's cognitive development translates the intellectual processes that enable him/her to understand, learn and give meaning to the world around him/her. According to Piaget’s perspective (Piaget & Inhelder, 1979), cognitive development takes place in a four-stage sequence. Pre-school children are at the stage of preoperative thinking, characterized by their relationship with the world through mental, symbolic or representative actions, developing the ability to imitate, question, investigate, compare, serialize and classify objects. At this stage, the child is interested in practical results and has a great capacity for mental representation and symbolization. The actions are closely linked to perception and, therefore, it is difficult for the preschooler to understand and explain abstract concepts such as the definition of health or the importance of nutrition. Thus, the child is consideredhealthy if he/she can laugh, walk and run (Baskale, Bahar, Baser, & Ari, 2009). Piaget’s theory defends a constructivist position of knowledge, having the individual an active role in its construction. Assuming this, knowledge is built through the interaction between the individual and objects or situations (Piaget & Inhelder, 1979). Thus, food education should encourage the child to use objects, to observe books or to use colour photographs of food, promoters of long-term visual memory. According to Zajonc's "mere exposure" theory (1968), consecutive exposure to the same visual, auditory or taste stimuli causes changes in the individual's behaviour, generating greater acceptance of the stimulus. In addition, the fact that repeated exposure to a food gives rise to a greater preference for it, seems to be associated with the mechanism of "learned safety". This mechanism suggests that repeated intake of a non-familiar food without negative gastrointestinal
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Fish and fish oil intake in relation to risk of asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Fish and fish oil intake in relation to risk of asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Although laboratory studies suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs) may reduce risk of asthma, epidemiological data remain controversial and inconclusive. We quantitatively reviewed the epidemiological studies published through December 2012 in PubMed and EMBASE by using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Eleven studies, comprised of 99,093 individuals (3,226 cases), were included in the final dataset. Of them, 7 studies examined associations between intake of fish or LCn3PUFA and risk of asthma: 4 studies in children (996 cases from 12,481 children) and 3 in adults (1,311 cases from 82,553 individuals). Two studies (69 cases from 276 infants) investigated LCn3PUFA levels in mothers’ milk, and two studies assessed maternal fish consumption (786 cases from 2,832 individuals) during lactation and/or plasma LCn3PUFA levels during pregnancy (64 cases from 951 infants) in relation to offspring’s asthma. The pooled relative risk of child asthma were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61–0.94) for fish consumption and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.52–0.96) for LCn3PUFA intake. No statistically significant association was found in studies among adults. Epidemiological data to date indicate that fish or LCn3PUFA intake may be beneficial to prevent asthma in children. Further studies are needed to establish causal inference and to elucidate the potential mechanisms.
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

IEEE standard images for different number of ASCII characters. Tables 1-2 indicate the PSNR values for various Stego-images of size 256 x 256 using the proposed techniques, calculated for 1500 characters. We conducted further experiments with the Lena image using more characters. Table 2 indicates the PSNR values for the Lena image calculated for up to 1997 characters using the three suggested techniques. Thus, using the proposed method, up to 1997 characters (or 15,976 bits) have been embedded in a 256 x 256 pixel image. This shows that, 12.5% of the image pixels are used to embed 15,976 bits and yet the perceptual quality of the stego-image is still high. The PSNR of the third method can be controlled depending on number of bits being stored in various positions. Considering a minimum of 34 dB PSNR threshold for stego-image perceptual quality [11] It is clear from the obtained PSNR values that the proposed technique can generate stego-images with good perceptual quality. For qualitative assessment, , Figures 11(a), 11(b) show the Baboon image before and after steganography using the proposed technique for 500 characters. Figures 12(a) and 12(b) show the Lena image using the proposed technique, for 1997 ASCII characters.
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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras.  vol.61 número4

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. vol.61 número4

The extra-skeletal actions of vitamin D are known for over a century. Initially, it was used to treat tuberculosis (then, phtisis). In 1848, at the Royal Brompton Hospital, English physicians conducted a controlled study for tuber- culosis. 542 patients received cod oil (3.6 mL, three times/ day, increasing to 42 mL/dose) versus 535 who did not. In the end, 33% of patients in the control group had wors- ened or died, compared with 19% in the treated group. In the treated group, increase in weight was seen in 70% of patients, while 21% lost weight and 7% remained the same. Weight was not assessed in the control group. Keep in mind that Koch’s bacillus was isolated in 1892, the irst radio- graphs were made in 1895, and statistical analyzes appeared in 1922 (Fisher). This study certainly would not be accept- ed today. Interestingly, the author who reviewed the study says that at that hospital, in the 1960s, all the doctors would prescribe cod liver oil routinely, without knowing why. 3
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The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

Haratym, Dok ł adno ć wymiarowa odlewów wykona- nych w procesie Replicast CS, Archiwum Odlewnictwa rocznik 3, nr 9, Katowice 2003.. Arendarski, Niepewno ć pomiarów, Oficyna Wydaw- nic[r]

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Oxandrolone use in adult burn patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis

Oxandrolone use in adult burn patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis

RESULTS: This search produced 24 studies on MEDLINE and twelve articles were presented on the COCHRANE database .Sixteen were excluded due to the title not being related to this search or by including children. Of the eigth residual studies, after adaptation to the inclusion criteria, only four were selected. After analyzing the results, two were discarded since they did not present adequate patient characterization and the facts on these articles were analyzed differently from the others, hindering the meta-analysis.

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Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

of social commitments and values such as social justice and equity, which are stated in their constitutions, signed treaties and conventions. Ministries of health oversee the overall development of health systems using their governance function, which includes policy analysis and formulation, regulating service delivery between partners, developing norms and standards for quality assurance and ensuring the implementation of agreed upon policies and strategies. The importance of ICTs in development process was long recognized and access to ICTs has even been made one of the targets of the Millennium Development Goal No. 8 (MDG 8),which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs in the fight against poverty [26]. In the implementation of mHealth, ICT is a key component therefore policies on penetration, adoption and utilization of ICT in the health sector play a key role in enhancing mHealth adoption. The telecommunications sector of some countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, are very dynamic. Yet, as shown in the introductory section, Africa as a whole continues to lag behind other regions of the world. This is primarily as a result of the high cost of services [27]. Based on a review conducted across 17 Sub-Saharan African countries, Calandroet. al. argue that the national objectives of achieving universal and affordable access to the full range of communications services have been undermined either by poor policies constraining market entry and the competitive allocation of available resources; weak institutional arrangements with a dearth of technical capacity and competencies; and, in some instances, regressive taxes on usage. Gillwald [28] argues that in addition to competition and open access regimes, effective regulation of other factors such as spectrum and interconnection and tariffs are required to stimulate market growth, improve access, and lower prices. This is because: many competitive markets with several players have experienced spectrum allocation problems high cost of services as a result of retrogressive tax on mobile communications despite having an open market with several operators such as Uganda and expensive leased lines generally available from incumbent operators which hare mostly unregulated contributed to the high cost of doing business and inhibited growth and employment opportunities [28].
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Study In Some Quality Attribute Of Meat

Study In Some Quality Attribute Of Meat

Traditionally meat quality is either eating quality or processing quality, therefore quality is directly associated with usage and is a multifaceted concept (Webb et al., 2005). Lawrie, (1991) stated that meat eating quality involves five attributes namely, colour, water holding capacity, tenderness, juiciness and flavour. All attributes are influenced by breed, sex, age, anatomical location, exercise, nutrition and internal variability. Color is an important criterion of raw or cooked meat and meat products. It reflects the proper composition of the products, particularly in relation of meat to other compounds, freshness of raw materials, texture, taste and proper conditions of storage (Klak et al., 2001; Alberti et al., 2002). Water holding capacity is the ability of meat to retain its own or added water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding, or pressing (Judge et al., 1989) . Cooking loss is one of the most important properties of sausage products as it is related to water holding capacity. There is variation in water holding capacity among different types of meat from different animal and muscles (Lawrie, 1991). Mukasa, (1981) defined texture of meat as the sensory manifestation of the structure of the meat and the manner in which the structure reacts to the force applied during biting. Simela et al., (2003) stated that meat tenderness and flavor are the most important components that determine meat quality. The Objective of this study is:
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Roughness of surface of vacuum castings prepared in plaster moulds

Roughness of surface of vacuum castings prepared in plaster moulds

Results of measurements are presented in table 2 and 3. Examples of profilograms from the surface of bronze CuSn10 casting made in Gold Star XL plaster mould are presented in Figure 6. Analysis of the test results did not revealed a clear dependences between surface roughness of castings and methods of the preparation. Roughness values are random, independent on casting temperature and temperature and material of the molds. The one regularity that could be observed was that lower roughness parameter Ra showed test casts made of aluminum alloy AlSi11, next bronze casts CuSn10 and the higher value was observed for CuSn5Zn5Pb5 bronze.
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