Top PDF THE CONTENT OF OCHRATOXIN A IN MOLDAVIAN WINE PRODUCTS

THE CONTENT OF OCHRATOXIN A IN MOLDAVIAN WINE PRODUCTS

THE CONTENT OF OCHRATOXIN A IN MOLDAVIAN WINE PRODUCTS

In this study we have concluded that red wine is more contaminated by the toxin than white what has demonstrated the truthfulness of theoretical data available so far on this subject. The red wine requires a skin maceration that occurs before and during fermentation. The white wine this process completely excludes. This study confirms the work [11], that the OTA on this film, is found more easily in winemaking where maceration are important. The maceration process is a physical rather than chemical based on the extraction, distribution and adsorption which consists of maintenance of solids and liquids in contact for some time in certain conditions. It is likely that toxins on the solid berries are extracted in the juice along with the color, tannins and aromas. That is why OTA quantities are larger in red wine than in white or rose wines. The high contamination red mash of wine is also explained by the presence of conditions favorable for the development of mushroom toxin. The temperature and humidity play a role on growth, development and physiology of mushrooms. Aspergillus ochraceus indeed develops at moderate temperatures ranging between 8 and 37 °C with an optimum between 24 and 37 ° C, temperatures existing during the process of maceration.
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Development and Utilization of Technology on Indian Mango Fruit Processing

Development and Utilization of Technology on Indian Mango Fruit Processing

This project aimed to develop and utilize technology on the processing of Indian mango fruits. Specifically it intended to determine the chemical properties of unripe and ripe Indian Mango. Produce wine using the following conditions and subject the products to sensory evaluation to determine the best parameters for Indian mango wine production: amount of sugar added to fermentation medium (20%, 25%), acidity of fermentation medium (addition of citric acid, water), maturity of Indian Mango (ripe, unripe) and aging of produced wine (three, four months). Determine the properties of wine produced using the best parameters in terms of: sensory properties, taste, mouth feel, aroma, color and appearance; Chemical and Physical Properties: titratable acidity, pH value and % alcohol content. Select appropriate packaging material and design for the produced wine. Select project co-operators/ technology takers from aspiring farmers’ cooperatives. Transfer the developed technology on Indian mango processing to the selected project cooperators.
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Determination of ochratoxin A content in wheat bread samples collected from the Algarve and Bragança regions, Portugal: Winter 2007

Determination of ochratoxin A content in wheat bread samples collected from the Algarve and Bragança regions, Portugal: Winter 2007

OTA is an UV-decomposable mycotoxin produced by fungi such as Penicillium verrucosum and varied Aspergillium species, especially in cold and wet climates [2]. Production continues while the cereals are stored, especially under improper storage conditions, and processing methods are insufficient for their efficient detoxification, resulting in OTA-bearing cereal-derived products, such as contaminated bread. OTA has been proven to have a variety of toxic effects, including nephrotoxic—having been linked to the Balkan Endemic Nephropathy [3]—immunotoxic [4], carcinogenic [5] and teratogenic [6], while also being a possible genotoxic. In the last ten years some work has indicated that its mode of carcinogenicity is ‘genotoxic’ [7]. However, OTA's genotoxicity is not certain, and recent work funded by Directorate-General (DG) XII of the EU has demonstrated that DNA binding of OTA is not detectable with sensitive analytical methods, and is unlikely to represent a mechanism for OTA-induced tumour formation [8].
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Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

Abstract : Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The country’s system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The country’s ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were: to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare, to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial Gener al Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts, percentages, and measures of central tendency
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Influence of drying methods on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.): antioxidant activity and presence of ochratoxin A

Influence of drying methods on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.): antioxidant activity and presence of ochratoxin A

and 500 µL of chloroform were added to an Erlenmeyer flask. Subsequently, the mixture was subjected to complete evaporation of the chloroform, and 25 mL of water saturated with oxygen was added to the mixture with the chloroform evaporated. To the test tube, 250 µL of reaction mixture and 10 µL of extracts or methanol (control sample) were added. The tubes were heated at 50 °C for approximately 2 minutes in order to accelerate oxidation reactions and initiate β-carotene bleaching after cooling. Readings were taken for initial absorbance and final absorbance (after two hours) in a spectrophotometer at 470 nm. The sample absorbance decrease (SAD) and the control absorbance (Ca) were used to yield the percentage of oxidation inhibition (% O) by the Equation 2:
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Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

influence of political interests or economical certain, 3) The obligation to be and to work with honest, imparsial, and efficient, 4) The obligation to always work with manners, good against people it serves, and to a superior, colleagues and his subordinates, 5) An Obligation to prevent themselves from the difference between private interests with the position of public spaces, 6) Obligation not to take advantage of unnatural or his position for personal interest, 7) The obligation to always behave in such a way for the sake of maintaining and increasing trust and confidence on public integrity, impartiality and the effectiveness of public services by, 8) An obligation to carry out tasks and functions iktikad on the basis either, perseverance based on professional skills, knowledge, and sufficient experience, 9) Obligation to always maintain a balance between respect for rights and freedom of citizens with an obligation to precede the public interest, and did not impose restrictions that unnatural unreasonable restrictions, 10) An obligation to respect the rights of citizens for public information, 11) Sanctions law firm to offences
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

Such mediums are the best cover media to hide messages. Digital images are the most widespread cover files used for SG, due to their high embedding efficiency and the insensitivity of the human visual system (HVS) [3]. It is not necessary that the cover and message have a homogeneous structure. For example, it is possible to embed a recording of an audio stream message inside a digital image [4]. The simplest steganographic techniques embed the bits of the message directly into the least significant bit (LSB) plane of the cover image in a deterministic sequence [5, 6]. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity [7-10]. Our technique is focused on providing high security and high speed operation while maintaining imperceptibility. We are using here Galois Encoder to provide high operational speed while maintaining the security intensively. The 2BC (two bit code) technique is the basic steganography technique we are using with the Galois Operation. Galois field arithmetic has received considerable attention in recent years due to their application in public-key cryptography schemes and error correcting codes.[12] We are here using the 2BC(two bit code) and Galois Field algorithm to achieve the goal of the maximum reception of the original message signal while maintaining the losses and enhancing the speed of operation. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity. Our embedding technique is focused on providing security while maintaining imperceptibility. Our method can work in any transform domain, but we are illustrating the ideas in the spatial domain for convenience. The rest of the paper is divided among the following sections: section 2 explains the existing passcode based technique which involves the matching process and the embedding techniques, section 3 describes the Galois operation, section 4 and 5 explains the data transmission and retrieval process using the Galois Encoder and decoder, section 6 contains simulation result and section 7 summarizes the Conclusion.
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The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

household, the program caused an increase of more than 11 percentage points in the probability of attending school. One possible reason for this increase in the estimated impact is the fact that his/her family is only receiving any transfers from the Bolsa Familia program because he/she is attending school. The fear of losing access to the program, which means that it may take time to come back to it in case of harder times ahead, may stimulate parents to monitor their kids’ school attendance more strongly. When these two features were combined — i.e. male youngsters who were the youngest child — the probability of attending school increased by 16.2 percentage points and it is statistically significant at the 1 per cent level.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management of the Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance of the Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one of the forms of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
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Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

According to the study of Deepak Tendon, promotional strategies should be designed as per the nature of the services to be promoted. The advertisers should seek a narrative approach to communicate the service experience rather than a logical, argumentative approach. With that being stated, the table shows that these tourist attractions are ranked based on the most chosen ones. With this gathering, it can now be easily located and analyzed which places are successfully being visited and also the places in need of further improvements. Thus, with this gathering it is now known which is the top chosen and least chosen tourist attraction in Taal
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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The role of business intelligence in decision process modeling

The role of business intelligence in decision process modeling

Knowledge management and data mining are still in the development phase and they represent interest- ing areas for researchers. Although there is an inte- grative framework for knowledge management in the context of marketing, there are critical research chal- lenges that should be devoted considerable attention. More information about data mining for marketing can be seen in (Berry & Linoff , 2004). Some of them are connected to data mining techniques and knowl- edge discovery process, while others are related to knowledge management. Data research through data mining techniques is an interactive process of learning similar to other processes of acquiring knowledge, like scientii c research. Selection of data mining al- gorithms, hypothesis forming, model evaluation and remodeling are the key components of the research process. Since the cycle of attempts and failures for progressive adopting are made of the most valuable knowledge through data mining, the aspect of learn- ing through experiments can be suitable for that. One of the research challenges is to make sure that this process is multi-structured, and therefore to increase the productivity of data mining trials. Furthermore, it is needed to manage the knowledge in the sense that it outlines organizational borders and further distributes towards the other partners.
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

The Malaysia government is proactive in supporting and promoting ICT usage just like its Singapore counterpart. Internet usage has been found to be relatively mature in a consumer satisfactory survey conducted by the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (2004a). Four out of ten Internet users access e- government services for registration and information purposes. Further more, the World Bank has classified Malaysia as an upper-middle-income country (ITU, MCMC, 2004a). Malaysia’s Personal Computer (PC) penetration rate stood at 16.6 percent (ITU, 2004a). The cost of dial-up Internet access has been kept relatively low with subscribers being able to connect to a dial-up point of presence at local call rates (see table 2). Commercial broadband services were first launched by Time dotcom (TIME) in June 2001. At the end of 2003, there were a total of 110,247 subscribers. According to ITU 2004a, this translates to subscriber penetration rate of 0.44 percent or a household broadband penetration rate of 1.98 percent. Around 98 percent of all broadband connections are over direct exchange line (DSL).
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Exploring the Anti-diabetic Effect of White Wine

Exploring the Anti-diabetic Effect of White Wine

Since the activity of α-glucosidases is the final step before glucose absorption on the small intestine epithelium occurs, their inhibition is an effective way of decreasing post-prandial hyperglycemia peaks [22,23]. Acarbose, a pseudo-tetrasaccharide, is the first commercialized α- glucosidase inhibitor and a very important anti-diabetic oral drug. The drug acts through a competitive and reversible inhibition of the brush border α-glucosidases and pancreatic α- amylase, delaying the carbohydrate digestion, which reduces the rate of glucose absorption [24]. However, the use of α-glucosidase inhibitors as acarbose causes serious side-effects such as abdominal distention, meteorism, flatulence and diarrhea [24–26]. It has been proposed that this side effects are due to a strong inhibition of the complex carbohydrates digestion, more precisely of an excessive pancreatic α-amylase inhibition, which allows the undigested carbohydrates to reach the colon, where abnormal fermentation results in intestinal gas, and consequently the side effects referred above [24,27,28]. Thus, it is necessary to search for alternative ways that can display the same α-glucosidase inhibitory activity without such side effects. Compounds from natural sources that display this anti-hyperglycemic bioactivity have been studied, yielding promising results [29].
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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth of the contraction cavity with the growth of the temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease of the depth of the contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing of the content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition of the bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation on the surface of the solidifica- tion bronze of the layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth of the temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
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Apple Wine Processing with Different Nitrogen Contents

Apple Wine Processing with Different Nitrogen Contents

The nitrogen fraction in apple juice comprehends the amino acids asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine, representing together from 86 to 95 % of total amino acids, and they are rapidly assimilated by yeasts. The fruits harvested from the orchards with extremely high fertilizers can contain the nitrogen compounds in the juices up to five times higher (Lequere and Drilleau, 1998) than the usual. The amount of nitrogen in apple juices can be low (<75 mg/L) or high (>150 mg/L) depending mainly on the age of the orchards and the amount of the fertilizers used (Nogueira et al., 2003; Drilleau, 1993). These facts influence the growth of the yeast and affect the fermentation rate, kinetic of aroma production and microbiological instability in naturally gasified cider (Garde-Cerdán and AncÌn-Azpilicueta, 2008; Goñi and Azpilicueta, 1999; Ingledew and Kunkee, 1985; Nogueira and Wosiacki, 2010; Ough et al., 1991; Pérez-Zúñiga et al., 1997). The nitrogen content in apples can vary from different orchards and also from crop to crop (Drilleau, 1996), because the values can be influenced by the area, amount and kind of nitrogen fertilizers used and by the season (Baron et al., 1977).
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Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

where is a set of linear restrictions that transforms the unrestricted model (1) on restricted model (2). 8 In our case, the restriction implies that the age, trend and (orthogonal) time dummies are sufficient to explain the behavior of each estimated statistic order across cells and over time. Imposing the restrictions means estimating weighted least squares regressions on the grouped data, for each quantile and education group separately. This procedure will give us consistent estimates of . Under the null that the restrictions are valid, the minimized value follows a chi-square distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of restrictions. In order to construct the test statistics, we only have to sum up the weighted squared residuals, that is, the estimated percentiles minus the predicted values minus the orthogonal time dummies.
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Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Presented paper contains evaluation of influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification. The investigated model is based on the heat conduction equation with a heat source and solved using the finite element method (FEM). The model is built with the use of enthalpy formulation for solidification and using an intermediate solid fraction growth model. The model sensitivity is studied with the use of Morris method, which is one of global sensitivity methods. Characteristic feature of the global methods is necessity to conduct a series of simulations applying the investigated model with appropriately chosen model parameters. The advantage of Morris method is possibility to reduce the number of necessary simulations. Results of the presented work allow to answer the question how generic sensitivity analysis results are, particularly if sensitivity analysis results depend only on model characteristics and not on things such as density of the finite element mesh or shape of the region. Results of this research allow to conclude that sensitivity analysis with use of Morris method depends only on characteristic of the investigated model.
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A theoretical contribution from the perspective of innovation process in wine tourism contexts

A theoretical contribution from the perspective of innovation process in wine tourism contexts

Tourism is a phenomenon that moves millions of people around the world, taking as a major driver of the global economy. Every year, much due to the frequent changes in the tourism environment, fosters competition between and within tourist destinations (Bigné & Andreu, 2004). It is multifaceted and geographically complex activity, where different services are ordered and delivered in different stages, from origin to destination (Pearce, 1991). To set Special Interest Tourism (SIT) in a broader overall tourism context, Brotherton and Himmetoglu (1997) suggest a ‘‘Tourism Interest Continuum’’. Based on Culligan’s framework, they propose that “through increasing travel experience, confidence and affluence, a maturation or tourist life cycle transition from ‘‘safe to more adventurous kinds of travel and holidays’’ occurs, with the tourist ‘‘trading up’’ and purchasing social prestige and ego-enhancement” (Trauer, 2006, p. 187). As a psychological phenomenon, a tourist trip is preceded by a specific need that generates a reason to travel and sets a goal for the trip, which follows the search for information (Gursoy & McCleary, 2004). Like other emerging sectors in a modern economy, tourism is a dynamic and ever-changing industry.
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