Sad, Subotica, Palilula etc.), which can be explained by the fact that these municipalities are settled in areas where are abundance of favorable conditions for agricultural production. That area is settled on intersection of main roads and it is limited by four borders of Bosnia, Croatia, Hungary and Romania. The water way in this area is very developed. Three huge rivers Dunav, Sava and Tisa are floating and also there is system of channels Dunav-Tisa-Dunav. Favorable water way is advantageous for agricultural products’ presentation, so it is normal to find area with very developed and big market for realization of achieved production. The main characteristic of this area is that private sector has long tradition, so municipalities have experience in supporting private investments. You can notice service providers’ offices at these areas as better presentation of necessary information, so this influences on developmentofsmallandmediumsized entrepreneurship in area of agriculture.
There are difficulties associated with the developmentof bankruptcy risk prediction models for SMEs, however. These relate to: (1) the fact that SMEs typically make less information publicly available than large companies (Ciampi and Gordini, 2013); and (2) the subjectivity of managerial decisions. Managers can influence company results through their leadership characteristics, management style, attitude toward consumers or even level of risk aversion, which makes it difficult to interpret managers’ choices and/or translate them into numbers (Morrison et al., 2003; Ciampi and Gordini, 2013). In addition, any such performance or bankruptcy predictions would also need to take into account more qualitative variables, such as managerial experience or competence, as well uncontrollable elements, such as external environment conditions (Zopounidis and Dimitras, 1998); which means we are dealing with highly complex and inherently subjective decision situations.
The results of the field study showed that the use of various sources of information to get information, in order to increase knowledge in the enterprise has become essential in most enterprises, but it is not considered enough, because there are a lot of information that are not available in these sources, such as libraries and information centers, which are open sources, but can be obtained from other secondary sources of information, such as personal interviews with experts in the field of work; moreover, it became clear that there is an increase in the sales of the products, as a result of product development constantly, according to the information which is obtained from various sources of knowledge about the organization, as a result of the use of the Internet as an information source
reflect the procedure and outcomes of the change that the company has taken so far in order to learn for future actions and to adjust the everlasting change at the company (see appendix 18). First of all, it needs to be pointed out that the entire change was planned well ahead of time, well-thought and accurately, unlike previous attempts for change. The developmentof the vision, mission, strategy and value system was fundamental to the company. This showed also that the priority for change was high and the top management was willing and committed. Besides, it was absolutely necessary to bring details together by developing an appealing big picture that motivates and inspires the people for change. Additionally, the overall reluctance for change and the skepticism about external support from a consultancy have been eliminated successfully. It was of particular importance that employees perceived the external consultants as down-to-earth and relevant for the change. Consequently, the external partner was accepted and acknowledged by the organization. Moreover, the top management decided wisely to involve a large group of employees in the change process, for instance in the culture development, as well as in the lean management pilot. But at the same time, management has understood that starting on a small scale through a pilot was important to create quick-wins and to convince critics. Last but not least, the more frequent and open communication can be considered as positive, as it led to a decrease in employees’ disorientation and, simultaneously, to a rise in their entrepreneurial thinking and commitment towards change.
Industrial complexes were to be located in all regional centres as the ba- sis of the towns development, so that it would become possible to establish specialised healthcare institutions, institutions of culture and utility services to meet the needs of the population of not only the town per se, but the re- gion in general. The republic's capital Vilnius, Kaunas and the port city of Klaipeda had already become such centres. Later, theywerelinkedby the rail- road junction to the cities ofŠiauliaiandPanev ėžys, where the number of people employed in industry increased more than by one third over five years (1961—1965). The other five regional centres were to be established on the basis ofsmall towns. Until 1980, they had accounted for 30 % of the urban population growth in the republic. Other Lithuanian settlements ac- counted for 15 %, with the five regional centres having the rest 55 %; at the same time the growth of the largest centres — Vilnius and Kaunas — was strictly limited .
As scientific contribution, this research offers a perspective for analyzing networks based on its structural attributes (content and strength). Although the major publications in the field of internationalization will emphasize the importance of networks in the context of international business, we understand that they are predominantly extensive and cross-sectional studies, which prevents a more qualitative analysis of the substance of these social relationships. One of the difficulties faced in conducting this study was that distance with what actually happens “inside” these relationships, requiring that the researcher look for greater familiarity with what actually takes place in these companies on a daily basis. This need was detected during some personal contacts with entrepreneurs who participated in the survey. A quick conversation was enough to realize the value of historical issues, rules and shared customs and conventions that guide corporate life within the limits of a region with peculiar social and economic characteristics.
(2011), not all the agents involved in such processes know (or they know only imperfectly) the procedures followed in assessing credit risk. Furthermore, there is often a lack of clarity with regard to the manner in which the various evaluation criteria included in the risk as- sessment process should be weighted. Lopez and Saidenberg (2000: 152) note that “these lim- itations create a serious difficulty for users’ own validation of credit risk models and for valida- tion by third parties, such as external auditors or bank regulators”. Therefore, the discussion has not been put to rest and there is a need for the developmentand/or adoption of new models, techniques or approaches, which might help overcome the limitations presented by the most commonly used valuation models (Gupta et al. 2014a). Accordingly, by making complementary use of cognitive mapping techniques with TODIM, the main objective of the current study is the developmentof a multicriteria system, which can allow the process of credit risk assessment for SMEs to become more informed, transparent and comprehensive.
Although there is a strong banking system in Romania, access to credit for micro enterprises is extremely limited. The main reasons for this are: the lack of possibilities to guarantee loans, particularly high interest rates that discourage a loan, state guarantee funds for SMEs relatively low. Appetite for credit is generally low for private entrepreneurs, their development being based on previous profit or from loans provided by partners or shareholders, without resort to external financing sources - mainly bank loans.
This study focuses on Portugal due to high prevalence of SME’s in Portuguese market. A study realized in Portugal (IAPMEI, 2008) refers that 99.6% of the national companies are either small or mediumsized which confers a huge relevance to a study of this sort in order to better portray the country’s situation. The practices of management accounting organizations are poorly disclosed in Portugal, due to the optional nature of this type of accounting, which justifies the empirical studies in this country as a contribution to the contingency theory, in that it recognizes that cultural differences between countries are a factor of differentiation of management accounting methods used (YANG et al., 2006; MACARTHUR, 2006). The current funding problems of the Mediterranean European countries require a greater capacity for management ofenterprises, which also gives importance to the study of management accounting practices of Portuguese companies. There are over 297.000 SME’s in Portugal as of 2005 (IAPMEI, 2008). This forces me to impose further restrictions on my sample. I have n arrowed down my study to benchmark industrial SME’s. The reason why I narrowed it down to industrial companies is that they belong to a sector which is historically known for using managerial accounting systems. The reasons why I am using benchmark SME’s is justified by the fact that they already constitute a previous selection that was made with similar goals as this project seeing as how the said selection already accounted for both the economic, financial and the managerial well fare of these companies (IAPMEI, 2002). My universe includes 163 consecutive benchmark industrial SME’s in the current century. The data gathering was done through several interviews to the departments’ heads of managerial accounting, given these are perceived to be the ones who possess the most knowledge regarding the topic at hand. I realized 58 separate interviews of industrial enterprises spread over eleven different Portuguese districts, which implies a 36% response rate. I also went through the no-reply requests in order to conclude that there was no statistical difference between the companies that performed the interview and the ones that didn’t.
If I can convince any investor to invest in hard places, then he’s also investing in my methodology – how did I get this person in front of you at a certain stage ofdevelopment? – and I believe I can do that again and again and again, so, in effect, I’m franchising investment, not franchising social enterprises, and that leaves the flexibility and the creativity in the hands of the social entrepreneur. I think that’s important, because of the cultural issues around a social business that needs to be rooted in its community. That’s what makes it very different, and that also is learning from the big business that have in effect tried to franchise their business abroad, but have found that that is not going to work, so they had to come up with a business that suits the new market, but then it’s a separate business and it needs to thrive and they […] just make money and be part of a big family had been eventually what made them unable to make that long term and so they pulled out. This is not just social enterprise […], I think it’s other forms of internationalisation where actually the feedback on the market is that it just requires something too different of what we were prepared to offer, what we can offer, what we can resource, what we can invest in, and therefore we have to pull out. I think this is an area of research in itself. It’s not easy to do that, because, for example, in local government, across Europe, they use tendering to buy public services. They specify a service, they put it out there, people have the specification, those specifications can often look almost identical. In theory, that should be great for franchising, you should be able to say, “we’re buying this service for old people, and it really works and it costs this, and it makes a 5% profit which we think it’s useful”, because they invest the money on the training of their staff, being innovative. Why don’t you commission this business model, not just the
Conclusions. The analysis of Ukrainian agrarian market indicates that in Ukraine there are all the conditions for successful developmentofsmallandmedium entrepreneurship. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of domestic agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where the recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale, or association of farmers into an agricultural cooperative, this form of economy in agrarian relations which combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular, stipulates that sustainable economic provides only form of economy that takes into account the socio-economic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and management methods. The most common of these forms are smallandmedium-sized farms.
The adoption of big data technologies poses several challenges, which have resulted in research by both academics and practitioners (e.g. , , ), identifying factors that influence the adoption of big data. Other researchers (e.g. , , , ) have investigated the challenges and barriers to big data technologies, emanating from privacy of data, the requirement for urgency, talent shortages, the lack of practice (e.g. inter-operability issues among big data applications, and legal and regulatory concerns), and the lack of educational institutions offering training, to name a few (please see Fig. 1). However, little research exists on the issues that are relevant to the Chinese context. The Chinese business environment differs in several ways from other business environments and is to some extent unique in terms of operational, managerial, cultural and strategic dimensions. The peculiarities of the Chinese business context imply that an investigation of the drivers ofand challenges to big data technologies in China is merited. It is expected that such an understanding will help in the developmentof policies and strategies, and the shaping of organizational behaviors towards the adoption of big data technologies.
Experimental castings were prepared in moulds made of two types of plaster. Cast temperatures were 1120 and 1200°C for bronzes and 700 and 800°C for silumin. Temperatures of the mould were 500 and 600°C for bronzes and 200 and 300°C for aluminum alloy. The roughness measurements were carried out with use of Hommelwerke Tester T1000. The average arithmetic deviation of roughness profile Ra, the ten-point height of irregularities Rz and maximum peak to valley height Rm, were measured.
products (Kim & Chung, 2011:40), so it’s important to recognize consumer purchasing behavior. Many companies use marketing strategies by analyzing consumer behavior in order to study the effect on purchase decision (Jalalkamali & Nikbin, 2010:235). The purchase decision is also influenced by the perceived quality which is also an aspect of brand value that makes consumers pay for certain products or services (Yaseen et al., 2011:833). It confirms that the consumer purchase decision on products or services is strongly influenced by customer perception of quality of value brand. Decision making is a way of choosing between two or more possible options when a person has a choice between purchasing or not (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). In the assessment stages of different choices, the consumers classify different brands and the purchase intention is created in his mind. Shareef et al. (2008) revealed purchase decision is a continuous process, which refers to thoughtful, consistent action undertaken to bring about need satisfaction. Choubtarash et al. (2013) confirmed that purchase decision is a person in the mind who is carefully analyzing the features of products, trademarks or services and tries, by using logical methods, to choose a choice that can satisfy the recognized need with the least expenses. Consumers perceived organic as a healthier alternative to conventional foods in that they contain more nutrients which enhance personal well-being organic produce is also considered safer and better in taste and more enjoyable than conventional products (Shaharudin et al., 2010:72). Last organic purchasing is defined as purchasing goods and services which have less harmful for environmental and human health (Othman & Rahman, 2014:93). Purchasing decisions can be measured through several dimensions, including recommend, purchase frequency, overall satisfaction and purchase intention (Shareef et al., 2008:101). The measure is not different from the study by Liu et al. (2009:72) which provide specifications for purchasing decisions by some measures, including product selection, brand selection, object selection, purchase opportunity, and purchase quantity. Consumer purchasing decisions on products had relationship with consumer perceptions of quality and risk products (Yee et al., 2011:47). Consumer interest in the products can be improved by an increase in the quality of products (Kwak & Kang, 2009:85). And previous research has argued that a consumer perception of quality has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior (Wang & Tsai, 2014:27). Based on these studies, next hypothesis as follows:
Experimentation is the degree to which new ideas and sugges- tions are adopted and treated in the organization (Tohidi et al., 2012). Experimentation is related to supporting the new ideas, favorable responses to initiatives of employees and the devel- opment and facilitation of change. It also covers the search for innovative solutions to problems, based on the possibil- ity of using methods and different procedures. Organizational learning requires the experimentation, being one of the ways to institutionalize it in the organization (McGill & Slocum, 1993). Interaction with the external environment is understood as the factors that influence the organization, however, they are out of its control directly, as the competitors, social and economic sys- tems and policies. The dimension consists of indicators related to the collection and reporting of information from the external environment; receiving and sharing information and interaction of employees with the external environment (Chiva et al., 2007). In environments of uncertainty the learning occurs by the trans- fer of knowledge, improvement of skills and by involvement in the resolution of problems within the organization (Popper & Lipshitz, 2000).
Nowadays, magnesium alloys are used for casting into sand moulds of huge dimensional castings, high-pressure castings and precise casings. In castings of magnesium alloys defects or inconsistencies often appear (like casting misrun, porosities and cracks) particularly in the huge dimensional castings. Such defects are mended with the use of padding and welding. The welding techniques can be applied by using weld material consisting of magnesium alloy, as well as for regeneration of alloys after excessive wear. Nevertheless, the number of the repaired castings, which were permitted for use, is not satisfactory for a profitable production. The main reasons for wear are the cracks appearing during welding in brittleness high-temperature range.
Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
These 9 models are shaped by considering Plan irregularities i.e. the plan area for each structure is same only there is difference of geometry. For all types of structure total numbers of storeys are 12.The elevation is same for all the 9 models. Distribution of each storey height is shown below,
). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device use and support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology and the results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on