A positive view of oneself is important for a healthy lifestyle. Self-protection mechanisms such as suppressing negative self-related information help us to maintain a positive view of ourselves. This is of special relevance when, for instance, a negative test result threatens our positive self-view. To date, it is not clear which brain areas support self-protective mech- anisms under self-threat. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studythe participants (N = 46) received a (negative vs. positive) performance test feedback before entering the scanner. In the scanner, the participants were instructed to ascribe per- sonality traits either to themselves or to a famous other. Our results showed that participants responded slower to negative self-relatedtraits compared to positive self-relatedtraits. High self-esteem individuals responded slower to negative traits compared to low self-esteem individuals following a self-threat. This indicates that high self-esteem individuals engage more in self-enhancing strategies after a threat by inhibiting negative self-related informa- tion more successfully than low self-esteem individuals. This behavioral pattern was mir- rored in thefMRI data as dACC correlated positively with trait self-esteem. Generally, ACC activation was attenuated under threat when participants evaluated self-relevant traitsand even more for negative self-relatedtraits. We also found that activation in the ACC was neg- atively correlated with response times, indicating that greater activation ofthe ACC is linked to better access (faster response) to positive self-relatedtraitsand to impaired access (slower response) to negative self-relatedtraits. These results confirm the ACC function as important in managing threatened self-worth but indicate differences in trait self-esteem lev- els. ThefMRI analyses also revealed a decrease in activation within the left Hippocampus andthe right thalamus under threat. This indicates that a down-regulation of activation in these regions might also serve as coping mechanism in dealing withself-threat.
Temporal distance influences perceptions ofthe future self. Although people view the future self favorably, the degree of favorability is affected by temporal distance. Construal level theory has been employed to explain mechanisms underlying the effect of temporal distance on future self-appraisals . From this perspective, whereas the near future self is associated with a low- level, concrete construal, the distant future self is associated with a high-level, abstract construal [17–19]. To elaborate, the near future self-construal is more grounded in concrete events and comprises complex representations oftheself that include both positive and negative self-construals. In contrast, because the distant future self is relatively remote from direct life experiences and people have a tendency to view the future in a positive light [8,10,20,21], distant future self-views should be even more favorable and positive. In support of construal level theory, Heller et al. (2011) found perceptions of (1) affect, (2) traits, and (3) narratives of one’s distant future self (i.e., three years from now) were more positive and less variable than perceptions of one’s near future self (i.e., a month from now) in three independent studies . Similarly, Kanten and Teigen (2008) found that people predicted having a more favorable future self in two years’ as opposed to six months’ time .
Despite the gender differences identified between men and women when it comes to thecoping mechanisms used to cope with stress which have been reported in various studies, there are a series of characteristics that are predominantly cultural or belong to society and which limit the generalization ofthe results to cultural spaces or to the type of society involved. Therefore, the previous studies were made in different cultures which makes it possible that the differences observed could have been limited to the variables of that specific cultural space, in other words: norms and social values, the expectations ofthe society from gender roles, the relationship between collectivism and individualism, the distance people had to power, risk avoidance (see: Copeland & Hess, 1995; Dakhli & Matta, 2013; Ward & Kennedy, 2001), variables which have a huge impact on the perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours ofthe individuals, and, obviously, on thecoping strategies. Intercultural differences can be in favor of some identity dimensions, but they can also determine or activate an unexpected consensus (Gavreliuc, 2006).
Although it appears paradoxical, athletes with higher levels ofself-control showed lower levels of approach motivation, particularly in the dimensions of fun seeking and drive. However, these scales are more related to impulsivity (e.g., Gray, 1990; Quilty & Oakman, 2004) and reflect initiation, as opposed to inhibition (Corr, 2004), which explains these findings. Nonetheless, approach motivation is negatively associated with anxiety (e.g., Cury et al., 2002, 2003; Morris & Kavussanu, 2009), which was also observed in this study in the dimensions of fun seeking and drive. Therefore, these findings must be interpreted in light ofthe theoretical background ofthe measures used in this study. The Brief Self-control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004) is focused on inhibitory self-control behaviors, disregarding active goal pursuit. In fact, some recent alternative structures of this measure have been proposed to reflect these two dimensions in general domains (de Ridder, de Boer, Lugtig, Bakker, & van Hooft, 2011; Maloney, Grawitch, & Barber, 2012), but also in sport (Toering & Jordet, 2015). A discriminant analysis showed that somatic anxiety, concentration disruption, avoidance, distraction, fun seeking an drive were significant predictors ofthe differences between high and low trait self-control athletes. These results suggest the important role ofself-control in the regulation of competitive anxiety. It seems that those with a greater self- control capacity tend to experience less anxiety in competition (e.g., Englert & Bertrams, 2012) and use less coping strategies avoidance coping strategies, including distraction (Englert et al., 2011; Galla & Wood, 2015). Additionally, fun seeking and drive were also predictors ofthe differences in self-control, suggesting that higher levels ofself-control are related to less impulsive behaviors (e.g., Gray, 1990).
Since learning strategies seem to be an important set of variables to explain the effectiveness of training and e-learning in organizations is here to stay, this paper aimed to analyze the factor structure and psychometric properties of a Learning Strategies Scale (LSS) and its relationship withthe training transfer in an e-learning corporate context. A total of 3600 employees of a Brazilian bank participated in this study by responding to the LSS after taking part in an online course. We measured training transfer withself-evaluationand hetero-evaluation scales. Internal consistency, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regressions were conducted. A four-factor structure andan acceptable level of fit for the model were found. All types of learning strategies were related to training transfer in self-evaluation, andthe cognitive and help-seeking strategies contributed to explain training transfer in hetero-evaluation. As a reliable and valid measure that predicts the effectiveness of training and job performance, participants should be advised about the learning strategies that produce better performance results at the workplace. Future research should use it in different contexts and samples, analyzing its relationships with other workplace variables.
The results show an association between personality traitsand sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women when assessed by their sexual self-perception. Women with poor sexual self-perception showed fewer types of personality traits, such as affection and organization (FPI-II). A low level of education has also been shown to be signiﬁcant for sexual dysfunction in relation to theself-report ofthe participants. Theevaluationof female sexual function is complex and there is no ideal methodology. The perception test used in the present study, besides being consecrated by a previous clinical trial by Davis et al, 7 shows to be a simple and objective tool for the identiﬁcation of sexual dysfunction. There are ﬁve direct, easy-to-understand questions. These criteria were consistent withthe deﬁnition of hypoactive
The individuals’ efforts to manage stressors, coping strategies , have been conceptualized as moderators ofthe association between psychosocial stress and health-related outcomes . Excess cortisol secretion is considered to be one ofthe mechanisms for the relationship be- tween psychosocial stress and weight gain , and one recent study indicated that the lack of a coping strategy (i.e., each ofself-protection, problem engagement, and seeking social support) was associated with elevated glucocorticoids [12,13]. We therefore hypothesized that coping strategies may be potential predictors of obesity as well as moderators ofthe link between stress and obesity. To our knowledge, only one study suggested an inverse association between a cop- ing strategy (i.e., confrontive coping) and BMI in 180 women , and little is known about whether coping strategies moderate the association between psychosocial stress and BMI, or vice versa. The impact of gender difference on the association between coping strategies and BMI may also be of concern due to the paucity of such data.
With regard to personal resources, traditional research on personality and burnout has focused on the Big Five personality dimensions and emotional affectivity [6, 7]. However, recently, Core self-evaluation (CSE) has received a great deal of attention in personality research. CSE, a broad personality concept, which describes an individual’s evaluation about themselves, their ability, and their control, consists of four traits: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism . Numerous studies have reported that CSE significantly influenced salary , goal setting , job satisfaction , job performance [10, 12], career commitment , and job burnout [13, 14]. In addition, Spence Laschinger et al. identified the important role of CSE on nurse managers’ burnout . However, previous studies did not determine how CSE influences burnout.
EAM , arguably a number ofthe scale items appear to relate more readily to the efficacy of these efforts, rather than the motivational and functional dynamics underpinning thecoping effort per se (e.g., ‘To what extent did this/these activities allow you to manage the distress and upset caused by the event?’, ‘To what extent did this/these activities allow you to handle any anxiety caused by the event?’). Therefore, it may be that while individuals who self-harm are motivated to deal with aversive emotional outcomes of stressful/distressing events, they are low in endorsing the emotion regulatory items, due to the perceived inefficacy of their actions. Given the established literature linking self-harm to difficulties in emotion regulation  such explanations could explain the pattern of results observed; specifically, why our results indicate that emotion regulation coping was lower in those with a lifetime history ofself-harm and also why increased emotion regulation coping was related to an increased period since last episode self-harm. Further support for this suggestion may also be taken from the small association observed between the level of endorsement of experiential avoidance and emotion regulation coping functions. The current study did not capture engagement in alternative problematic behaviours (e.g., substance misuse). Given that such behaviours may serve as an effective short-term strategy for experiential manipulation , further work would benefit from a more nuanced sample characterisation, including the assessment of divergent manifestations of emotion regulation.
O afeto positivo é definido por Pressman e Cohen (2005) como um estado de saúde mental, caracterizado por sensações de prazer, felicidade, alegria, excitação, entusiasmo, inspiração ou determinação, que refletem o envolvimento agradável com o meio envolvente (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988; Librán & Piera, 2008; Galinha, Pereira & Esteves, 2014). Fredrickson (1998) propôs um modelo teórico acerca da influência do afeto positivo no bem- estar físico, psicológico e social das pessoas, no qual defende que a experiência de emoções positivas evita os efeitos negativos das emoções negativas na saúde, gerando espaço para a recuperação em situações de stress, ideia sustentada também por outros autores (Folkman & Moskowitz, 2000; Pressman & Cohen, 2005). A concretização de metas pessoais de forma autónoma, nas quais o indivíduo verifique uma concordância entre as suas capacidades e o alcance dos seus interesses, dá lugar a uma experiência de afeto positivo, independentemente do modo ou da eficácia com que alcançou essa mesma meta. Esta experiência de afeto positivo, gera, por sua vez, estratégias de coping mais adaptativas face a situações stressantes (Sansinenea, Montes, Aguirrezabal & Garaigordobil, 2010).
across cultures enjoy it with smiling, laughing, and mirth, and Some of these contradictory results may be due to the different humor styles that may be more or less beneficial . Humor style is the way in which individuals tend to express their sense of humor in the social situations. It can be divided into four distinct types. Affiliative humor (adaptive other-focused) is described as the benign use of humor to enhance relationships with others by reducing conflicts and strengthening relationships. Self-enhancing humor (adaptive self-focused) acts to protect theself as a defense or coping mechanism, as a way to relieve tension. Aggressive humor (maladaptive other-focused) is described as the use of humor to enhance theself at the expense of others, typically by the excessive use of sarcasm or disparagement humor. Self-defeating humor (maladaptive self-focused) is the use of humor to enhance relationships with others at the expense ofselfand is characterized by the excessive use ofself-disparaging humor , Zhao and colleges found that their Results of structural equation modeling showed that social support andself-esteem fully mediated the relationship between affiliative humor, self- enhancing humor and life satisfaction. Their final model also revealed a significant path from affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor through social support andself-esteem to life satisfaction .
mains: active coping, planning, positive reinterpreta- tion, acceptance, humor, religion, seeking of emo- tional support, seeking of instrumental support, distraction, denial, expression of feelings, substance use, behavioral disengagement andself-blame. These subscales, each one with two items, are separately scored. In the current study, Cronbach’s alpha ranged from .51 to .97, as in the original version. Two ofthe subscales were removed: planning and seeking instru- mental support, due to low internal consistency (al- pha below .70). 41
While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along withthe emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management ofthe Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance ofthe Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one ofthe forms ofthe sovereignty ofthe Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
By analysing the experiences of mothers with PT-LBW babies at NICU and at risk of developmental impairments or death, we observed: (a) threats or challenges to Relatedness, as mothers who remain at the hospital with their babies are removed (temporarily) from their family and social life, and sources of social support are not always available or directly accessible at this time or even after discharge from the hos- pital; (b) threats or challenges to Competence, because the mothers do not always have the resources or information nec- essary to effectively face the challenges encountered in the hospital context and later, at home; and (c) threats or chal- lenges to Autonomy, because the mother cannot directly inlu- ence the course ofthe baby’s health, and so she inds herself in a situation that limits her ability to choose and to deter- mine events (Siqueira & Dias, 2011; Turner, Chur-Hansen, & Wineield, 2015).
Objective: to evaluate theself-perceived oral health status of elderly persons and its relation to self-care practices, the use of public oral health services, denture use, dental complaints and impact on everyday activities. Method: The 95 subjects of this quantitative, analytical and cross-sectional study were from Fortaleza, a state capital in the northeast of Brazil. They were aged 60 years or over and were mentally capacitated according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. Thestudy parameters included gender, age group, race/ethnic background, level of schooling, household income, self-care practices, use and need for dentures, dental complaints, impact on everyday activities, access to oral health services, and access to information. The outcome parameter was self-perceived oral health. To verify the association between thestudy parameters andthe outcome parameter, prevalence ratios were calculated and submitted to the Chi-squared test, the Fisher’s exact test, the Mann-Whitney test and multivariate regression analysis. Result: self-perceived oral health was described as good/excellent significantly more often by women than by men ( p=0.044). Oral health had a negative impact on everyday activities among nearly one third ofthe sample (n=29; 30.5%). The mean and median values of dental complaints and impact on everyday activities were significantly lower for subjects reporting good/excellent oral health than for subjects reporting poor/fair oral health. Conclusion: it is expected that these results will strengthen oral health care for elderly persons, in order to maintain their quality of life during this stage of life.
Social inequality is widespread in Brazil. The history of public health in Brazil is marked by the creation ofthe Unified Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese) in 1988, whose under- lying principles include equity, universality and comprehensiveness. Since the creation ofthe SUS, significant investments have been made in human resources, science and technology, and Primary Health Care (PHC), and a significant portion ofthe Brazilian population has been able to access healthcare services. The health care system in Brazil has also become increasingly decentralised and social participation and awa- reness among the population regarding the right to healthcare has broadened. However, certain challenges remain to be overcome by the SUS, in- cluding the provision of equitable and sustainab- le universal coverage, andthe transition towards a healthcare model which is capable of addres- singdemographic and epidemiological changes, centred on promoting health through intersecto- ral action andthe integration of health services. These challenges are not technical, but rather po- litical, and can only be solved through the joint efforts of individuals and society. To overcome these challenges, greater political mobilisation is necessary to restructure funding and redefine the roles ofthe public and private health sectors so as to ensure the political, economic, scienti- fic and technological sustainability ofthe SUS 1 .
The 1.5T MRI showed right predominant bilateral me- sial temporal sclerosis andthe computed tomography (CT) showed a calciﬁ ed neurocysticercotic lesion in the posteri- or region of right temporal lobe. Surface video-electroen- cephalographic monitoring (VEEG) showed normal back- ground activity with 81% of interictal spikes in the right sphenoidal electrode and 19% in the left one. The patient had eight complex partial seizures shared in two semio- logical and EEG patterns suggesting independent seizure onset in bilateral temporal lobes. Neuropsychological test evidenced mental retardation and diffuse cognitive impair- ment, with estimated IQ of 64. Wada test showed left hemi- spheric dominance for speech and bilateral cognitive re- serve for memory, which could allow surgical procedure in any ofthe temporal lobes.
anxiety) or bodily sensations. In this sequence, we can then consider that IG couples, particularly women, are more unwilling to tolerate painful private events (e.g., thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations) and make efforts to control or modify their form, frequency, duration or intensity as well as the contexts that give rise to them, even if this leads to behaviors that are not congruent with their values (53). It is also worth noting that experiential avoidance, being a verbally mediated process, can function as a strategy that induces some immediate relief from painful emotional experience, but as time goes by, its use may be counterproductive (54).
Personal journal blogs are interactive e-writings maintained through specific authoring tool and published on the World Wide Web in a reverse chronological sequence of dated entries (Herring, Scheidt, Kouper, & Wright, 2006). They are used mainly to express personal views and commentaries (Nardi, Diane, Schiano, Gumbrecht, & Swartz, 2004), and are often linked to a profile that may disclose personal information about its author (Kumar, Novak, Raghavan, & Tomkins, 2004; Misoch, 2015). Blogging may be characterized as an outlet for thoughts and feelings with patently emotional content; a way to explore obsessive and passionate issues. It could maintain, train, or even advance communicational skills. Generally, the motivation for personal blogging varies from “recording life” to “keeping family and friends updated”. However, personal blogs general applying and expressing entail identifiable psychological constructs such as self, identity, social interaction, and relationships (Bronstein, 2013a). Displaying of such personal information is favored because blogs allow for greater anonymity, reduced importance of physical appearance, gating features for relationship development, and for greater control over interactions (Bronstein, 2013b; Hollenbaugh 2010). For this analysis, we leave aside the negative social effects of blogging such as bullying (Juvonen & Gross, 2008), and risk factors such as involvement with antisocial peers, negative affect, drug and alcohol abuse, and problematic behavior in school (Anderson-Butcher et al., 2010). The focus will be the transformative potential of blogs’ self- expressions as a public movement toward self-innovation.
A study showed that among the main psychosocial challenges this group of people has to face are discrimination, stigma, and challenges of establishing loving relationships if their seropositive condition is known. Fear of having their diagnosis revealed can lead them to isolate themselves from family and friends, which intensifies emotional distress and consequently reflecting on their ability to adhere to drug therapy and seek social support. Among the strategies used to deal with this situation, social support, confidentiality regarding the diagnosis, optimism, rationalization, social comparison and religiosity/spirituality (8) were mentioned