Top PDF New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)

New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)

New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)

The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964, is a sap-sucking insect of Australian origin (Moore, 1964) which currently shows a widespread distribution outside its native range due to frequent introductions. It was detected in California, U.S.A. in 1998 (Brennan et al., 1999), in Mexico in 2000 (Castillo, 2003), in the Hawaiian Islands in 2001 (Nagamine & Heu, 2001), in Chile in 2002 (Sandoval & Rothmann, 2003), in Brazil (Santana et al., 2003) and Mauritius (Sookar et al., 2003) in 2003, in Madagascar in 2004 (Hollis, 2004), in Argentina in 2005 (Bouvet et al., 2005), in Ecuador in 2007 (Onore & Gara, 2007), in Venezuela (Rosales et al., 2008), Peru (Burckhardt et al., 2008) and Iberian Peninsula (Hurtado & Reina, 2008; Valente & Hoodkinson, 2009; Prieto-Lillo et al., 2009) in 2008, and finally in Italy in 2010 (Laudonia & Garonna, 2010). Within Spain, it was only recorded at first in the provinces of Caceres,
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Primeiro registro de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore 1964, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em Eucalipto no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil.

Primeiro registro de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore 1964, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em Eucalipto no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil.

Known as Red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei is a sucker insect of Australian origin whose attacks several eucalyptus species. Its presence in Brazil was reported for the first time in the São Paulo State in June, 2003. Later, its occurrence was also registered in Minas Gerais, Goiás, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul States. The nymphs possess yellowish color and they are protected under small shells while

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Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.

ABSTRACT. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae) biology in Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD), with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid (‘urograndis’). Initially 100 replications (nymphs) per treatment (Eucalyptus species) were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.
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Dinâmica populacional do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e de seu parasitóide Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) em floresta de Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

Dinâmica populacional do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e de seu parasitóide Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) em floresta de Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

Psyllids are one most widespread group of pests, causing severe damage on agricultural and forestry systems. The recently discover about occurrence of red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Brazil is, nowadays a serious problem in Eucalyptus forests, mainly in E. camaldulensis. The psyllid specific parasitic wasp Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is the main biological control agent of this pest. Thus, the adequate monitoring of both species by efficient sampling method would
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An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae)

An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae)

year. One of the methods used to control the red gum lerp psyllid is the application of chemical pesticides, but this strat- egy is expensive, harmful to man and the environment, and provides only a temporary solution (Santana & Burckhardt 2007). The biological control of this pest was considered a viable option (Daane et al. 2005; Sullivan et al. 2006), and the exotic specialist parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek 1962 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) have already been recorded in Brazilian Eucalyptus plantations. This natural enemy was re- corded in 2003 in São Paulo state together with its host G. brimblecombei (Wilcken et al. 2003). During the last decade, P. bliteus has been successfully created under laboratory con- ditions in Brazil and released in Eucalyptus plantations for biological control purposes. However, the parasitism rates of G. brimblecombei nymphs by P. bliteus under field conditions at northern Minas Gerais state are still low (Jesus 2009), sug- gesting that this parasitoid might not be adapted to the envi- ronmental conditions of this region.
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Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The commonly visited tourist attractions in Taal were Escuela Pia, White House and Basilica of St. Martins of Tours. Historical Sites were considered the most effective promotional strategies used in Taal. Presence of Beggars was the common problem encountered by the tourists of Taal. The Municipality of Taal may continually preserve Taal’s historical sites. The Department of Tourism of Taal may provide a sustainable program to promote Taal through its historical and pilgrimage sites. CITHM may also support existing activities promoting Taal as tourist destination. Future researchers may conduct similar study but using other variables. It is a great opportunity for the students to have c urriculum which is supported by activities which are in the forms of actual
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device use and support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology and the results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Phosphorus, which can be introduced to metal bath in free form, as a master alloy or a salt, belong to well-known modifiers of hypereutectic silumins. It has been confirmed [2] that in such case the aluminum phosphide, AlP, becomes the nucleus of the crystallization. In the studies [11-12] is presented a new view on interaction of phosphorus in process of modification of hypereutectic silumins, which is an effect of local overcooling in micro-areas caused by evaporation and expansion of bubbles of phosphorus vapours. Indispensable quantity of phosphorus in the alloy was determined as interval of 0,01 ÷ 0,05 % [1-3].
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

We show that switching costs can be identi…ed, in a closed-form, independently of the discount factor and speci…cation of the remaining components of the payo¤ function. It may not come as a surprise that such result requires some restrictions on the payo¤s as well as the dependence structure of the controlled Markov process. However, the conditions we impose can be motivated empirically and have been frequently assumed in the empirical literature. Speci…cally, we assume that, whether a player may incur a switching cost in each period is only determined by her own action. The state variables, such as past actions of all players, can otherwise a¤ect today’s switching costs in an arbitrary way. We also require that the remaining components of the payo¤ function do not depend on past actions (this can be relaxed to allow dependence of a …nite time lag). The latter condition is satis…ed by typical payo¤ components. E.g. variable pro…ts that are determined by the competition between players depend only on those present in the game (for instance a Cournot or an auction game), as well as …xed operating costs. We also limit the feedback of past actions in the Markov process. We assume that the past actions do not a¤ect the transition law of future states conditional on today’s actions and states. Our conditional independence requirement is a testable assumption, and is weaker than the frequently assumed condition that state variables other than actions are strictly exogenous. Examples of empirical models that satisfy these assumptions can be found in the applications cited above amongst many others.
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Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

manufacturing can be exemplified make instant noodles for 5 people in the restaurant, but chef only cook once and split the 5 then the waiter gives the customer. Everyone has the desire to taste like spicy, salty, sweet it is in the table provided the spice seasoning. So here chef do cook only once even though tastes different flavor. Or the other exemplified use the concept of lean manufacturing is, if the someone want to buy and pant in the supermarket for their necessary. Only pants so it’s very waste for their, from time, fuel, pay parking place, cost, reduce energy. If their in the supermarket. They should buy other necessary such as clothes, jacket, sock foot, style t shirt, neck. And other exemplified from lean concept like is if there’s parents have four daughter want to study in the same town. The parent should rent home for their daughter better then their daughter rent room in the boarding house. So it’s reduce finance to pay a room. And also the other benefit, if the parent want to visit their daughter can meet once time in one place without wasting time. So they can keep each other to study, until the can achievement target to be bachelor. For seeking the concept lean manufacturing some expert view from dimension same thing but there’re different main point such as:
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Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

The detailed questionnaire of the Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields of study. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields of study are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most of the analysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields of study refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
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The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The first stage of manufacturing the casting mould was the creation of a gear wheel 3D-CAD model. Next, the gear model was supplemented with a gating system. The mould shape and its parting plane were defined. The last operation was the removal of the gear wheel model and the gating system from the mould solid. This way, a

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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

was based on plastic contrast. For example, to emphasize the central part among the other composition, the architect 'in the middle third of the main wall had arranged an extensive (5.60 m) but shallow (75 cm) niche‖ [16, 46p]. The building itself was small in scale, and to emphasize its monumentality and visually to expand its interior, the sculptors correlated the height of zofor (1.40 m) to 6-meter span of the building. Frieze made with account of the angle of perspective, was decorated with garlands, supported by frames of children. The images of the frieze were original in the "very understanding of the ideal of human beauty and its artistic expression in plastic forms" [44, 61p]. Often in these images there was observed a deliberate asymmetry (in the faces), the disproportion (in the figures), aimed to correct the visual angle. For the sculpture in Toprak-kala "a rhythmic repetition of similar sculptural groups, determining architectonic division of interior, was characteristic" [45]. The style and the manner of sculpture, for example, of friezes were the same as of acanthus, volutes. So, it can be assumed that the ancient sculptors have been actively involved not only in the development of sculptures, but in architectural and decorative compositions (especially of capitals), and the connection between the latters was very tight. In general, the nature of decoration of the premises depended on the functions of the latter: "household and service rooms were modestly furnished, as for residential and ceremonial rooms they were finished with the appropriate splendor‖ [46, 67p]. The sculpture, obeying the architecture, served as an element of its design. In Bactria a monumental sculpture "was designed primarily to be installed in the temples" [22, 901p]. In architectural
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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

by God at any subsequent moment t’ can itself determine (“decide”) to be F or non-F at t or t’. This process of partial self-determination could concern all substances created by God ex nihilo. It also seems to be possible that accidental properties of x which are produced by it at the irst moment of its existence can be replaced by other properties compatible with a given kind K produced by agents distinct from x and from God (say by y). But if x brings about that x is F at t, then x creates F ex nihilo. The reason for this is that if God creates x and God does not bring about F (or that x is F), then either x is doing it or another causal agent distinct from x and from God is doing it. Whatever that being could be, it would have to create F ex nihilo. This is impossible, because only God can do that. If x brings about that x is F at t’, then either the principle of divine control (at least in its unrestricted form: “all-form”) has to be rejected or x’s self-determination is an illusion. If this line of reasoning is correct, then all substances must be totally and directly determined (created and caused) by God. They must be determined by God “from the bottom up”. Therefore, it is metaphysically impossible that God created x and conserved it at the moment t’ and did not conserve all its essential and accidental properties at the moment t’.
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Avaliação das constantes térmicas das fases de desenvolvimento do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei em laboratório

Avaliação das constantes térmicas das fases de desenvolvimento do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei em laboratório

The comprehension of the temperature is fundamental toward the correct decision making related to biological control strategies. The present work has as objective to evaluate the degree-day (DD) accumulation necessities during the period of oviposition and adult appearances of red-gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psillydae), observed considering slave-cages conditions at “Costa Lima” Brazilian National Quarantine Laboratory at Embrapa Environment Jaguariúna City - State of São Paulo, Brazil. Three wood-cages containing the same adult quanti- ties inside (preserved the ratio female: male of 1.06) were monitored until the adults of the first ge- neration appearances. During all the period, maximum and minimum daily temperatures ( o C) and
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Dinâmica populacional de Glycaspis brimblecombei e inimigos naturais em Eucalyptus spp., Cuiabá-MT.

Dinâmica populacional de Glycaspis brimblecombei e inimigos naturais em Eucalyptus spp., Cuiabá-MT.

This study presents a one-year investigation on the population dynamics of Glycaspis brimblecombei and their natural enemies in several hosts of Eucalyptus spp. in a farm in the municipality of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Collection was performed by yellow sticky traps and on the leaves and stems of plants in five plots. The population fluctuation of the pest and its natural enemies were determined in correlation with meteorological parameters. The population fluctuation of Glycaspis brimblecombei presented greater occurrence in the dry season, in direct correlation with the maximum temperature and inversely proportional to the relative humidity, showing greater amount of individuals in August and September 2008. Psyllaephagus bliteus and other natural enemies founded in the ‘Jardim’ farm were not correlated with meteorological parameters. The species E. camaldulensis and the Clone MG1277 favored the population increase of G. brimblecombei, while the Clone GG100 was the least favorable host for the population increase of the pest.
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General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

 matrimonial assets, the main problem of the matrimonial regime being to determine the legal nature of the property of each spouse. In case of the community regimens we are interested how the mass of common goods and the mass of own goods of each spouses becomes part of assets, how a possible transfer or circuit between them is made, how real subrogation which maintains the property divided into these two distinct masses of goods operates. It should be noted that we consider each spouse’s property structure. This is true in case of the community property, which is characterized by the existence of two heritages and three masses of assets: the mass of common goods, which is found in the property of each spouse and the two masses of own goods corresponding to the property of each of them. Therefore, we cannot talk about three patrimonies, as common goods do not form a third patrimony, distinct from the assets of both spouses, but there are two patrimonies and three masses of goods;
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Carlos Carvalho Niels Arne Dam Jae Won Lee

Carlos Carvalho Niels Arne Dam Jae Won Lee

Before we continue, a brief digression about the Taylor pricing model is in order. As will become clear, this model allows us to tell apart real rigidities from nominal rigidities, and to infer the cross- sectional distribution of price stickiness implied by aggregate data. Hence, it serves our purposes well. However, strictly speaking, that model is at odds with the microeconomic evidence on the duration of price spells. Klenow and Kryvtsov (2008), for example, provide evidence that the duration of individual price spells varies at the quote line level. However, this evidence does not invalidate the use of the Taylor model for our purposes. In particular, in Section 5 we provide an alternative model in which the duration of price spells varies at the …rm level, and yet the aggregate behavior of the model is identical to the one presented here. The alternative model can match additional micro facts documented in the literature. Hence, it provides a cautionary note on attempts to test speci…c models of price setting by confronting them with descriptive micro price statistics. For ease of exposition, we proceed with the standard Taylor pricing speci…cation. But the reader should keep in mind that the aggregate implications that we are interested survive in models that can match the microeconomic evidence in many dimensions.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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