Iran has a young population, yet studies on physicalactivity among adolescents are scarce. The only national study (5) found that average time of moderate and vig- orous physicalactivity among Iranian adolescents was 28.2 MET min/day, evidently lower than the World Health Organization’s recommended time (23). The World Health Organization recommends that children and young people aged 5 to 17 years old should accumulate at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous-intensity physicalactivity per day. In addition, the existing literature fromdeveloping countries suggests that the gender differences inphysicalactivity among adolescents exist and it associates with a number of covariates. Studying physicalactivityin a Filipino youth sample it was found that 87% of females reported no vigorous activities compared to 18% of males (24). A studyfrom Brazil reported that boys spent more time on sedentary behaviors but also more on physical exercise than girls (25). Similarly a studyfrom Iran showed an identical pattern indicating that boys spent more time both on physicalactivity and sedentary behaviors than girls (5). The current study aimed to examine factors contribut- ing to physicalactivityin Iranian adolescents. Also we were interested in assessing gender differences inphysicalactivity. It was hoped that the findings from this study might add to the existing literature on the topic and perhaps provide necessary information for planning possible future interventions.
More than half of the respondents (61.8%) stayed up late night to watch television or listen to music. A studyfrom Taiwan reports similar results, where staying up late was prevalent in 82.3% of the subjects and the second most prevalent health risk behavior . Evidence from literature reveals a significant association between chronic poor sleep and emotional factors, such as worries, anxiety and depression poor sleep hygiene . Moreover, extensive television viewing during adolescence may contribute to the development of sleep problems by early adulthood . Youth risk behaviour surveillance carried out in the US in 2007 also mentions television watching as a ‘priority health risk behaviour . In reducing the number of hours of television watched, these interventions could also positively affect adolescent obesity , emotional problems, and academic achievement . More effective school health programs and other policy and program- matic interventions are needed to address this issue.
Results indicated that people with higher internal locus of control engaged in less physicalactivity. This result is inconsistent with previous studies and, again, appears to point towards a general cultural orientation in Malaysia which does not prioritize physicalactivity and, in some cases, casts it in a negative light [32, 33]. Generally, in western countries, people with high internal locus of control tend to engage in more physicalactivity . For many Malaysians, however, given the choice, they simply do not see being engaged inphysicalactivity as a desir- able way to spend their time . This is probably the most important, and perhaps most chal- lenging, issue that needs to be addressed with future interventions at all levels, from individual to societal, if we wish to change physicalactivity and health trends in Malaysia. Controlling for the effects of education level, and age, the relationship of perceived locus of control on physicalactivity becomes insignificant. Essentially education and locus of control are interrelated. Peo- ple who are more educated generally see themselves as having more internal control. The over- all trend, however, remains the same; individuals with greater resources seem to be choosing not to engage inphysicalactivity
The prevalence of European adults considered physically active is comparable to what was observed in several countries and regions, such as in Australia , Canada , and the United States of America . On the other hand, the prevalence is lower than the values observed in lower-income countries . This can be observed in European countries, once the lowest prevalence ofphysicalactivity was observed in Iceland, Spain, Norway and Finland (higher-income countries), and the highest prevalence was observed in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Albania and Slovakia (lower-income countries). This fact suggests that advancements in industry and technology have contributed to a decrease in total physicalactivity, and, consequently, has a negative impact in public health . This comes as no surprise because most people from high- income countries work in the tertiary sector of the economy, which demands lower levels ofphysicalactivityin the workplace. In addition, the easy access to passive commuting (private and public transportation) also contributes to a decrease inphysicalactivity levels and energy expenditure. Consequently, physicalactivity is predominantly practiced during leisure time [18,84], which means that efforts to promote an improvement inphysicalactivity among adults should focus on active commuting and enhancing the availability and accessibility of recreational physical activities. Research has shown that changing the environment, to improve health, involves supporting more leisure time physicalactivity, along with active and less sedentary transportation [85,86].
The present study includes the baseline measures of a cohort study “Maintenance ofphysicalactivity throughout life and vascular stiffness in adults: cross-sectional analysis and cohort of 12 months”, which is being conducted in Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil (from 2013 to 2014). In this cohort study, the following inclusion criteria were adopted: (i) age between 30 and 50 years; (ii) no previous history of stroke or myocardial infarction; (iii) no amputation or visual problems related to diabetes mellitus (there were no diabetic subjects); (iv) no physical limitation that would affect physicalactivity; (v) classiication as either persistently active (at least one year of supervised sports practice outside school in both childhood [age 7 to 10] and adolescence [age 11 to 17]) or persistently sedentary (no supervised sports practice outside school in both childhood and adolescence); and (vi) informed consent.
tivities performed for at least six months, and to in- clude only those activities performed regularly. The six-month time is also about a regular sports season in this age group, both in clubs and schools. In the present study, having a trainer was not required to characterize regular participation inphysical activ- ity during adolescence, because walking, jogging and cycling are activities that would be excluded if the analysis were limited to those having a trainer. Previous studies from high-income countries showed that adolescent participation inphysicalactivity was associated with greater likelihood of leisure-time physicalactivityin adulthood, although not all were consistent, and the magnitude of the evidence was only weak to moderate. The present study adds to the current knowledge by showing that this effect can also be seen in middle-income settings. In the present study, the adjusted prevalence ratio of 1.42 for those who engaged in regular physicalactivityin adoles- cence versus those who did not was lower than that reported by Hirvensalo et al in Finland. 12 However,
An unhealthy body composition has been linked with chronic diseases and premature deaths that could be prevented. It is desirable to understand how modifiable behaviors are linked to the body composition of industrial workers, and identify risk groups among the population to plan inter- ventions and policies. The aim of the study was to identify the sociodemographic, physicalactivity, sedentary behavior, and nutritional correlatesof the body mass index (BMI) of Brazilian industrial workers. Data were used from the “Lifestyle and Leisure Habits of Industrial Workers” study (n = 45,508), conducted between 2006 and 2008, in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states. Gender, physical activ- ity practice, television viewing, consumption of sweetened drinks, weight, and height were reported by the participants, and BMI was calculated. Linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the factors associated with BMI. Women had a lower BMI when compared to men (-1.63 kg/m 2 ,
This study aimed to assess the association between individual and school environment vari- ables and physicalactivity levels in Brazilian schoolchildren with 8-12 years of age. A sample of children from 20 private and public schools (n=1,210) was selected. Total and leisure-time physical activities and active transportation to school (AT) were measured using a self-report instrument. Total and leisure-time physical inactivity (PI) were defined as <300min/week ofPhysicalactivity. Physical and social school environment features were assessed through a questionnaire. The prevalence of PI, leisure-time PI, and AT to school were 69.2%, 75.8% and 70.5%, respectively. Multilevel models showed that PI was more frequent among girls, and was negatively associated with older age and higher maternal schooling. Girls were more inactive during leisure-time. For contextual variables, greater Physical Education teacher/student ratio was associated with lower levels of both total and leisure-time PI. AT was negatively associated with higher income and positively associated with older age. Students from public schools use more AT. Based on the prevalence of PI found, strategies focused at increasing physicalactivity levels should be implemented immediately. Also, our findings suggest that both individual and school contextual variables were associated with levels of PI, varying between domains. Keywords
The Municipal Environment Secretariat and the Public Transport and Movement Company of Porto Alegre, Brazil, made the list of all parks, squares and bicycle paths of the city. Initially, 109 squares/parks and one cycle path in the south of the municipality were identified in the list of the municipal government of Porto Alegre. After verifying the addresses and site visits, seven spaces were discarded from the study be- cause they did not have minimum conditions for use (bush, forest, surrounded by walls, with constructions inside the space) and four spaces were not located in the addresses indicated in the list and in a radius of 200 meters. Therefore, 98 squares and little parks and one cycle path (Figure 1) were evaluated and georef- erenced. In the Porto Alegre’s south zone has no big parks, that way, in this study the squares and little parks were grouped in a category called “parks/squares”.
Considering the emergent importance of this issue for different societies, Brazilian municipalities offer a quasi-experiment opportunity that allows us to evaluate the differences in criminality by comparing two situations: when the police carry firearms and when they do not. We explore the legal eligibility criterion for a municipality to have a fire-armed municipal police established by Federal Law in 2003 (the Statute of Disarmament n.10.826) as an exogenous source of firearm use by the police. As discussed in detail below, Federal Law establishes that only municipalities with 50 thousand inhabitants or more are allowed to have municipal police who carry firearms. Moreover, this law increased the costs of carrying firearms privately for individual’s use for all individuals in all municipalities. Thus, it creates a quasi-experiment of an across the board increase of restrictions of firearm use by the individuals and an increase of firearm use permission by the eligible police. Using panel data of non-metropolitan municipalities with municipal police from 2002 to 2012 and exploring the population eligibility criterion as an instrumental variable of firearm use by the police that can be interpreted as a parametric fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we find evidence that fire-armed police reduce crime in comparison with non-fire-armed police. Moreover, we find suggestive evidence that this crime reduction is at least partially due to greater police efforts. Fire-armed police perform more inquires, stop more incidences of flagrant behavior and make more arrests.
Physicalactivity organizations and leaders should develop plans within each country, and with the WHO, to make physicalactivity education and promotion a public health goal during and after the pandemic. Physicalactivity organizations and experts should vol- unteer for pandemic planning groups so they educate decision makers about how physicalactivity can make positive impacts on the pandemic and influence rec- ommendations and policies. Here are several actions that may be helpful as part of shelter-in-place orders or when economic and social activities resume.
Table 2 shows the correlates associated with insufficient level of PAs in adolescents. Both in the crude and in the adjusted analyses, the female gender and the high economic classification were pos- itively associated with insufficient levels of PA (PR=1.19; 95%CI 1.12–1.27; PAF=15.97 — female/adjusted; PR=1.1; 95%CI 1.01– 1.19; PAF=9.09 — high class/adjusted). The female gender was also positively associated with high screen time (PR=1.18; 95%CI 1.10–1.27; PAF=15.25), and this association was verified only after the adjustments by the other variables in the model (Table 3). Table 4 shows the correlates associated with the combined presence of insufficient level of PA and high screen time among adolescents. Regarding the analyses about the factors associ- ated with the combined presence of risk behaviors, the crude analyses indicated associations with the female gender and the high economic class. When adjusted, only the female gender presented a positive association with the combined presence of risk behaviors (PR=1.18; 95%CI 1.10–1.27).
The increase of fat mass observed in the MGS follow the trends that have been described for other Caucasian populations (Malina et al. 2004). During the growing years, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rather low compared to other European or North American countries (Ogden et al. 2002; Lobstein et al. 2004). We have no information on the macronutrient composition of the diet or energy intake. However, in European children and adolescents, the energy intake was within the current FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations (Livingstone 2000). Lifestyle factors, such as Physical Education (PE) classes, seem to be favorably associated with fatness indicators. Children and adolescents from an Autonomous Region of Madeira have 3 hours/week of compulsory PE classes and a number participated in sport school competitions. At young adulthood, participants reported to walk ‘sometimes’ during leisure time and walked between 15 – 30 minutes per day to and from work, school and shopping. In males, ,42% (19-years) and 47% (23-years) reported to participate in organized sports. These percentages are lower in females, 28% and 26%, respectively. The reason for the increase of overweight and obesity in males, at 19 and 23 years old, is not known, but an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure occurred in this age group. Young adulthood is a period when individuals move out of home; go to university, start to work and/or start families (Gallagher et al. 2006).
sustainable solution to protect the environment and the earth even ourselves, against pollution, squandering of natural resources and global warming just to mention the few all this are the result of negative human activities. According to this research is evadable that vertical greenery can be a sustainable tool remedy due to its capability not only on environmental benefits but widely spread to reducing indoor temperature, have many economic benefits. Green façades can be an alternative tool of sustainable architecture due to its capability of enriches the biodiversity of the flora and fauna. According to three case studies green façade proof to protect interior living space from acoustic pollution, dust particles harsh winds and direct sunlight and all this has direct or indirect benefits. On the other and green facades can be expanse in both short and long term if key issues are not properly considered in design and construction phases. They is need for wider research on how plants and species can survive on this high rise structure which are increasingly gaining more heights. Why more research because as it steady they is plenty of sci entific reasons why skyscrapers don‘t and won‘t have trees, at least not to the height which, many architects are currently proposing and other building. It is hot, cold, windy the rain lashes at high velocity same as snow. Life for city trees can be hard enough at the ground level what more miles above it, where nearly every climate variable more extreme than at street level. While another challenge is for trees to find enough space for their roots on balconies. Applying vertical greenery systems for different purpose particular attention has to be considered such as selection of plants, local climate maintenance consideration. The properties of the plant should be examined or well defined in deferent seasons so as to maximize the benefits after installation. Orientation is very import since it will affect the growth and plant behavior as well.
Small towns indeveloping countries are grappling with the evolving global brand and modern coffee shops (cafés) that have driven out the traditional coffee shop. New cafés have also encouraged a global coffee culture with its uniformity of coffee presentation and quality standard. This research was conducted in East Java, Indonesia, from 2017 to 2018. This study analyses the changing of coffee culture from the perspective of coffee shops culture in small towns of the developingcountry. Previously, coffee shops served not only as community meeting spots but also as centres of information and resource exchanges. Coffee shop helped to mediate people’s social interactions. Newly arrived café leaves the social dimension of the traditional coffee shop with limited interaction among its patrons. Café becomes a mere economic establishment and a token of a modern lifestyle. The study reveals that even though cafés improve the economy, the change reflects the changing of civic-bond in society. It concludes that the changing of coffee consumption in rural Indonesia may not only signing the arrival of a globalised coffee culture but also, signing the change of social engagement of the society. Key words: Coffee for health; coffee culture; globalization; social engagement.
Inflammatory and bronchial conditions may arise from metabolic processes caused by certain biological molecules. Arachidonic acid metabolism that involves oxidation processes leads to the production of pro-inflammatory mediators which in turn produces leukotrienes. Initiated biological receptors present in the inflammatory cells caused by leukotrienes may induce apparent allergic reactions and bronchial dysfunction. These reactions produced by leukotrienes are catalyzed by lipoxygenase enzymes such as 5, 12 and 15 – Lipoxygenases. These enzymes are found in different organ tissues such as liver, kidney and adipose tissues. Inhibition of lipooxygenase enzymes may prevent such inflammatory conditions . It has been presented by several studies that the 15-lipoxygenase from soybean can be utilized as an in vitro assay model for lipoxygenase inhibition by novel agents synthesized or extracted from natural sources such as medicinal plants. Plants from the genus Clerodendrum contain phytochemical compounds such as flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenes and steroids which possess pharmacological properties like anti- inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic. A research study conducted by Srisook et al., 2015 on Clerodendrum inerme proved that its extracts from its leaves have anti-inflammatory specifically its ethyl acetate semi-crude extract . An endemic plant species of the genus Clerodendrum in the Philippines is Clerodendrum quadriloculare locally known as Bagawak or Uak-uak and belongs to the family Lamiaceae. Phytosterol metabolites such as clerosterols were isolated by Macabeo et al. in 2008 on C. quadriloculare leaves. A recent study
Fig. 3 shows hardware design of the HUB. One key consideration in hardware design for this CRS was to not use any proprietary technology that added licensing costs. Consequently, the hardware design is based on Creative Commons License and is designed around the inexpensive, and readily available, 8-bit RISC-based ATMEL- 328 microcontroller . This microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth unit using the XBEE hardware interface. The advantage of using the XBEE hardware interface is that various types of alternative wireless modules like Zigbee, WIFI or even GPRS can be substituted for future applications. The ATMEL microcontroller runs Arduino software which is open-source and conveniently supports libraries for interfacing with various types of hardware and sensors . The simplicity of Arduino programming was another important consideration in the overall design. The HUB can be programmed by using freely available development tools on a PC using a serial-to- USB converter and a USB cable. The HUB also implements a charging circuit for a rechargeable Lithium-Ion battery. Finally, the HUB hardware provides a wired interface to a 1-Wire network through a serial to 1-Wire line driver .
ABSTRACT | Background: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. Objective: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlatesofphysical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI). Method: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI) and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above) were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old). The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices), the WAI, and a battery ofphysical functional tests. Results: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237). Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004). The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051). Conclusions: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests ofphysical functional capacity in the aging group. Keywords: aging; work; occupational health; work ability; functional capacity; physical therapy.
In this paper; the estimations of the use of antidumping cases based on two reporting countries ,USA and Brazil respectively ,with their trading partners. First of all we estimated the case of USA-Canada and USA-Mexico under bilateral agreements, then we continued with the case of Brazil-Argentina under a bilateral agreement. In some of the estimations we add lags for both imports exports of trading countries, because the antidumping authorities frequently rely on data from the most recently completed one or two or sometimes three year period in their consideration of injury trends.
The data analyzed were collected from the 271 eligible women, 60 years of age or older and in- volved inphysical-activity programs coordinated by the FHS, with an attendance rate greater than, or equal to, 75% of the classes over the six months immediately prior to data collection. The popu- lation studied included all individuals (100%) meeting the eligibility criteria. The study sample had a mean of 26.6 months (SD 8.4, minimum 7.0 and maximum 46.6 months) of participation inphysical-activity programs coordinated by the FHS in the city of São Caetano do Sul.