addition, this metal can also damage the circulatory and nerve tissue. High levels of lead (Pb) may result in toxic biochemical effects in humans, which in turn cause problems inthe synthesis of hemoglobin, effects on the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, joints and repro- ductive system and acute or chronic damage to the nervous system and also can cause mental retardation. Owing to the importance of metals present in medi- cinal plants, many studies were carried out to deter- mine their levels inmedicinalplantsandtheirextracts. The broadest view contents ofthe trace element in tea leaves, made tea and tea infusion was given in a review by Karak. The presence of trace elements in all anal- yzed tea samples surveyed in this review was within the safe limits towards human beings, but it appeared that it still provides a significant additional source of trace elements .
he main aim of this paper was to study in analysis conditions that simulate, as much as possible, a real antiox- idant activity of some Brazilian medicinal species on ROS induced in neutrophils exposure to H. pylori in order to give a contribution to the pharmacological validation for their use to treat ulcers and gastritis. he antioxidant capacity of MeOH extracts on the neutrophil oxidative burst was evaluated through chemiluminescence assay using luminol as probe. he chemiluminescence method is a direct method of radical investigation, though the advantage ofthe method consists inthe fact that chemiluminescence intensity is directly proportional to a steady-state concentration ofthe radicals responsible for luminescence irrespective ofthe activity of these radicals . It is enable to measure the level of free radicals and estimate antioxidant protection parameters and antioxidant action. Luminol tracks the pro- duction of reactive oxygen species formed inthe intra- and extracellular environment, such as HOCl, H 2 O 2 , and O 2 − . From the results showed in Table 1, theextracts inhibited the respiratory burst of neutrophils induced by H. pylori in concentration-dependent manner.
In this experiment, the lemon balm extract manifested the best performance inthe combination with beer. This highly valued medicinaland aromatic plant contains characteristic, biologically active com- plexes, which, combined with beer, gives a very appealing aromatic composition. In this way, a dis- tinctive and pleasant flavor is obtained, without imp- airing sensory properties of standard beer. Inthe same time, standard beer enriched with approxim- ately 0.05% of liquid extract contains an increase of 29.55% of total phenols. From the functional aspect, thyme gives superior results. Beer enriched with the same contentof liquid extract has 37% higher contentof total phenols. The problem is that when thyme extract is added alone, beer has inferior sensorial
The most significant antioxidant effect was observed inthe LPI assay, followed by RSA, RP and CBI assays, which means that the studied H. androsaemum extract acts mainly as lipid peroxidation inhibitor, followed by radical scavenger and inhibitor of linoleic acid oxidation. Rainha et al. (2011) also evaluated the antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts from the aerial parts of different Hypericum species andthe result are in agreement with the ones reported inthe present work andthe authors concluded that H. androseamum exerted strong radical scavenger effect and moderate inhibitory effect of linoleic acid oxidation. Also, Valentão et al. (2002) evaluated the antioxidant potential ofwaterextracts prepared from H. androseamum leaves and reported their antioxidant action mainly as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species (mainly superoxide radicals). Similar radical scavenging effects of H. androseamum aqueous extracts were described by Hernandez et al. (2010) and Ramos et al. (2013), being also reported by the last authors a significant ability to repair DNA damages. Lastly, Valentão et al. (2004) aiming to directly correlate the hepatoprotective effects of H. androseamum with its antioxidant potential, concluded that those effects mainly derived from its strong ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, which was in part attributed to its phenolic composition.
antibacterial activity are a potentially beneficial alternative in aquaculture 18 . Since ancient times, medicinalplants have been used for the treatment of common infectious diseases 19 . Medicinalplants as the alternative agents are effective to treat the infectious diseases and mitigate many of side effects that are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents in this field 20 . The use of alcoholic extractsof herbs may be suggested for the natural administration of antibiotics effective in fish disease control. The ability of some herbs and seaweeds to inhibit activity of bacteria having potential interest as fish pathogens has been documented 21 . Some ofthe local herbs and desert plants were reported to inhibit the pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture and referred to limited number of plant species 4 . Medicinalplants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids, which have antimicrobial properties. Many ofthe spices and herbs used today have been valued for their antimicrobial effects andmedicinal powers in addition to their flavour and fragrance qualities. In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used to pathogenic bacteria. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. Inthe recent years, herbs and herbal products plays significant role in fish culture. The usage of heavy antibiotic in aquaculture field needs to be reduced and replaced with alternative process for treating fish diseases 22 . Themedicinalplants may be used as potential and promising drugs against fish pathogens inthe organic aquaculture 3-4 .
Bioassays with plants are considered appro- priate for monitoring of toxic effects of chemical compounds (USEPA) (Grant 1999, Iganci et al. 2006, Herrero et al. 2012). Allium cepa (onion) is an efficient bioindicator ofthe cytotoxicity of aqueous extractsofmedicinalplants (Fachinetto et al. 2007, Sabini et al. 2011). This is due to its kinetic properties of proliferation and because it processes large chromosomes in reduced number (2n=16), which facilitates their analysis (Matsumoto et al. 2006, Caritá and Marin-Morales 2008, Herrero et al. 2012). This test system is also effective inthe evaluation of mutagenicity of aqueous extractsofplants with medicinal properties since it enables the observation of abnormalities ofthe mitotic cycle, such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and interphase anomalies, such as micronuclei and binucleate cells (Leme and Marin-Morales 2008, Sabini et al. 2011).
Bioassays with plants are considered appro- priate for monitoring of toxic effects of chemical compounds (USEPA) (Grant 1999, Iganci et al. 2006, Herrero et al. 2012). Allium cepa (onion) is an eficient bioindicator ofthe cytotoxicity of aqueous extractsofmedicinalplants (Fachinetto et al. 2007, Sabini et al. 2011). This is due to its kinetic properties of proliferation and because it processes large chromosomes in reduced number (2n=16), which facilitates their analysis (Matsumoto et al. 2006, Caritá and Marin-Morales 2008, Herrero et al. 2012). This test system is also effective inthe evaluation of mutagenicity of aqueous extractsofplants with medicinal properties since it enables the observation of abnormalities ofthe mitotic cycle, such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and interphase anomalies, such as micronuclei and binucleate cells (Leme and Marin-Morales 2008, Sabini et al. 2011).
Inthe present study, we evaluated the chemopreven- tive potential of CB and K extracts (10% w/v) administered to Wistar rats for 8 consecutive weeks during the period comprising the initiation and promotion phases of Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model. We used theextracts at the same concentration in order to later determine if eventual differences in chemopreventive activity could be due to dif- ferences inthecontentof bioactive compounds. However, in our experiment, treatment with CB or K extract did not inhibit or increase the number or aggregated area of GST- P-positive hepatic PNL. The size of GST-P PNL in rats is generally considered to be a reflection ofthe magnitude of hepatocarcinogenesis promotion, andtheir number is related to the intensity ofthe initiation process (30). Thus, under our experimental conditions these Brassica vegetables did not present chemopreventive or initiating or promoting effects at a stage that can be considered to be very early promotion, since GST-P-positive PNL were of very small size.
Abstract. Olive trees (Olea europaea L.) are commonly grown inthe Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has de- veloped a series of physiological mechanisms, that can be observed in several plantsofthe Mediterranean macchia, to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic con- ditions. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plantsin order to comprehend the plant re- sponse under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to wa- ter deficit lower thewatercontentandwater potentials oftheir tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradi- ent between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their ac- cumulation inthe various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of carbohydrates (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes have key roles in maintaining cell tur- gor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation ofthe photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved inthe scavenging of activated oxygen species andin other biochemical pathways increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview ofthe driving mech- anisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understanding plant-soil interactions.
Further acquaintance with different ethnic groups has contributed to the development of research on natural products, to the increase in knowledge about the close relationship between the chemical structure of a certain compound and its biological properties, and to the understanding ofthe animal/ insect-plant interrelation (8). For these reasons, medicinalplants are important substances for the study oftheir traditional uses through the verification of pharmacological effects and can be natural composite sources that act as new anti-infectious agents. The present study aimed at evaluating thein vitro antimicrobial activity of plant (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Mikania glomerata and Psidium guajava) extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains isolated from human infections.
MEDICINALPLANTS: FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON THECONTENTOF SECONDARY METABOLITES. Since secondary metabolites represent a chemical interface between plantsand surrounding environment, their syntheses are frequently affected by environmental conditions. Thus, variations inthe total contentand/or ofthe relative proportions of secondary metabolites inplants can take place. We review the main environmental factors that can streamline or alter the production or concentration of secondary metabolites inplants. How seasonality, circadian rhythm, developmental stage and age, temperature, water availability, UV radiation, soil nutrients, altitude, atmospheric composition and tissue damage influence secondary metabolism are discussed.
The side effects andthe emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extractsof thirteen medicinalplants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC 50 ) between 0.1-10 µg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae), Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae), Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae), Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae). With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extractsof A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae), and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC 50 values between 0.3-10 µg/ml. Bioassay fractionations ofthe more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.
An excess of nutrients inwater bodies stimulates plant growth, accelerates eutrophication, and may lead to explosive phytoplankton growth with negative environmental impacts. As immediate consequences, we observe a decrease inwater quality and a reduction of light penetration. In addition, depending on the dominant algae species, toxins may be released, affecting the biota (Hu and Hong 2008). Thus, the search for specific, natural products from plants that reduce microalgae growth is important for the control of phytoplankton blooms inthe environment. Plantsandtheir secondary metabolites are good candidates (Zhu et al. 2010).
Machine and tools elements made ofthe steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 immediately after the conventional hardening, need the tempering process. During the tempering, there is a transforma- tion of retained austenite into martensite and carbides release in martensite, what leads to the increase hardness ofthe high-speed steel, whereas in non-alloy steels tempering cause decrease the hardness.
Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers ofthe oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers ofthe oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance ofthe oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias ofthe oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, andthe head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
The research was carried out inthe land of a Basic Health Unit, located inthe municipality of Maceió/AL. The Unit is part ofthe 7th Municipal Administrative Region, being a ref- erence for the pediatric care to the adjacent localities. The neighborhood where it is located has an area of 20,383km2 and a population of 71,441 inhabitants, distributed in 19,735 households. The number of children and adolescents regis- tered had the following distribution by age group: 0-4 years: 6,024; 5-9 years: 6,419; 10-14 years: 7,366 and 15-19 years: 6,913. The number of deaths in children under one year of age between August 2009 and July 2010 was 12. The num- ber of literates totaled 58,998. Only 1,527 households had a general sewage network with rainwater harvesting and 5,964 had water supply through the general network. In relation to memoria y de vivencias, factor integrativo con la naturaleza y agregativo entre los miembros de la comunidad. Consideraciones finales: Rescatar esta tradición trae un nuevo sentido a los cuidados de salud.
Less research studied the issue how plants accumulate heavy metals from slightly contaminated or non-contaminated soils, and whether there are provable significant differences among plants grown on different soil types, considering the accumulated heavy metal concentration andthe distribution of these metals inplants. Kawada et al. (2002) carried out an extensive research in Japan about the Cu accumulation of carrot. 372 plant and soil samples were collected from 232 settlements ofthe country. The soils ofthe sample areas were classified into 7 types. It was proved that although there were differences inthe Cu contentofthe soil types, significant difference was not observed concerning the Cu accumulation of carrot. In some cases it was showed that the higher Cu concentration ofthe soil resulted in more Cu uptake but this relation was more obvious inthe cases of other heavy metals. Based on the geographical conditions andthe vegetation, the authors divided the country into 9 provinces and they could show significant differences inthe Cu accumulation of carrot among the provinces.
microsomes, a rapid lipid peroxidation occurs, which is markedly reduced by the bark extract, but only mildly diminished by the flower extract. Inhibition was dose-dependent and it is possible that the identified phenolic compounds (Figure 4) were responsible for this activity. Although the chain break reaction has been postulated as the main mechanism by which phenolic compounds and plant extracts inhibit lipid peroxidation (Charami et al., 2008), the results obtained in this study indicate another major mechanism involved in this process, the ascorbic acid - Fe 3+ mechanism, which
We use data from the National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios – PNAD/IBGE) from 1995 to 2009, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 3 . The worker sample consists of men from 25 to 60 years old, with strictly positive principle job income and workweek. We split the sample into 1980 cells, defined by the survey year, worker age (in years) and education, grouped into four categories: zero to three; four to seven; eight to 11 and 12 or more years of study. To measure labor income we use the logarithm of real hourly wages, at 2005 prices (lw) 4 , and our measures of inequality will be the variance of (log) wages, which is perfectly decomposable. Table 1 presents the basic descriptive statistics of this variable.
From the analysis, it was found that lands were acquired majorly by inheritance andthe resultant effect of this is the fragmentation of land during the acquisition and sharing of either family or community lands. The evident of this was seen on the sizes ofthe land cultivated by both the male and female farmers of which majority of both sexes cultivate a small farm size of 0.1-2.0ha of land with just a few who cultivate a reasonable land size this can also be seen on the number of bag of both garri and fufu produced yearly. However this Land holding in hectares favors more males than females inthe study area and females had better production in cassava than male.