Top PDF The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

addition, this metal can also damage the circulatory and nerve tissue. High levels of lead (Pb) may result in toxic biochemical effects in humans, which in turn cause problems in the synthesis of hemoglobin, effects on the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, joints and repro- ductive system and acute or chronic damage to the nervous system and also can cause mental retardation. Owing to the importance of metals present in medi- cinal plants, many studies were carried out to deter- mine their levels in medicinal plants and their extracts. The broadest view contents of the trace element in tea leaves, made tea and tea infusion was given in a review by Karak. The presence of trace elements in all anal- yzed tea samples surveyed in this review was within the safe limits towards human beings, but it appeared that it still provides a significant additional source of trace elements [3].
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Comparison of Brazilian plants used to treat gastritis on the oxidative burst of helicobacter pylori -stimulated neutrophil

Comparison of Brazilian plants used to treat gastritis on the oxidative burst of helicobacter pylori -stimulated neutrophil

he main aim of this paper was to study in analysis conditions that simulate, as much as possible, a real antiox- idant activity of some Brazilian medicinal species on ROS induced in neutrophils exposure to H. pylori in order to give a contribution to the pharmacological validation for their use to treat ulcers and gastritis. he antioxidant capacity of MeOH extracts on the neutrophil oxidative burst was evaluated through chemiluminescence assay using luminol as probe. he chemiluminescence method is a direct method of radical investigation, though the advantage of the method consists in the fact that chemiluminescence intensity is directly proportional to a steady-state concentration of the radicals responsible for luminescence irrespective of the activity of these radicals [32]. It is enable to measure the level of free radicals and estimate antioxidant protection parameters and antioxidant action. Luminol tracks the pro- duction of reactive oxygen species formed in the intra- and extracellular environment, such as HOCl, H 2 O 2 , and O 2 − [33]. From the results showed in Table 1, the extracts inhibited the respiratory burst of neutrophils induced by H. pylori in concentration-dependent manner.
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Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

In this experiment, the lemon balm extract manifested the best performance in the combination with beer. This highly valued medicinal and aromatic plant contains characteristic, biologically active com- plexes, which, combined with beer, gives a very appealing aromatic composition. In this way, a dis- tinctive and pleasant flavor is obtained, without imp- airing sensory properties of standard beer. In the same time, standard beer enriched with approxim- ately 0.05% of liquid extract contains an increase of 29.55% of total phenols. From the functional aspect, thyme gives superior results. Beer enriched with the same content of liquid extract has 37% higher content of total phenols. The problem is that when thyme extract is added alone, beer has inferior sensorial
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THE BROAD SPECTRUM OF BIOACTIVE PROPERTIES OF PHENOLIC EXTRACTS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN THREE DIFFERENT PLANTS Inès Jabeur

THE BROAD SPECTRUM OF BIOACTIVE PROPERTIES OF PHENOLIC EXTRACTS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN THREE DIFFERENT PLANTS Inès Jabeur

The most significant antioxidant effect was observed in the LPI assay, followed by RSA, RP and CBI assays, which means that the studied H. androsaemum extract acts mainly as lipid peroxidation inhibitor, followed by radical scavenger and inhibitor of linoleic acid oxidation. Rainha et al. (2011) also evaluated the antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts from the aerial parts of different Hypericum species and the result are in agreement with the ones reported in the present work and the authors concluded that H. androseamum exerted strong radical scavenger effect and moderate inhibitory effect of linoleic acid oxidation. Also, Valentão et al. (2002) evaluated the antioxidant potential of water extracts prepared from H. androseamum leaves and reported their antioxidant action mainly as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species (mainly superoxide radicals). Similar radical scavenging effects of H. androseamum aqueous extracts were described by Hernandez et al. (2010) and Ramos et al. (2013), being also reported by the last authors a significant ability to repair DNA damages. Lastly, Valentão et al. (2004) aiming to directly correlate the hepatoprotective effects of H. androseamum with its antioxidant potential, concluded that those effects mainly derived from its strong ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, which was in part attributed to its phenolic composition.
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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST  FISH PATHOGENS

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST FISH PATHOGENS

antibacterial activity are a potentially beneficial alternative in aquaculture 18 . Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of common infectious diseases 19 . Medicinal plants as the alternative agents are effective to treat the infectious diseases and mitigate many of side effects that are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents in this field 20 . The use of alcoholic extracts of herbs may be suggested for the natural administration of antibiotics effective in fish disease control. The ability of some herbs and seaweeds to inhibit activity of bacteria having potential interest as fish pathogens has been documented 21 . Some of the local herbs and desert plants were reported to inhibit the pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture and referred to limited number of plant species 4 . Medicinal plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids, which have antimicrobial properties. Many of the spices and herbs used today have been valued for their antimicrobial effects and medicinal powers in addition to their flavour and fragrance qualities. In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used to pathogenic bacteria. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. In the recent years, herbs and herbal products plays significant role in fish culture. The usage of heavy antibiotic in aquaculture field needs to be reduced and replaced with alternative process for treating fish diseases 22 . The medicinal plants may be used as potential and promising drugs against fish pathogens in the organic aquaculture 3-4 .
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Table I presents the number of cells in interphase and at different stages of cell division, and the mitotic

Table I presents the number of cells in interphase and at different stages of cell division, and the mitotic

Bioassays with plants are considered appro- priate for monitoring of toxic effects of chemical compounds (USEPA) (Grant 1999, Iganci et al. 2006, Herrero et al. 2012). Allium cepa (onion) is an efficient bioindicator of the cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (Fachinetto et al. 2007, Sabini et al. 2011). This is due to its kinetic properties of proliferation and because it processes large chromosomes in reduced number (2n=16), which facilitates their analysis (Matsumoto et al. 2006, Caritá and Marin-Morales 2008, Herrero et al. 2012). This test system is also effective in the evaluation of mutagenicity of aqueous extracts of plants with medicinal properties since it enables the observation of abnormalities of the mitotic cycle, such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and interphase anomalies, such as micronuclei and binucleate cells (Leme and Marin-Morales 2008, Sabini et al. 2011).
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Action of aqueous extracts of phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves on meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L.

Action of aqueous extracts of phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves on meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L.

Bioassays with plants are considered appro- priate for monitoring of toxic effects of chemical compounds (USEPA) (Grant 1999, Iganci et al. 2006, Herrero et al. 2012). Allium cepa (onion) is an eficient bioindicator of the cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (Fachinetto et al. 2007, Sabini et al. 2011). This is due to its kinetic properties of proliferation and because it processes large chromosomes in reduced number (2n=16), which facilitates their analysis (Matsumoto et al. 2006, Caritá and Marin-Morales 2008, Herrero et al. 2012). This test system is also effective in the evaluation of mutagenicity of aqueous extracts of plants with medicinal properties since it enables the observation of abnormalities of the mitotic cycle, such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and interphase anomalies, such as micronuclei and binucleate cells (Leme and Marin-Morales 2008, Sabini et al. 2011).
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Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo HO -induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo HO -induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

In the present study, we evaluated the chemopreven- tive potential of CB and K extracts (10% w/v) administered to Wistar rats for 8 consecutive weeks during the period comprising the initiation and promotion phases of Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model. We used the extracts at the same concentration in order to later determine if eventual differences in chemopreventive activity could be due to dif- ferences in the content of bioactive compounds. However, in our experiment, treatment with CB or K extract did not inhibit or increase the number or aggregated area of GST- P-positive hepatic PNL. The size of GST-P PNL in rats is generally considered to be a reflection of the magnitude of hepatocarcinogenesis promotion, and their number is related to the intensity of the initiation process (30). Thus, under our experimental conditions these Brassica vegetables did not present chemopreventive or initiating or promoting effects at a stage that can be considered to be very early promotion, since GST-P-positive PNL were of very small size.
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The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

Abstract. Olive trees (Olea europaea L.) are commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has de- veloped a series of physiological mechanisms, that can be observed in several plants of the Mediterranean macchia, to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic con- ditions. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant re- sponse under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to wa- ter deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradi- ent between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their ac- cumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of carbohydrates (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes have key roles in maintaining cell tur- gor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mech- anisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understanding plant-soil interactions.
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Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts

Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts

Further acquaintance with different ethnic groups has contributed to the development of research on natural products, to the increase in knowledge about the close relationship between the chemical structure of a certain compound and its biological properties, and to the understanding of the animal/ insect-plant interrelation (8). For these reasons, medicinal plants are important substances for the study of their traditional uses through the verification of pharmacological effects and can be natural composite sources that act as new anti-infectious agents. The present study aimed at evaluating the in vitro antimicrobial activity of plant (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Mikania glomerata and Psidium guajava) extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains isolated from human infections.
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Medicinal plants: factors of influence on the content of secondary metabolites.

Medicinal plants: factors of influence on the content of secondary metabolites.

MEDICINAL PLANTS: FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT OF SECONDARY METABOLITES. Since secondary metabolites represent a chemical interface between plants and surrounding environment, their syntheses are frequently affected by environmental conditions. Thus, variations in the total content and/or of the relative proportions of secondary metabolites in plants can take place. We review the main environmental factors that can streamline or alter the production or concentration of secondary metabolites in plants. How seasonality, circadian rhythm, developmental stage and age, temperature, water availability, UV radiation, soil nutrients, altitude, atmospheric composition and tissue damage influence secondary metabolism are discussed.
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Mariana Laundry de Mesquita, Julie Desrivot, Christian Bories, Alain Fournet, José Elias de Paula, Philippe Grellier, Laila Salmen Espindola+

Mariana Laundry de Mesquita, Julie Desrivot, Christian Bories, Alain Fournet, José Elias de Paula, Philippe Grellier, Laila Salmen Espindola+

The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC 50 ) between 0.1-10 µg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae), Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae), Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae), Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae). With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae), and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC 50 values between 0.3-10 µg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.
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Potential effects of fungicide and algaecide extracts of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae) on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata and on the oomycete Pythium

Potential effects of fungicide and algaecide extracts of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae) on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata and on the oomycete Pythium

An excess of nutrients in water bodies stimulates plant growth, accelerates eutrophication, and may lead to explosive phytoplankton growth with negative environmental impacts. As immediate consequences, we observe a decrease in water quality and a reduction of light penetration. In addition, depending on the dominant algae species, toxins may be released, affecting the biota (Hu and Hong 2008). Thus, the search for specific, natural products from plants that reduce microalgae growth is important for the control of phytoplankton blooms in the environment. Plants and their secondary metabolites are good candidates (Zhu et al. 2010).
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

Machine and tools elements made of the steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 immediately after the conventional hardening, need the tempering process. During the tempering, there is a transforma- tion of retained austenite into martensite and carbides release in martensite, what leads to the increase hardness of the high-speed steel, whereas in non-alloy steels tempering cause decrease the hardness.

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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers of the oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance of the oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias of the oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
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Fitoterapia em pediatria: a produção de saberes e práticas na Atenção Básica Fitoterapia en pediatría: la producción de saberes y prácticas en la Atención Básica

Fitoterapia em pediatria: a produção de saberes e práticas na Atenção Básica Fitoterapia en pediatría: la producción de saberes y prácticas en la Atención Básica

The research was carried out in the land of a Basic Health Unit, located in the municipality of Maceió/AL. The Unit is part of the 7th Municipal Administrative Region, being a ref- erence for the pediatric care to the adjacent localities. The neighborhood where it is located has an area of 20,383km2 and a population of 71,441 inhabitants, distributed in 19,735 households. The number of children and adolescents regis- tered had the following distribution by age group: 0-4 years: 6,024; 5-9 years: 6,419; 10-14 years: 7,366 and 15-19 years: 6,913. The number of deaths in children under one year of age between August 2009 and July 2010 was 12. The num- ber of literates totaled 58,998. Only 1,527 households had a general sewage network with rainwater harvesting and 5,964 had water supply through the general network. In relation to memoria y de vivencias, factor integrativo con la naturaleza y agregativo entre los miembros de la comunidad. Consideraciones finales: Rescatar esta tradición trae un nuevo sentido a los cuidados de salud.
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EXAMINATION OF THE HEAVY METAL UPTAKE OF CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA) IN DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES

EXAMINATION OF THE HEAVY METAL UPTAKE OF CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA) IN DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES

Less research studied the issue how plants accumulate heavy metals from slightly contaminated or non-contaminated soils, and whether there are provable significant differences among plants grown on different soil types, considering the accumulated heavy metal concentration and the distribution of these metals in plants. Kawada et al. (2002) carried out an extensive research in Japan about the Cu accumulation of carrot. 372 plant and soil samples were collected from 232 settlements of the country. The soils of the sample areas were classified into 7 types. It was proved that although there were differences in the Cu content of the soil types, significant difference was not observed concerning the Cu accumulation of carrot. In some cases it was showed that the higher Cu concentration of the soil resulted in more Cu uptake but this relation was more obvious in the cases of other heavy metals. Based on the geographical conditions and the vegetation, the authors divided the country into 9 provinces and they could show significant differences in the Cu accumulation of carrot among the provinces.
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Antioxidant activity of Spathodea campanulata (Bignoneaceae) extracts

Antioxidant activity of Spathodea campanulata (Bignoneaceae) extracts

microsomes, a rapid lipid peroxidation occurs, which is markedly reduced by the bark extract, but only mildly diminished by the flower extract. Inhibition was dose-dependent and it is possible that the identified phenolic compounds (Figure 4) were responsible for this activity. Although the chain break reaction has been postulated as the main mechanism by which phenolic compounds and plant extracts inhibit lipid peroxidation (Charami et al., 2008), the results obtained in this study indicate another major mechanism involved in this process, the ascorbic acid - Fe 3+ mechanism, which
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Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

We use data from the National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios – PNAD/IBGE) from 1995 to 2009, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 3 . The worker sample consists of men from 25 to 60 years old, with strictly positive principle job income and workweek. We split the sample into 1980 cells, defined by the survey year, worker age (in years) and education, grouped into four categories: zero to three; four to seven; eight to 11 and 12 or more years of study. To measure labor income we use the logarithm of real hourly wages, at 2005 prices (lw) 4 , and our measures of inequality will be the variance of (log) wages, which is perfectly decomposable. Table 1 presents the basic descriptive statistics of this variable.
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

From the analysis, it was found that lands were acquired majorly by inheritance and the resultant effect of this is the fragmentation of land during the acquisition and sharing of either family or community lands. The evident of this was seen on the sizes of the land cultivated by both the male and female farmers of which majority of both sexes cultivate a small farm size of 0.1-2.0ha of land with just a few who cultivate a reasonable land size this can also be seen on the number of bag of both garri and fufu produced yearly. However this Land holding in hectares favors more males than females in the study area and females had better production in cassava than male.
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