The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing thedemographicpictureofthe City ofBelgradeatthebeginningofthe 21 st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components ofdemographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality) on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and spacial distribution of refugees). Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented.
. И если в течение большей части ХХ в. подобного рода конфликты были сравнительно редки (ведущее место занимали межгосударственные противостояния), то к исходу столетия на планете возникли десятки очагов этнополитического противостояния. Главным их детонатором послужил распад социалистической системы, вызвавший масштабную перекройку, как межгосударственных границ, так и распад целого ряда стран. Не случайно в англоязычной литературе даже появился особый термин – «Ethnic conflict in the post-Cold War world» 2 .
In the last fifty years evolution of scientific knowledge on the spleen provoked an entirely new approach to splenic surgery. It was shown that virulence may emerge as a significant consequence of environmental and evolutionary changes of some microbial communities, and devastating pathogenetic results of these changes become visible in human hosts without the splenic function. In other words: the spleen plays a pivotal role in the dynamic balance between biodiversity, microorganisms and immunogenecity in human hosts. Therefore, to preserve the “splenic immunologic repertoire” became an increasing commitment among surgeons. Understanding the integration of these multiple information on spleen, seems central to understand the new splenic surgery. Partial splenectomies (Réglées) - based on anatomical, experimental and clinical studies, developed atthe University of Minas Gerais since the fifties - were successfully applied initially to treat the traumatic injuries ofthe spleen; in a following step, partial splenectomy were used to control hematological diseases. “Réglées” techniques on the spleen have conquered “ethical support, consilience status and clinical governance” to give birth to surgical therapeutic decisions on the spleen, in order to spare the structural integrity ofthe immune system. Splenic réglées procedures became a seminal achievement of splenic surgical practice. Initial results of “Partial splenectomies” - with conventional surgical armamentaria and techniques - were confirmed and improved by the introduction of techniques based on laparoscopic and endovascular approaches. And current usage of surgical splenic saving procedures propitiated the emergence of an appropriate lexicon for medical communication and became an “end point” of a “long-standing surgical inhibition” over the spleen (Rev. Col. Bras. Cir. 2005; 32(5): 279-282).
Abstract. Throughout human history, gardens comprised many purposes. With the evolution of society, there were villages, towns and cities organized according to geographical, economic, social and cultural characteristics of each epoch. Throughout the history of mankind, the "green" element has always been present. Gardens accompanied this development depending on the theories in vogue and had several purposes: they were sacred spaces, leisure spaces or spaces of healing; they were architectural elements in the characterization of outdoor spaces; they were areas of experimentation and research. After the Industrial Revolution, urban areas have expanded dramatically, occupying large amounts of rural soil replacing natural vegetation with the modernist urban structure. Atthe end ofthe 19th century and beginningofthe 20th century, the acquired garden concept had been challenged, stretching, instead, over a horizontal surface in the form of green roofs which characterized many ofthe modernist buildings. In fact, from the modernist movement on, horizontal covers, that lead to various experiments in the context of green roofs and garden which may be used and enjoyed by its inhabitants or covered and accessible only for maintenance purposes, have appeared. Through the end ofthe 20th century and early 21stcentury, the horizontal roof was then an experimental ground on which architecture could respond to a new challenge: the green facades or vertical gardens. In this way, the built environment can be the support for a new concept of green structure and urban or rural "green", i.e., a vertical garden: a green facade. This new "green skin" ofthe building can regulate the temperature and air quality as well as control the amount of light inside the building or be an aesthetic element ofthe architectural coating. New architectural elements are created through which adverse environmental conditions are mitigated, either on new construction or on architectural rehabilitation.
Nowadays, magnesium alloys are used for casting into sand moulds of huge dimensional castings, high-pressure castings and precise casings. In castings of magnesium alloys defects or inconsistencies often appear (like casting misrun, porosities and cracks) particularly in the huge dimensional castings. Such defects are mended with the use of padding and welding. The welding techniques can be applied by using weld material consisting of magnesium alloy, as well as for regeneration of alloys after excessive wear. Nevertheless, the number ofthe repaired castings, which were permitted for use, is not satisfactory for a profitable production. The main reasons for wear are the cracks appearing during welding in brittleness high-temperature range.
Quality is defined as the degree of excellence or superiority that an organization’s product possesses (Khan, 2005:28). Consumers judge or perceive the quality ofthe products and it also called perception of quality, because perception of quality derived from the analysis of consumers on product quality (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:605). Customer perceived value of product quality is a consumer opinion as ability ofthe product who suitable with expectation of consumer (Terenggana et al., 2013:326). Perception of quality is formed on consumers can be affected by several things including past experience, education, purchasing and consumer community (Yaseen et al., 2011:834), and perception of quality is important in improving the quality of products in the view of consumers (Parrol et al., 2013:603). Since knowledge and consumer needs change time by time, it taken an understanding related consumer perception of quality in evaluated to be known how big influence on purchase intention (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:607). Reviewing consumer behavior in foods, in previous research is often studied through perception of quality (Carrasco et al., 2012:1414). On last studied, perceived quality is the consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Meanwhile perceived quality is the judgment a consumer of product which refers to the physical characteristics ofthe product, and is related more to engineering and food technology (Carrasco et al., 2012). Several things that concern on perception of quality, first are spoke on the advantages related to the assessment of consumer products and the second on the technology applied to products that are both better than similar products. That matter is a critical element for consumer decision making, consequently, consumers will compare the
The data was taken from the European Community Household Panel dataset (ECHP), a standardized survey carried out in the European Union from 1994 to 2001. This dataset presented two main advantages. The first one was comparability. This was an appealing feature, insofar as most international comparisons of inequality are based on different datasets and sampling periods, diverging sample of individuals, and differently defined variables. The calculations reported in this paper can be easily extended to any ofthe other 14 countries included in the ECHP 11 . This task, which is beyond the present paper, would allow for straight comparisons between European countries. As a second advantage, the ECHP monitors the same group of families and individuals over time. This allowed us to analyze the dynamics of economic mobility in Portugal. Furthermore, the paper documented changes in inequality from 1994 to 2001, a period of economic expansion in Portugal. During these years, income and earnings inequality tended to decrease, while capital income inequality tended to increase. Using bootstrap techniques, we found statistical evidence that these changes were significant. This conclusion is fairly robust to the choice ofthe bootstrap test.
Prof Alberto Briganti’s presentation began with the case of a 57-year-old male diagnosed with a 4 + 3 bilateral extended prostate cancer. The patient displayed some CV risk factors, including diabetes and obesity. Following staging, the patient appeared to have no systemic disease in the bone or in the abdomen and pelvis; however, a prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a suspicious area of minimal extracapsular extension atthe right apex. Prostate-speciic antigen (PSA) levels were 21.6 ng/mL, indicating that he was a high-risk patient. He consequently underwent bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The inal pathological report revealed that the patient had a Gleason score of 8, 2/21 positive lymph nodes, and a positive surgical margin, with complete recovery of urinary continence at 4 weeks after surgery. Post-surgery evaluation showed that the patient had a PSA of 0.07 ng/mL, had no spontaneous erections, and did not require a protective pad at 40 days.
Taking the above into consideration, for investigations the following alloys were selected: a hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin which was “enriched” with additions of ~3%Cu, ~1,5%Ni and ~1,5%Mg (added separately or jointly). A compilation ofthe examined silumins is given in Table 1.
For every analyzed case it was assumed that in the range of variability of each parameter there are 4 points (p=4). The number of simulation needed to be conducted depends on the number ofthe studied physical model parameters k, as well as on how many times the matrix B* was created, and it is equal to r (k+1). Hence the number of computer simulations ranged between 80 for cases shown in Figures 3, 7, 8 and 9 through 128 and 320 for Figures 4 and 5 respectively, up to 640 for the case from Figure 6.
The object of examination has been the ferritic-austenitic cast steel GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3. Both grades have been taken from industrial heats performed in the medium frequency induction furnace of about 150 kg capacity. A series of test castings has been produced of both cast steel grades in order to assess their technological and working properties. The used specimens have served as a charge for cast steel melting in order to perform derivative differential thermal analysis (DDTA). Melting of small quantities of cast steel (about 400 g) have been done at Cz Ċstochowa University of Technology. Small ceramic crucibles placed inside the induction coil powered with the medium frequency current have been used. The process have been held under argon atmosphere. The constant temperature of pouring metal into the DDTA probe has been provided by measuring the temperature ofthe molten cast steel with PtRh10-Pt thermocouple.
Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location ofthe producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state ofthe economy and the potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent ofthe field. Every well drilled inside the known extent ofthe field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
Customer value begins to emerge in the 1990s as an issue of growing interest to business, in particular to marketing at both academic and practitioner levels. This concept is considered to be one ofthe most significant factors in the success of an organisation and an important element of online shopping (Burke 1999; Pulliam 1999; Klein 1998; Hoffman and Novak 1996). It has been envisioned as a critical strategic weapon in attracting and retaining customers (Lee and Overby, 2004). In this sense, the study in hand focuses on three consequences ofthe perceived value ofthe site which are site preference, future patronage intent and e-loyalty. Besides, previous researches (Parasuraman, 1997; Holbrook, 1999) have demonstrated the multi-dimensional and highly context-dependent nature ofthe perceived value. In the online retailing setting, not only the product itself, but also the web site contributes value to customer. Two fundamental variables are taken in consideration to describe the site quality namely telepresence and flow state.
They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand.”
In polycrystalline blades of aircraft engine turbines, the size and shape ofthe grain constitutes one ofthe most significant quality control criteria ofthe casts made. In industrial practice, the macrostructure ofthe airfoil and the blade root is evaluated in terms ofthe presence of equiaxed, columnar and frozen grains. The grain size has a significant influence on the mechanical properties, creep resistance as well as heat- and high-temperature creep resistance ofthe blades [10-14].
In the past 50 years Romanian experts have equated the notion of property relations between spouses with the notion of matrimonial regime. The Romanian contemporary doctrine regarding the notions of matrimonial regimes and property relations between spouses is more nuanced than in the past, claiming that the two notions are closely linked, but not identical. Thus, the matrimonial regime should designate a system of legal rules that govern the property consequences of marriage, but not of any consequences (there are some pecuniary reports that are not of interest for the matrimonial regimes for example the obligation of maintenance between spouses, as well as those have in relation to other people: children, relatives, etc.). Consequence: matrimonial regime is part ofthe rules that systematize the "patrimonial relations between spouses”, relationships which are the subject matter of more disciplines: property right ofthe family, inheritance law etc.. . As such, the concept of matrimonial regime may be perceived in a narrow sense, as it may also have wider significance. In a narrow sense –the sense preferred by the author - the matrimonial regime is a set of legal rules governing the relations between spouses regarding the pecuniary rights and obligations of conjugal life and the relations concerning their management . In a wider sense, the matrimonial regimes (Vasilescu, 2003) also refer to the pecuniary relations between spouses and third parties, whether they are people completely foreign from marriage or people with specific legal ties to it (Vasilescu, 2003).
Exactly here we touch a crucial point. According to the French historian, as already seen, under the label of Sociology one has indeed often made History. However, the reality is that, whether or not aware of it, all ofthe historiographer’s activity has absolute need of a topic, which decisively operates as a propitiator in setting down materials and as an aid to their memorization. In fact, it is precisely as to this aspect, the construction of a topic, that Sociology has mostly been concerned with. Topic, however, any topic, is still worthy mainly as an auxiliary: the major et melior pars of historiography’s work is not herein found, rather in the density and wealth ofthe capture of specific realities (both in what they have ofthe predominantly singular and that more susceptible of generalization) with which it has become associated. Correspondingly, sociologists understandably tend to resemble researchers who, obsessed with the intensity of perception ofthe novelty they believe to have identified, trained in the conceptual finesses and subtleties thereby created, often intend to hammer out reality by referring it to those categories ─ discovering or inventing “community” and “society” in all concrete situations, or reducing them to
Bentonite mixtures belong and will always belong among the most widespread sand mixtures for the “green sand” technology of castings production. This technology’s essential advantage is bentonite mixtures application reversibility in the closed circulation after composition modifications and circulation losses replenishment. After the casting of a mould, the surrounding sand mixture is strained by the solidifying casting heat and bentonite degradation occurs. In case of appropriate conditions the oolitization occurs. This phenomenon is specific only for bentonite-bonded mixtures. The oolitization of opening material silica grains brings a number of negative as well as positive features with it. It is not only a technological problem but economical and ecological as well because for minimization of mixture regeneration with a help of new sand it is necessary to know bentonite mixtures quality control tools even in term ofthe oolitization rate. This paper deals with the description of undemanding physical method ofthe oolitization rate evaluation with a help of powder density assessment and its examination with actual sand mixtures which were obtained from the Czech Republic foundry plants. There are foundry plants of heavier weight castings and in one case there was an operation where bentonite mixtures regeneration was applied. Moreover, the oolitization effect on metal penetration in test castings was verified.