viewpoint and is by no means comprehensive.” Reducing individuals to logical particulars is as unsatisfactory as it is absurd. Here we clearly see what is forfeited when there is no belief in persons. Perhaps Erasmus can offer an answer, in his Praise of Folly we read, “ Pan makes everyone laugh with his hopeless efforts at singing, and the gods would rather listen to him than to the muses themselves, especially when the nectar has started to flow freely.” Alternatively, from Bishop Berkeley’s “Preface” to his Principles, which could also be taken as a reply to Derrida’s critics. Berkeley writes that we are faced with “the hasty censures of a sort of men who are too apt to condemn an opinion before they rightly comprehend it.”
It is necessary to accept that the criticism made by deconstructing the whole history of Western philosophy was productive for literary criticism, although Derrida may not have directly addressed it, as stated Culler, "Derrida writes frequently on literary works, however he did not deal directly with topics such as the task of literary criticism, the methods of analysis of literary language or the nature of meaning in literature," says Culler (1997: 206-207). "The implications of deconstruction for literary study must be inferred, but it is unclear how such inferences must be made," he concludes. Yet the French thinker’s notes caused several discussions in and outside of the academic realms. The meta-criticism, criticism of criticism, theory objective (suggested by Compagnon), was recommended by deconstructionism in the beginning and in this sense it helped us realize the strength that certain interpretations possess. Criticism should never be used (as in the past) to suppress or assume a dictatorial position. You must redeem or create a critical laughter 15 , yes, a laughter that would allow the seriousness or
Of the main developments in theory, the linguistic turn certainly needs no introduction, in part because of its dominance especially in the theory of history during the 1980s and 1990s, but also because of its controversial nature even throughout that period of relative success. To say that it needs no introduction is not, however, to say that there is not a continued need to get to know it better. Ideas falling under the umbrella of the linguistic turn have been subject to many misinterpretations and the work of its main proponents has been quite strangely received; within philosophy, the worst misreadings have arguably focused on Jacques Derrida and Richard Rorty; in relation to history, particularly harsh readings have been offered up of Hayden White, Keith Jenkins, Elizabeth Ermarth, Sande Cohen, and Frank Ankersmit. At the same time, historically oriented presentations by Michel Foucault and Joan Scott, for instance, have been better received in at least some more forward-thinking history approaches — for Foucault and Scott, this has perhaps been the case most notably within cultural history and women’s history. More recently, attempts to pursue similar goals and conceivably to also broaden the agenda of the linguistic-turn inheritance have continued in the pages of the journal Rethinking History and in the work of Martin L. Davies (2016) as well as Claire Norton and Mark Donnelly (2019), for example. These questions have also been kept alive by sporadic attacks on relativism and by virtue of regularly recurring debates concerning one revisionist history or another.
African or black identity, construed within the context of Sartre’s thought, falls equally then to the ambiguity of consciousness. The work of negritude writers and artists is characterised by a search for identity, an identity that would function as an ideal, the ideal of a lost or forgotten past, or of a promised future. The mistake of this work was to take this ideal as a given, as something that was already present, but which required restitution or resurrection. This would be Senghor’s “black soul”, and if this latter could be rehabilitated, black peoples could in turn take their rightful place in the dialogue of civilizations. For Sartre, by contrast, the “black soul” is the creation of reflection on black experience. The latter is tragically real, for to be black in a world of white supremacy is to fail to be recognised as fully human by others. Negritude is then the ideal of a self-coincident, integrated black self that is able to challenge racism. But to the extent that this implies an essential black or African nature, then for Sartre the challenge is ill founded. The black self must rather be seen for what it is, a temporary, conditioned awareness of black experience that can never fully exhaust the latter, and that therefore authentic black existence both accepts racial and racist categorization, while also turning racism against itself, thereby undermining its apparent self-evidence. Authenticity for Sartre is a revolt against an alienating situation constructed by and for others. And the revolt is radical, for beyond relativising the presumed superiority of the racist, something accomplished by the typical re-evaluation of racist racial hierarchies, it relativises the relativisation, in that what is born of the challenge to racism is not a celebration of the diversity of identities, but rather the questioning of identity itself. Sartre in this way undermines any interpretation of black experience that would reify or objectify it, whether expressed through negritude poetry or African philosophy. Simple definitions of the latter which define it for example as “a set of written texts, when available, as well as orally transmitted texts that deal with the human condition in Africa on which Africans and non-Africans reflect” hide more than they reveal, for who or what is African in definitions of this kind is precisely what must be addressed, and not
The present writing was elaborated from speculations about possible encounters between philosophy, education and music. On the margins of music, where philosophy seeks some penetration, the theme of a supposed refusal to assimilation is announced, demanding the resumption of questions such as the permanence of a zone of indetermination not reached by the representational effort. This unavoidable opacity of the musical phenomenon moves it to a nocturnal dimension, a common destiny to everything that escapes the totalizing interests of a language committed to the objectification and nomination of things and of those conventionally called other. The nocturnal in philosophy and in music is object of reflections of Derrida and other thinkers, from which it is possible to glimpse a widening of the world, just where it is evident the merely formal character of the limits between what is said and unsaid, between what is human and what’s not. The text presented here inclu- des some of these philosophical reflections, compared to musical creations that insinuate
However, if moving images force us to review the optical illusion and the cerebral cortex connection between what the technical mechanism and what the automatism are, in Deleuze, a philosophy of film will be seen as a conceptual practice and not only as a case study for the aesthetic field. This means that Deleuze understands film as a new experience, as a possible field in which to create new percepts and affects, the elements that constitute his logic of sensation. Although Deleuze does not conceptualize the role of the spectator, he defines the creation of a subjectivity that is particular to the cinematic experience with moving images, which does not reduce itself to a psychological analysis (as the question of the gaze, voyeurism, identification, empathy, …) but which centres itself on possible new ways of thinking. This thinking does not have to be human any more. The viewer’s experience is different from the natural, ordinary experience in its quotidian world: with non-human thoughts and non- human sensations. The new ways of feeling and thinking will be reflected in a new sensibility towards reality itself, expanding consciousness beyond its natural limits.
More recently, geographers have shifted their attention toward the data revolution, such as the rapid development of the capacity to collect, store, and process digital data (Graham and Shelton 2013; González-Bailón 2013). The data revolution is characterized by the automatic mode through which data are captured and produced, made possible by the development and the proliferation of several technological innovations, infrastructures, and techniques. According to Barnes (2013), we have gone from an “avalanche of numbers,” as coined by Ian Hacking (1990), to an “avalanche of big data.” Other authors consider that we have entered the big data age (Kitchin 2013, 2014a; Kitchin and Dodge 2014) or the petabyte age (Anderson 2008). Although there is no specific definition for big data, some authors have identified its main features (Boyd and Crawford 2012; Zikopoulos and others 2012; Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier 2013). Big data consist in data sets characterized by a huge volume of information that is exhaustive in scope and has great resolution in detail. These data sets are flexible in the edition or creation of their fields and relational, as it is possible to conjugate different data sets. Big data have also been more briefly defined by the three Vs: high volume, high velocity, and high variety (Kitchin 2013; Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier 2013; Miller and Goodchild 2015). In this context, data are now ubiquitous, as nearly every social, economic, political, and environmental process is being digitized and stored by sensors and software. The production of huge amounts of data has been generated predominantly by actors such as app developers, retail chains, financial institutions, mobile phone operators, security firms, and internet companies. These actors are usually associated with large corporations, and it has been noted that the data access, storage, and
Championing a rational and functional new architecture to which Memmo gave the name of arte nuova or nuovo instituto (Memmo 1973, I, 25 and 33; and II, 50), Lodoli was probably the most avant -garde theorist of the Enlightenment, his tabula rasa ideas on architecture being viewed by Modern Movement historiog- raphy in Fascist Italy as precursors to modernist principles (Gallo 1935; Gengaro 1937; Gabrielli 1945; Gabrielli 1938 -1939; Ragghianti 1936; Persico 1947). Lodoli was indeed the first architectural theorist to formulate the revolutionary doctrine of “truth -to -materials” and to introduce the notion of function into architectural discourse, as stated in his distichon “DEVONSI UNIR ET FABRICA E RAGIONE / E SIA FUNZION LA RAPPRESENTAZIONE” (Building must be united with reason, and let function be the representation). It appeared on an oval stone frame sur- rounding his portrait by the Venetian painter Alessandro Longhi (1733 -1813), now apparently lost, but known by a widely circulated print engraved by Pietro Marco Vitali (1755 -1810). At the foot of the oval frame there are two further stone tab- lets: one inscribed “UT ERUAS ET DESTRUAS” and the other “UT PLANTES ET AEDIFICES”, both are from chapter I, verse 10 of Jeremiah, prophesying “To root and to destroy” and “to build and to plant”. For Lodoli’s enemies, particularly the Venetian patrician Pietro Zaguri (1733 -1805), this was proof that he was commit- ted to the actual destruction of all ancient and modern buildings (Zaguri 1787, 25 -7). On the contrary, replied Memmo, Lodoli was merely following Socrates who believed that prejudice must be uprooted before truth could be appreciated: “How- ever, these are not his own original words, but the words of God himself, reported by Jeremiah…; an enlightened principle, in which it seemed that there was among the educated class, the one whom the Oracle judged to be wisest of all men, that is Socrates, who in his school insisted that first of all every prejudice should be uprooted, always doubting current opinions, in order to arrive at a knowledge of the real truth more easily” (Memmo 1788, 234). 13 Memmo understood the mot-
Thus, as seen, the modern characteristic of Malcom Le Grice’s work does not lie only in structural films or in expanded cinema, but in Lumière: that modernity comes from the Lumière Brothers, from which Le Grice is an inheritor. Le Grice’s modernity does not reside in the fact that he creates works of art about other works of art, but in the fact that cinema has always been about itself, as self-reflexive film. This historical shift allows us to understand film modernity before modern cinema, thus dislocating the ‘emancipation of time’ and giving us another perception of ‘impossible continuity and aberrant movement ’, as meant by Gilles Deleuze. Consequently, within this new philosophical and historiographical model for the film practice, based on the assumption of a non-linear and non-comprehensive history of film, moving images (either conventional cinema or the avant-garde experimental films) are considered metacinematic in a serial dialogue with early cinema within a transhistorical perspective. Malcolm Le Grice’s film practice, an attempt to demonstrate the connection between ‘film materiality and historical materialism’ (Le Grice 1989, 64), is a way of performing this new paradigm alternative to the traditional linear, diachronic, and evaluative history of film. Thus combining and exploring various elements from film medium and film archives, as well as philosophical reflexions on spectator, space, time and the past in his works. By freeing it from a limiting self-referent and non- narrative paradigm, this perspective renewed the dated Marxist apparatus theory, at the same time that the study of film spectatorship regained some of the political focus it had lost.
A questão aqui seria uma inadequação, uma falta de exatidão ou mesmo, talvez, uma certa “injustiça” das leituras que Derrida faz da obra de Benjamin. E como poderia ser diferente se a coisa mais difícil do mundo, à qual talvez todo intérprete deve renunciar desde o começo, é restituir em sua totalidade os sentidos de um texto ou de uma teoria tais quais eles foram concebidos por seu autor? Para haver leitura, já dizia a epígrafe de A farmácia de Platão, é preciso pôr algo de seu, acrescentando alguma coisa ao tecido original do texto. E a partir do momento em que se acrescenta uma linha ao texto, não é mais o mesmo texto que se restitui após a leitura. Não é mais, sobretudo, o sentido único, completo, total, que, por hipótese, se encontrava escon- dido sob a última camada do texto dito original e que veio a ser restituído. A “Aufgabe” (palavra alemã que designa, por um lado, a tarefa, o dever, e por outro, o abandono ou a renúncia), a “Aufgabe” primeira do leitor consiste em compreender que a restituição ou o resgate completo do sentido é por defini- ção impossível. É preciso renunciar a isso em todas as leituras, com o risco de não ler, de permanecer muito próximo do texto do ponto de vista filológico, sem lhe acrescentar o que quer que seja. Sem lê-lo realmente.
Further on, we develop the Hamiltonian setting and explain how to build perturbations for the first three cases of non-dominance, in chapter 4. In chap- ter 5 we explore in depth Bochi’s random approach to the problem of rotating large angles on non-symplectic planes. The ideas there present are worth a further study of the possibility they can be rehashed for other perturbative problems. It is in the sequence of chapter 4, completing the construction of the random perturbation that solves the last case.
diferenciando-se, não obstante, do lugar inicialmente reservado, pelos gregos (de onde parte toda essa construção conceitual) para isso, qual seja, o espaço da ágora; em se tratando, pois, de um lugar de ocupação, torna-se impreciso afirmar que khôra constitua um espaço propriamente vazio (DERRIDA, 1995, p. 41-42). Em todo caso, vale ressaltar que a série de analogias evocadas por Platão – em relação a khôra – na qual se inscrevem aquelas já salientadas: “mãe”, “ama”, “receptáculo” –, apesar de retida por Derrida é, no mesmo momento, por ele refutada; com isso, Derrida procura demonstrar a intrínseca inadequação nominal de khôra; em sua notação conceitual, o nome não alcança khôra; todavia, é apenas por intermédio dele que essa pode se dar a ver, refletir, ser refletida, especular ao ser especulada, rebater sua fonte; ela consiste numa figura retórica que procura restituir ao nome sua radical anonimidade; como já o dissemos, o nome não designa uma palavra, tampouco um conceito, sendo justamente essa qualidade de khôra que Derrida decanta em sua exposição. 10
The conference aims in comparative reflection — both intercultural and interdisciplinary — over the phenomenon of human body as it has been con- ceptualized and represented in Western and Eastern cultural traditions. Thus, to debate on why human body matters in terms of philosophy, literature and art we want to juxtapose European and Asian perspectives. Among the crucial issues that are worth considering we will discuss the following aspects of human corporeality:
Previous research, concerning the use of the Park's Vector Approach, has demonstrated the effectiveness of this non inva- sive technique for diagnosing malfunctions in operating three- -phase induction motors, power electronics and adjustable speed drives . Preliminary experimental results, presented in , concerning the use of the supply current Park's Vector Approach, have also demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique for diagnosing the occurrence of inter-turn insulation faults in the windings of operating three-phase transformers. The on-line diagnosis is based on identifying the appearance of an elliptic pattern, corresponding to the transformer supply cur- rent Park's Vector representation, whose ellipticity increases with the severity of the fault and whose major axis orientation is associated to the faulty phase. However, with this approach, it is difficult to discriminate between unbalanced loads and winding faults. To overcome this difficulty, an improved diag- nostic technique was implemented, which consists in the analysis of the on-load exciting current Park's Vector pattern, and therefore unaffected by the transformer's load conditions.
No entanto, essa abordagem pode ocasionar sobrecargas no equipamento TURN-S ao acionar o proxy RTP para todos os tráfegos RTP gerados e/ou destinados ao domínio X (mesmo os UAs origem e destino estando no domínio X deverão usar o proxy RTP), pois é a sua configuração padrão (GONÇALVES, 2010) (VOIP INFO, 2009a). Mesmo alguns experimentos revelando o proxy RTP com capacidade para suportar em torno de 2000 ligações simultâneas utilizando Codec G.729 em um equipamento P4 2.5-3.0 GHz (VOIP INFO, 2009b), há ainda o fato da interface de rede do TURN-S receber e enviar um mesmo tráfego RTP. Essa carga na interface acarreta desperdício de largura de banda, o que limita o seu uso dependendo da velocidade do enlace. Além disso, existe a concorrência do tráfego de voz com os demais tráfegos de propósito geral (ex: HTTP, FTP, P2P, etc...) para atravessar o equipamento Firewall/
A difusão veloz de tecnologias globais de informação e comunicação, uma progressiva divisão internacional do trabalho, a presença midiática do mun- do nos espaços privados, as correntes migratórias, as mudanças climáticas globais: todos esses fenômenos são aspectos de um processo que abalou de maneira duradoura as noções de proximidade e de distância. Como observa com razão Peter Noller, a globalização conduz não apenas a uma mudan- ça social, mas a uma mudança mental, isto é, à redefinição de conceitos e modelos que devem ajudar a entender o mundo. “O que, nos anos de 1970, se anuncia empiricamente como globalização é acompanhado por uma transição epistemológica, a passagem de uma compreensão tradicio- nal, geograficamente limitada, para outra, pós-tradicional, aberta e plural, do espaço social” (Noller, 2000, p. 21). A percepção de que a mudança social não pode ser explicada satisfatoriamente sem uma reconceituação das categorias relativas à componente espacial da vida social é chamada de spatial turn 1 (cf. Berking, 1998; Schlögel, 2003; Döring e Thielmann,
Anthropology’s growing interest in the health disease phenomenon, is far from the hegemonic biologist and mechanistic model of medicine, approaching analysis from the sociological and cultural slant of the different therapies, their insti- tutional configurations and diverse specialties. It is possible to highlight a plurality of thought and practices about cures in societies in which culture binds together elements of beliefs and customs from various groups. There is a great variety of discursive interpretations of doctors and patients in whom disease can be studied in all its multiple, symbolic aspects, often through the narratives of the ill subjects themselves, as has been verified in several different studies (Costa, 2010; Caprara e Landim, 2008; Nunes, 2006; Carvalho, 2005; Alves and Minayo, 1994).
Since the Young Hegelians consider conceptions, thoughts, ideas, in fact all the products of consciousness, to which they attribute an independent existence, as the real chains of men (just as the Old Hegelians declare them the true bonds of human society), it is evident that the Young Hegelians have to fight only against these illusions of consciousness. Since, according to their fantasy, the relations of men, all their doings, their fetters and their limitations are products of their consciousness, the Young Hegelians logically put to men the moral postulate of exchanging their present consciousness for human, critical or egoistic consciousness, and thus of removing their limitations. This demand to change consciousness amounts to a demand to interpret the existing world in a different way, i.e., to recognize it by means of a different interpretation. The Young-Hegelian ideologists, in spite of their allegedly ‘worldshattering’ phrases, are the staunchest conservatives (Marx & Engels, 1976a, p. 30, author's emphasis).
The available information on the online page of the PSTE Fed- eral Network served as source for the selection of participating units of the research. In situations of uncertainty of information about the implantation process, the institutions’ web address and telephone number were searched for data confirmation. Of 382 identified units, the effective contact was possible with 297. The research forms were forwarded to all Federation Units, addressed to pedagogical managers (pedagogical coordinators, educational managers, teaching directors, among others nomenclatures attributed to this same duty). 106 free and enlightened consent terms were completed. Among these, only the valid fillings were considered, which corresponded to 69 participants (23,2%). Of the new number, there was at least one participating campus in each state, meeting the expectation of the research’s territorial reach. The answers to the objective questions were quantitatively tabu- lated and analyzed. To the questions of discursive answer, were they independent or complementary to the quantitative, the given treatment was the qualitative. The reading and analysis of the qualitative order data were realized by using triangulation as method (Denzin apud Flick, 2009). By this way, the collected data, the bibliographic review and the documentary analysis were interwoven, giving the necessary support to the interpretative character analysis.
Quando, na primeira cesura, se falou de um desencontro profundo entre Greta, e a filha foi deixado em suspenso o problema do endereço, parecendo deixar-se à filha o segredo da direcção das frases e das palavras. Seria esta que saberia que direcção dar à linguagem, como e a quem endereçar tudo o que dissemos. Como se só existisse endereço e direcção estáveis, fiáveis. Por outro lado, na primeira parte, insinuou-se um certo ou incerto animal moribundo, sem palavras e sem voz, sem fôlego, que condicionou, de certa forma, tudo o que foi dito posteriormente sobre a memória, sobre o impossível recomeço a partir das palavras pronunciadas tanto por Greta como pela filha, sobre a espera, a passividade e a sobrevivência. É altura, então, de aprofundar tudo o que ficou mais ou menos implícito e de, ao mesmo tempo, cruzá-lo com o que foi deixado em suspenso. No entanto, é igualmente necessária uma mudança de tom. Porque, de facto, tanto a passividade, como a memória e o esquecimento, tanto a sobrevivência como a condição de permanecer sem palavras – o que não equivale a uma mudez pura e simples – constituem uma “cena do luto”. Um luto sem luto, talvez, à maneira de Derrida, mas mesmo assim um luto paradoxal, ligado a um esquecimento que não corresponde a uma interiorização ou a uma incorporação mas a um espaçamento da voz.