For the lower boundary conditions, there are two possi- bilities. On one hand, MXL/MESSy offers the possibility to use interactive emission (via the ONEMIS (Kerkweg et al., 2006b) **and** MEGAN (Guenther et al., 2006) submodels), dry deposition (DDEP; Kerkweg et al., 2006a) **and** land sur- face parametrizations (Sect. 2.7). In these submodels, land surface-ABL exchange is calculated as function **of** land sur- face **and** ABL characteristics, like stomatal resistance **and** air temperature. On the other hand, it is possible to pre- scribe emissions **and** surface heat fluxes following simpli- fied functions for the users who like to keep full control over the boundary conditions **of** the **model** (Sect. 2.5). In that way, MXL/MESSy can for instance be used to evaluate the sensitivity **of** the chemistry in the ABL to uncertainties in emission estimates. Further, OFFEMIS (Kerkweg et al., 2006b) allows for the extraction **of** emission time series from an emission database, which is read by IMPORT. Addition- ally, the organic aerosol submodel ORACLE (Tsimpidi et al., 2014), allows for the representation **of** the organic aerosol composition **and** evolution.

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Abstract. A modification **of** the Ekman **layer** that is able to systematically account for the effects **of** curvature **of** the velocity fluctuation streamlines is developed, using the **description** **of** turbulent motions. These effects are accounted for through the average vector product **of** the velocity fluctuations **and** the local curvature vector **of** their streamlines at each flow field point. It is shown that this approach enables quantifying the impact **of** several phenomena (such as the Stokes drift or the incessant generation **of** vortices with a prevailing orientation **of** rotation, intrinsic to surface-driven geophysical flows) on the formation **of** the Ekman **layer**. The outcome **of** the suggested modification is compared with the relevant data measured in the Drake Passage.

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long spin-up periods to attain a balance within the coupled system. They can also exhibit significant drifts **and** biases in the mean state, which can be **of** equal magnitude or larger than the desired signal (e.g. ENSO, decadal ocean variability, responses to greenhouse-gas or aerosol forcing). For example, many coupled models have a large cold equatorial SST bias in the tropical Pacific which inhibit their ability to simulate key

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For many plasma physics problems, three-dimensional **and** kinetic effects are very important. However, such simulations are very computationally intensive. Fortunately, there is a class **of** problems for which there is nearly azimuthal symmetry **and** the dominant three-dimensional physics is captured by the inclusion **of** only a few azimuthal harmonics. Recently, it was proposed [1] to **model** one such problem, laser wakefield acceleration, by expanding the fields **and** currents in azimuthal harmonics **and** truncating the expansion after only the first harmonic. The complex amplitudes **of** the fundamental **and** first harmonic for the fields were solved on an r-z grid **and** a procedure for calculating the complex current amplitudes for each particle based on its motion in Cartesian geometry was presented using a Marder’s correction to maintain the validity **of** Gauss’s law. In this paper, we describe an **implementation** **of** this algorithm into OSIRIS using a rigorous charge conserving current deposition method to maintain the validity **of** Gauss’s law. We show that this algorithm is a hybrid method which uses a particles-in-cell **description** in r-z **and** a gridless **description** in φ. We include the ability to keep an arbitrary number **of** harmonics **and** higher order particle shapes. Examples, for laser wakefield acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, **and** beam loading are also presented **and** directions for future work are discussed.

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This work presents a detailed **description** **of** the formulation **and** **implementation** **of** the Atomistic Finite Element Method AFEM, exemplified in the analysis **of** one- **and** two-dimensional atomic domains governed by the Lennard Jones interatomic potential. The methodology to synthesize element stiffness matrices **and** load vectors, the potential energy modification **of** the atomistic finite elements (AFE) to account for boundary edge effects, the inclusion **of** boundary conditions is carefully described. The conceptual rela- tion between the cut-off radius **of** interatomic potentials **and** the number **of** nodes in the AFE is addressed **and** exemplified for the 1D case. For the 1D case elements with 3, 5 **and** 7 nodes were ad- dressed. The AFEM has been used to describe the mechanical behavior **of** one-dimensional atomic arrays as well as two- dimensional lattices **of** atoms. The examples also included the anal- ysis **of** pristine domains, as well as domains with missing atoms, defects, or vacancies. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamic simulations (MD) performed using a commercial package. The results have been very encouraging in terms **of** accuracy **and** in the computational effort necessary to execute both methodologies, AFEM **and** MD. The methodology can be expanded to **model** any domain described by an interatomic energy potential.

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residual **mixed** **layer** (in our case around 9:30 LT). Then both layers merge **and** become one **mixed** boundary **layer**, as illustrated in Fig. 2. In the MXL **model** this merging **of** two atmospheric layers into one is instantaneous. However, in reality it can take some time due to inhomogeneous ABL conditions **and** the time it takes for thermals to rise from the surface to the top **of** the residual **layer**. In this section we will show that this process can

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The correct sentence **of** Sect. 4 should read as follows: “It is worth noting that the ocean component **of** this **model** is essentially made **of** two prognostic equations: one for the **mixed** **layer** thermodynamics equation for SST, a ther- mocline depth equation for upper ocean dynamics, along with SST–gradient-wind relation, **and** the wind–equatorial- upwelling relation.”

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Synopsis: A **description** **of** the numerical enhancements **of** the TRACEO3D ray tracing **model** is presented in this chapter, namely, the Simplex-based eigenray search, **and** the opti- mization **of** ray influence calculations. The eigenray Simplex-based search was developed to efficiently **and** accurately calculate 3D eigenrays, providing predictions that account for hor- izontal effects. Ray influence calculations were also improved with the main goal **of** reducing the computational time, which often increases drastically as range, number **of** rays **and** num- ber **of** sensor increases. The structure **of** this chapter is as follows: Section 3.1 presents the eigenray Simplex-based search, while Section 3.2 describes the procedures that compound the ray influence calculations.

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The analysis response surface models with different combinations **of** values **of** input parameters (i.e., potential for the units **of** the enterprise management system) shows that the total potential system with a wide range **of** potential values for the units sets to about 0,5. To ensure a higher level **of** potential need to provide the three potentials (the structural **and** functional potential, the informative **and** technical potential, the management personnel potential) not less than 0,8. However, it is shown that the potential **of** preparing, adoption **and** **implementation** **of** management decisions negligible impacts on overall management system potential. This finding further confirms the thesis about the combined nature **of** the potential **of** preparing, adoption **and** **implementation** **of** management decisions **and** its dependence on the optimum combination **of** objective **and** subjective components **of** management processes in the enterprise.

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The gap, static, dynamic **and** **mixed** models are now confronted, in this paper, with sample data from the four **and** five star hotels **of** the Algarve (FFSHA). The data does not provide evidence against the models thus supporting their validity. This tentative validation **of** the models thus provides some relevant theoretical contributes to the service quality **and** the strategy **implementation** literatures. It also raises some concerns about possible inconsistent management practices during the **implementation** **of** a service quality strategy **and** provides some insights to managers interested in implementing such a strategy. Sample data is also used, elsewhere, to describe (1) how FFSHA are implementing service quality strategies; (2) how they prevent **and** eliminate SQGs; (3) how management practices differs according to hotel ownership: international chains, portuguese chains, **and** independent hotels; **and** (4) what can be learned from the differences (Cândido, 2001 & 2003).

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is still incomplete, numerical simulations **of** increasingly higher resolution have been a rich source **of** information that serves as a test bed for parameterizations **of** the sub- mesoscale fluxes to be then used in low resolution OGCMs to represent structures they cannot resolve. If one considers that the highest resolution **of** about 1/10 ◦ stand alone OGCMs can resolve structures **of** about 10 km size which is 10 times larger than sub-

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Abstract - The objective **of** this study was to evaluate the performance, adaptability **and** stability **of** corn cultivars simultaneously in unbalanced experiments, using the method **of** harmonic means **of** the relative performance **of** genetic values. The grain yield **of** 45 cultivars, including hybrids **and** varieties, was evaluated in 49 environments in two growing seasons. In the 2007/2008 growing season, 36 cultivars were evaluated **and** in 2008/2009 25 cultivars, **of** which 16 were used in both seasons. Statistical analyses were performed based on **mixed** models, considering genotypes as random **and** replications within environments as fixed factors. The experimental precision in the combined analyses was high (accuracy estimates > 92 %). Despite the existence **of** genotype x environment interac- tion, hybrids **and** varieties with high adaptability **and** stability were identified. Results showed that the method **of** harmonic means **of** the relative performance **of** genetic values is a suitable method for maize breeding programs.

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The study describes the technology **of** fabrication **of** composite layers in cast steel reinforced with titanium carbides. In the process under discussion, the reinforcing TiC phase is formed in situ from the substrates deposited on mould cavity, where the said substrates under the effect **of** heat supplied by molten metal poured into mould (1823K) undergo a synthesis in the SHS reaction. An outcome **of** this process is the formation, within the casting surface, **of** a **layer** from 550 to 1200µm thick. Carbides produced in this synthesis have the size from 0,5 to 20µm **and** a non-typical spheroidal shape. The hardness **of** the produced **layer** examined in function **of** the distance from the casting surface is from 700 to 1134 HV, **and** is determined by volume fraction **of** the reinforcing TiC phase. To better document the type **of** microstructure obtained in the produced material, metallographic **and** structural examinations were carried out using the method **of** scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis (EDS/EDX), **and** phase analysis (XRD). To check the mechanical properties **of** the examined material, hardness was measured by the Vickers test.

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waters **of** the Bay. An examination **of** the monthly mean climatology **of** river discharge **of** 5 major rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawady, Godavari, **and** Krishna showed that the freshwater discharge dominated during July to October (Fig. 5d). The spreading **of** low salinity waters (< 32 psu) were seen from the northern Bay towards the south **and** also along eastern **and** western boundary (see the blue cross-hatch in Fig. 5a–c) with

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In the fourth step, it was determined that one **of** the important indicators is effectiveness **of** realization one **of** the main activities, namely "International Academic Course BEST». This project is a major source to achieve its purposes by organization. The format **of** the event is about 20 students from all Europe gathered at a university in the local branch (in this case based on ZNTU) **and** for about two weeks they listen lecture course **and** visit some local factories on topic predefined by organizers. It may be a technical subject (on ZNTU base were conducted courses on Automation, Aircraft building, Energy, etc.) **and** economic subjects, which will help in future employment **of** participants (Financial crisis, Management **and** Marketing).

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3-1 M ORPHOLOGY P ROPERTIES **OF** GaAs:Se/ C -S I T HIN F ILM Figure (1) show the structure **of** GaAs:Se thin films that have been deposited on glass substrates **and** annealed at RT ,373 **and** 473 K with thicknesses 0.5 µm. The surface morphology **of** the GaAs:Se films as observed from the AFM micrograph confirms that the grains are uniformly distributed. We can notice that GaAs:Se films deposited at room temperature **and** annealed to 373K are amorphous while the films annealed to 473K are crystalline in nature . Table (1) shows the value **of** average roughness **and** average grain . It was observed from this table that the average roughness **and** the average grain size value decreases with increasing the annealing temperature.

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Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic method for the simultaneous determination **of** adjusted ranks **of** sample observations **and** their sums **and** products adjusted for possible presence **of** tied observations in the sampled populations for use in further analyses. When computations involving paired data sets, as in the computation **of** the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient, this procedure intrinsically obtained the sums **of** ranks, products **of** ranks **and** sums **of** squares **of** ranks, automatically adjusting these sums for more accurate results. The proposed method is illustrated with some data **and** used to estimate ties adjusted Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient **and** the bias that would have arisen if there were no adjustments for ties in the sampled populations.

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Qualitative data were obtained concomitantly with quantitative data by means **of** an in-depth interview with premature infants’ mothers soon after application **of** PSI at the preterm follow-up clinic three months after discharge from the neonatal unit. The following guiding questions were used during interviews: For you, what is it like to take care **of** your premature infant after discharge from the NICU? What are your feelings about the experience with the premature infant at home in those early months? Each issue had a road map on topics addressed such as child care, difficulties with the care, fears, anxieties **and** anguish experienced by the mother after the premature infant’s discharge from hospital. Interviews were audio recorded, **and** the content was validated by participants.

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Analogous closed-form estimation is also possible in some models with common unobserved heterogeneity **and**/or for empirical games with multiple equilibria. This follows since, in prin- ciple, Hotz **and** Miller’s (1993) two-step approach can be used whenever a nonparametric estimator is available to construct an empirical **model** that is consistent with the observed data in the first step. For an example, see Aguirregabiria **and** Mira (2007, Section 3.5), where non- parametric identification results **of** Kasahara **and** Shimotsu (2009) can be applied. Therefore we are hopeful that closed-form estimation based on minimizing expected payoffs is generally possible beyond the basic setup **of** our game, particularly given recent identification results for games with multiple equilibria (Aguirregabiria **and** Mira, 2013; Xiao, 2014) **and** other dynamic models with latent state variables (e.g., Hu **and** Shum, 2012).

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Figures 3,4,5 show changes in the value **of** the contact angle in a quartz-binder system. Figure 3 illustrates the quartz wetting characteristics using an unmodified binder, while Figures 4 **and** 5 show the results **of** analogical measurements taken for the binder modified with 1 or 3 wt.% **of** the modifier.

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