different applications. Multi-cell batterymanagementsystem has been proposed due to manufacturability and safety ofbattery cells [15-17,26-28]. Thus, batterymanagement integrated circuit (BMIC) is combined with cell packs, sensors and main processors; in order to monitor and schedule the operation of each battery cells. Fixed-configuration battery systems are widely used in practice, but they usually behave abnormally in extreme conditions such as high temperature, over-charged and over-discharged. Also, they usually have low conversion efficiency and a non-optimal system performance. Safety circuits have been proposed to protect the batterysystem by switching off the whole system. However, they cannot fully utilize the batterysystem. Therefore, they are not capable to improve functionality, lifespan and conversion efficiency ofbattery systems. Recently, some configurable methodologies have been proposed. Those methodologies can dynamically configure the batterysystem in series and parallel; therefore they can output the required current and voltage with a better conversion efficiency and functionality. However, battery aging and other physical/chemical nondeterministic characteristics of the batterysystem significantly affect the batterysystem performance such as power quality andbattery lifespan. In addition, existing approaches still cannot overcome these deficiencies, and cannot fully utilize the energy usage ofbattery systems with aged problem or operation in the extreme environment.
Abstract—BatteryManagementSystem (BMS) requires an indefinite accurate model. With an aging model, the lifetime of a battery can be precisely predicted with respect to the State-of- Charge (SoC) of a battery. The mathematical model in terms of state variables involving smart BMS is presented in this work. The state space model is crucial as an accurate model and is able to represent the complex dynamic behavior of a batterysystem. A numerical case study is done to verify the model obtained through mathematical derivations by adopting the prominent RC battery model from literature. Furthermore, the well-known Kalman filter (KF) is applied to estimate the SoC of a batterysystem. With accurate prediction of SoC ofbatterysystem, its lifetime could be prolonged, and thereby saving us substantial cost.
which produces goods (services, agriculture, food…) in interaction with the center. The designof a system relies on the definition of its border. According to the laws of requisite variety(Ashby law) the inner complexity of a system must be appropriate to the complexity of its environment. So, the urban ecosystem will have to define three perimeters: the first is the city itself where the synergies and interactions are the stronger and have the most “eco” properties. The second is the periphery: one may refer here to the model defined by Thünen at the beginning of the XIX° century representing the city with a succession of concentric rings going from the highest increasing return activities at the center city to decreasing return activities at the periphery (Schwarz, 2010). The third is the external environment with witch the city exchanges, that is, ina age of a globalized world, the rest of the world: the larger this perimeter, the more the system exchanges. This represents logistic costs that may have a negative impact on pollution and carbon emission that may be reincorporated in the balance of the city to measure its smartness, and the more it is subject to external factors of instability and the lesser the ecosystem is coherent and stable as a Thünen zone 1 .
homes as The backbone which will enable the managementand the control of different areas of a residence, binding four pillars of human livelihood inside a house: comfort and welfare; physical integrity and facility safety; rational managementof domestic energy equipments; and the possibility to provide healthcare services to its inhabitants. The authors add that the important thing in this term is communication. Communication should be established in an easy, cheap, trusted way with a robust communication structure. So, a further definition for smart homes says Smart Home can be defined as a concentrator and discriminator of information and service. Both information and services try to provide a gateway to outdoor world services such as a smart grid side by side within the ability to provide indoor services or local functionalities to improve the level of life quality. Such a gateway will open a wider space of services by sharing the managed local information with the foreign services like smart cities.
The processes of converting customer data to information and knowledge is already taking place within the companies (Rowley, 2006), yet some data offers little insights, e.g. sales receipts data (Lesser et al. 2000), what triggers companies to take a deep look for more interactive strategies of gaining an understanding of the customers in extended dialogs. However, customers might not be able to properly articulate their needs (von Hippel, 2005) or might not be willing to share their knowledge (Desouza et al. 2008). However, in e-business the processes of managing customer knowledge, its sources and mediators significantly differ from traditional ways of collecting customer knowledge through traditional market research (Rowley, 2002b). The online interactions foster the generation of data which indicates various customer behavior. Respective activities in the field of Big Data analysis, lack abroad scale of success and significant business improvements (Rowley, 2002a) despite the rocketing debates on the potential of Big Data (La Valle et al. 2011). To overcome this gap, (Rowley, 2002b) suggests that certain techniques, e.g. data mining, have a great potential of converting data into knowledge. Taking this elaboration as a starting point, we assume that predictive analytics - as an analytical tool based on data mining techniques - has a potential to unveil the hidden potential in customer behavioral data.
The research showed that PV system is a promising project since PV panel cost is continuing decrease in cost. This research considered comparison among PV systems (Fixed – Manual – One axis – Two axis) using on grid tracking system for producing 110 KWp. The criterion used in this research to determine the optimum solution is the cost of produced one kilo watt hour. However, it is shown that two axis automatic tracking system produces maximum energy. But PV fixed panels system is Optimum economically among PV systems, where it is less expensive to produce energy and more profitable. If exceeded energy is sold to Egyptian government (according to new laws approved by Egyptian government), according to governmental facilities approved, it is allowed borrow up to 70% of the initial cost of the project. Economic analysis showed that borrowing at 4% interest gives minimum system cost. The profit in this case return on this project is expected to be 19.8 % and also in this system total cost to produce 1 KWh is about 0.73 EGP/ KWh, It is less the cost price of production 1 KWh by conventional methods.
Immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of CD34 (Dako Clone QBEnd 10) (Figure 1E), and only focal expression of myogenic markers such as smooth muscle actin (Dako Clone 1A4) (Figure 1F) and calponin (Dako Clone CALP). The tumour was negative for desmin (Dako Clone D33) (Figure 1G) and the ETS-related gene (Dako Clone EP111) (Figure 1H). These indings are compatible with a high-grade sarcoma with myopericytic diferentiation. Both tumours showed a high mitotic index. The initial skin tumour showed low- grade cytonuclear atypia, while the kidney tumour showed a high grade of atypia.
Another approach that has been considered to simplify and reduce processing costs is the fabrication of TFTs by printing the layers with a solution based precursor. The standard methods used for producing electronic devices are based on the sequential deposition, patterning and etching of different layers, involving mostly vacuum-based technologies, which contribute to a high manufacturing cost. Direct printing of inorganic materials allows to deposit films using a direct additive patterning process, enabling high-performance and low-cost electronics. The main issue in this kind of approach is the difficulty in preparing ink-jet-printable precursors conjugated with a desired performance, however in this process no masks or screens are needed and since it is an additive process, materials are applied only where desired. When using direct printing a cpst reduction of 64% is achieved when compared to the standard microelectronics technologies .
Word frequency and clustering analysis suggest that three communities, A, B and C, in cluster 0, were developing work that had a product centric perspective with ties to information and knowledge representation. Communities D, E and F (cluster 1) had a special orientation towards real-time and application oriented research and development. The data also suggests additional specializations in code generation for embedded devices and scheduling of transportation systems. Cluster 2 shows communities focused on control problems. Here sub-specializations include energy grids, mobile devel- opment, enterprise and device integration (community G), and AI-oriented research with focus on autonomy and conscious- ness (community H). Cluster 3, with two communities (I and J) shows a clear specialization in the development of IEC- 61499 and its applications particularly in power/energy related research including simulation, designand possibly test cases in baggage handling. Cluster 4 (communities K and L), focused in models and formal methods for software design. Commu- nity K converged to PLC oriented research, while community L adhered to more software design oriented research using aspects. Cluster 5, with just one community, denoted strongly bio-inspired research in evolutionary industrial systems, also including development of service oriented architectures. Clus- ter 6, also with one community, denoted a focus on holonic and heterarchical architectures for ﬂexible systems with a particular emphasis on routing. Cluster 7 was more focused on researching agency principles with two likely specializa- tions: ontologies and knowledge representation (community O) and coordination, self-* properties, planning and execution (community P). Cluster 8 specialized in collaborative networks positioning itself more at enterprise level and further away from control oriented research. Cluster 9 had a clear focus on maintenance including analytical and predictive methods.
In regards to input, Anderson et al. (2002) use four inputs: interest expense, property operating expense, general and administrative expense, andmanagement fees whereas Topuzet al. (2005) as well as Topuz and Isik (2009) employ interest expense and property operating expense. In this research, similar to Topuz and Isik (2009) and Topuzet al. (2005), only two inputs are used mainly due to the researcher’s effort to adhere to the rules of thumbs in regards to the number of inputs and outputs used relative to number of DMUs reported. However, instead of interest expense, management fee will be used because the researcher is interested in finding out whether management fee actually improves efficiency. Many local articles in Singapore such as Straits Times discuss the importance of considering management fees when investing in REITs. Therefore, the inputs of this study will be 1) property operating expense and 2) management fees.
Chen et al. (2006) and Jiang and Kim (2015) share the opinion, that the person with the most power and influence within a Chinese company, besides the controlling shareholders, is not the CEO. Both papers are explaining that the actual position in charge is very often the chairman. Chen et al. (2006) are simply stating that the chairman, in contrast to the most western concepts, is usually a full-time executive and holds a significant amount of power. Unfortunately, they do not elaborate further in this direction in contrast to Jiang and Kim (2015). First they mention that the top manager is in many cases not referred to as CEO but as the general manager, as apparently some literature is not aware off. Secondly, they differentiate the assumption that the chairman is the actual person in charge between state-owned enterprises (SOE) and non-SOEs. Another important component of the board of directors, besides the board chair is the independent directors. An independent director is not allowed to be related to the managementof the company, to own more than one percent of the shares, to be one of the top ten shareholders or to have a business relation with the company itself (Jiang and Kim, 2015). The boards in China have on average nine directors during the year 2012. Observing the number of independent directors over a longer time span, we discover that Chinese companies only fulfill the regulatory requirements and usually do not top them. It is therefore not surprising that for the year 2012 on average only around three independent directors were appointed to the Chinese boards of directors (Jiang and Kim, 2015). Being independent of the management allows the directors to speak openly about problems without worrying about getting on the bad side of the management (Donald 2006). Though, Jiang and Kim (2015) explain, that the independent directors in China do not solely serve this classical idea of monitoring the management. Instead, they manly should monitor controlling shareholders on behalf of the minority shareholders, since Chinas share market is dominated by concentrated ownership and controlling shareholders.
The first factor accounts for 26.45% of the total variance. The adjectives which constitute this dimension are vigorous, independent, normative, fascinating, adventurist, modern, brave, stable, and noble. If the brand personality dimensions are examined, it can be seen that Aaker (1997) has named them exhilaration. It has been considered that the object in brand personality has to be the city, thus the dimension has been renamed exhilarating. The second dimension accounts for 17.46% of the overall variance. The constituent adjectives of this factor are professional, socialist, prestigious, peaceful, compatible, respectable, and realistic. The first two adjectives have been expressed as expertise by Aaker (1997). Aksoy and Ozsomer (2007), on the other hand, have named the adjectives of professionalism, successful, and prestigious to be maturity. This factor has been called mature. The third factor is comprised of the adjectives of pompous, rebellious, leader, attractive, and feminine. This factor accounts for 10.44% of the overall variance. This dimension has been called androgen. The fourth factor, which comprises 9.99% of the overall variance, consists of the adjectives of traditional, sensitive, family-centered, respectful, creative, and participative. This dimension has been called traditional as was in the scale developed by Aksoy and Ozsomer (2007). The fifth factor accounts for 9.08% of the overall variance. Aaker (1997) has called this dimension sincerity, and it is comprised of the adjectives of realistic, honest, passionate, and virtuous. The adjectives constituting this factor are sincere, honest, friendly, sympathetic, extraordinary, romantic, modest, and social. In view of the first adjective being sincere, the factor has been called sincere.
After clinical stabilization, the patient underwent further evaluation to precisely locate the projectiles in the mediastinum. Contrast-enhanced CT showed an image suggestive of a projectile fragment in intracardiac position (Figure 1). Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) was performed and showed a fixed, hyperechogenic image, measuring about 9x7 mm, located in the membranous septum region, and close to the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve. No intracardiac shunts were detected.
In this article, a state feedback controller, the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), is applied to a rotor vibration control problem. The LQR offers relatively easy designand a comprehensible interconnection between design parameters and closed loop system dynamics. Possibly due to these reasons, the LQR is the most frequently applied state space controller in the field of rotordynamics, see e.g. - , and also commonly utilized as a benchmark controller in other applications . Moreover, stability of the LQR is robust against modeling errors in the system input matrix . For these reasons and also because the focus of this paper is not controller design, but to demonstrate advantages of an observer structure, the LQR is used to achieve state feedback in this article. However, the proposed observer structure can also be utilized in the context of different state feedback controllers like controllers designed via pole placement  or advanced controllers that consider parametric uncertainty  or minimize H ∞ - or H 2 - norms of certain frequency response
As we can see in Figure 51, the flight mode was changed from stabilize to loiter, as identified in the white rectangles since it detected an object and the message was sent. After that implementation we decided to check how long it will take for the obstacle detection module to instruct the flight controller to change to loiter mode. Since we use only three sensors and having an object appear at the start of a detection cycle it will take 150ms (small delay of 50ms that was implemented between each sensor in order to get better accuracy) to go throw the three sensors to see if there is an object. After that, if an object is detected, a message is sent to the APM in order to change the flight mode. Once in the APM it will take approximately 1000ms for it to change its flight mode as we can see in Figure 52 and in Table 10 which show the flight mode changing from stabilize to loiter.
An approach has been proposed for the analysis, architectural designand formal verification of an Information ManagementSystem (IMS). A multi-agent based architecture is suitable for such a system. In a multi-agent system applications are designed in terms of autonomous software entities called agents that flexibly achieve their objectives by interacting with one another in terms of high level protocols and languages [Zambonelli, Jennings and Wooldridge, 2003]. An Agent is a self-contained program capable of controlling its own decision-making, based on its perception of environment, in pursuit of one or more objectives [Jennings and Wooldridge, 1996]. A method for the architecture and formal verification of university IMS has been proposed. The Belief, Desire, Intention (BDI) agent model [Bratman, 1987] has been adopted. Each agent is autonomous and can make decisions based on its knowledge-base. An agent based on BDI theory can adapt to changing situations by focusing on the most appropriate goal at the time [Rens, Ferrein and Van, 2009].
A traffic light also known as a traffic signal or stop light, is a signaling device positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control the movement of vehicles and pedestrians. Traffic light intersections are employed country wide to improve the efficiency of traffic flow and reduce average travel time of both vehicles and pedestrians. Recent and continuing growth has resulted in increasing demand for travel on urban highways. Many highways are operating under congested condition throughout much of the day. Traffic congestion causes considerable cost due to unproductive time losses, accidents and also has a negative impact on the environment such as air pollution and fuel and on the quality of life, noise and stress. The economic consequences of traffic congestion are enormous. Due to the ever increasing need for transportation, there is more and more traffic congestion in developed and developing countries , , , ]. Traffic congestion continues to hinder economic and social development. The presence of traffic congestion costs a lot each year in the form of lost productivity. In the year 2000, it was estimated that drivers in 75 of the largest metropolitan areas of the world spent more than sixty eight billion dollars in person hours of lost time and wasted fund , . In USA the cost of congestion is estimated to be 67 billion dollars each year . This includes 3.6 million dollars in additional travel time and 5.7 billion gallons of fuel wasted while sitting in traffic . Traffic delays result in increased air pollution, thus contributing towards the deterioration of the
The production system using cages is a highly polemical issue in Europe, because of the space restriction imposed to laying hens. It is considered that the cage system might compromise important comfort movements, welfare and egg quality. This study evaluated egg quality and welfare of two strains of hens housed in a conventional system (battery laying cages) or litter system with nest and perches, and submitted to heat stress or comfort conditions. Two groups of 20 birds (10 Hy-line W36 and 10 Hy-line Brown) were submitted to two environmental conditions (26°C and 60% RH or 35°C and 70% RH) and two housing systems (cages or litter) in the early production phase. Egg quality was analyzed based on egg weight, eggshell thickness, specific gravity, and Haugh units. Yolk and shell contamination by Salmonella sp was also assessed. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in quality parameters was observed in eggs produced by laying hens under heat stress, mainly in the birds housed in cages.
Considerable research and development has been carried out in SDI in recent years (Mayer and Zipf, 2009; Janowicz et al., 2010). For example, Global Earth Observation Systemof Systems (GEOSS, 2017) and COPERNICUS, 2017 provide high quality spatial data to users in user-friendly geo- visualization platforms. The Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE, 2017) adopts service technologies for building its spatial information infrastructure. Some are trying to develop high-level middleware services and domain-specific services for problem-solving and scientific discovery in infrastructures (Pasquinelli and Guzzetti, 2016). For example, the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) Model Web initiative proposes to provide environmental models as services and integrating distributed models in infrastructures. Data provenance is added into SDI to capture and share the derivation history of geospatial data products, which is important in evaluating the quality of data products. Others propose the ontology approach for geospatial resource discovery in SDI (Arco et al., 2016). The OGC is leading and coordinating the efforts of international organizations and enterprises to develop interoperable geospatial services. A series of standard-based interface specifications are already available, including Web map services (WMS), Web feature service (WFS), Web coverage services (WCS), catalogue services for the Web (CSW), and Web processing service (WPS).