The objective of this study was to apply a two-step methodology to investigate the technicalefficiency and assess the factors that influence the efficiencyof crop production in IADP Samarahan, Sarawak. The lack of empirical studies in Malaysia, which focus on the factors affecting the efficiencyof the crop production, motivated this study. Most of the pineapple cultivators in IADP Samarahan scored less than 0.5, which means they were operating at an inefficient level and should be more productive to maintain the number of inputs and to produce at the production frontier level of the border or best practices. The policy implication from this study suggests that the introduction of contract labor to assist farmers in farm work, the strengthening of association and active participation and the increase in the area of crops are important factors in contributing to the improvement oftechnicalefficiency among pineapple farmers in achieving the target ofpineapple production of 16,000 tons/acre in IADP Samarahan itself (MAAI, 2008). It is important to contribute to the increase in food security and competitiveness in the agricultural sector to achieve the production target of 25 tonnes/acre in order to generate net income of RM2830 (MPIB, 2010). Increasing agricultural productivity and sustainability in the use of natural resources can also guarantee the achievement of a more optimal sustainable living in an effort to increase the farmers’ income in line with the recommendations of the third objective of the National Agricultural Policy.
ABSTRACT - This study estimates the technical efﬁciency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technicalefficiencyof the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiencyof 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greatest slacks were in feedstuff concentrates and labour used. The most significant factors affecting efficiencyof goat production were farmer experience, cooperative membership, milk yield per goat, and family and hired labour. Technicalefficiency should be improved by providing farmers with well-organised education, an extension program, and research and development programs on goat rearing.
The discussion above suggests the influence of different factors on the tech- nical efficiencyof pension fund managers. The extent to which fund man- agers are able to exploit size economies in the market is a key factor, but regulation, and the managers’ response to the regulatory environment are also important. The impact of contrasting market strategies by larger and smaller fund managers is important here, as these have different implica- tions for technicalefficiency. The determinantsoftechnicalefficiency are investigated by regressing variables capturing market structure, regulation, and market segmentation, onefficiency scores. The dependent variable is the vector of CCR efficiency scores for the entire period. The independent variables include the market share of fund managers measured as the per- centage of total contributors in a particular year (mkshare), which captures the influence of market structure. The impact of regulation is proxied by two variables, the ratio of contributors to affiliates (ratio), and a measure of sales spending per contributor (sales). As noted above, pension fund man- agers can absorb higher costs if they are able to select high earners, but at the cost of higher sales expenditure per contributor. Finally, a measure of rev- enue per contributor (revenue) is also included to attempt to control for the trend in these variables over time. 17 The regression results are reported in
It is therefore recommended that government and non-government agencies and institutions committed to boost the queen pineapple industry like the LGUs, DA and the CamarinesNorte State College should have common program domains. Consultation and discussions could initially focus on the results of empirical studies (Carbonell for one) delving on queen pineapplefarming. Items which are relatively still vague should be prioritized as R & D agenda by implementing agencies. Production of Instructional, Education and Communication (IEC) materials on queen pineapple alternative farming should be spearheaded by the CamarinesNorte State College (CNSC), the only SUC within the province. The CNSC could likewise develop program, particularly on the alternative farmingtechnical aspects, processing, marketing, and other techno promotion modalities. Likewise, package of technology for queen pineapple alternative farming must be developed by the DA-RFU, CNSC in cooperation with OPA, and LGUs, considering the indicators of sustainable development such as technical feasibility, economic viability, ecological soundness, socio- cultural acceptability and political viability. This is to attract more users/adopters of the technology
is said to be technically efﬁcient. Technical efﬁciency of the ith ﬁrm is therefore a relative measure of its output as a proportion of the corresponding frontier output. Panel data collected from 50 gari processors were used for the analysis. The data were collected on monthly basis over a period of 6 months. Panel data has been found to have some advantages over cross sectional data in the estimation of stochastic frontier models. The application of penal data increases the number of degrees of freedom used in the estimation procedure. The respondents were selected using three – stage sampling technique. The ﬁrst stage involved the selection of 5 out of the 25 local government areas of Delta State, were cassava is produced in large quantities. See Figure 2 for location study area. Secondly, 5 gari producing communities were selected from each of the 5 LGAs. Finally, 4 gari processors were selected from each of the communities, given total sample respondents of
Even though it is an important issue, there is little information in the shrimp farming industry to assist producers in managing their projects, using available resources in the best possible way, reducing costs and increasing competitiveness gains, thus mitigating negative impacts. We have previously evaluated the financial indicators and the risk of BFT and conventional systems (Rego et al. 2017a, b), but in this study we focused on the technicalefficiencyof the production cycle of Litopenaeus vannamei in conventional and BFT systemsin northeastern Brazil.
Analysis of economic efficiency complements TFP studies by pro- viding performance measures for evaluating production activities (Lovell, 1993) and by helping to identify the determinantsof ineffi- ciency, all of which are useful in guiding extension activities, research and technical support (Tupy et al, 2003). In the context of the national agricultural production, studies of economic efficiency can also shed light on the speed and geographic spread of agricultural modernization and productivity growth. For example, efficiency analysis can tell us if UFs with the largest TFP indices are also the most efficient, or, if tem- porary disequilibria caused by the adoption of new technologies (Schultz, 1975) has influenced the efficiency levels, or, if areas of low-productiv- ity agriculture produce efficiently given factor endowments and rela- tive prices (Schultz, 1965).
This study aims to estimate the technical eficiency and technology gap in Indonesian rice farming, and analyze its determinants. An analysis of DEA Metafrontier and Tobit regression was applied respectively for the irst and second objective. The data is based on farm level data of ifteen rice–producing provinces in Indonesia. The result showed that the technical eficiency based on metafrontier estimation is slightly lower than the technical eficiency based on regional frontier estimation, indicating the existence of technology gap which is quite small. Net income, education, and irrigated rice ield found related to the technical eficiency and technology gap. Meanwhile, the effect of other factors on the technical eficiency and technology gap is ambiguous. Hence, this study suggests that these three factors should be considered in the policy to increase technical eficiency and to reduce the technology gap in Indonesian rice farming.
Health inequality has appeared more and more on the agenda of national and international organizations in recent years. OECD countries in general, and European regions in specific, have witnessed significant gains in health, although important inequalities still exist. Moreover, the current world economic crisis amplified the social and economic inequalities between and within countries, thereby giving high-priority to further efforts to reduce them. Reducing inequality in health is a goal in itself since “achieving the various specific global health and development targets without at the same time ensuring equitable distribution across populations is of limited value” (Blas and Kurup, 2010, p. 4). Decreasing inequalities in health can thus be considered a matter of social justice (Jakab and Marmot, 2012; Marmot et al., 2012). Solving these inequalities is a challenge to healthcare planners and policymakers. Their causes are complex and intertwined with several factors, including biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors (Målqvist et al., 2012). A more accurate knowledge of the causes of variations in health outcomes is a crucial step toward designing effective actions to reduce inequalities and, as a result, improve general community health (Dulin et al., 2012). This paper contributes to the literature: (a) in the measurement of health poverty, richness, and inequality; and (b) in the empirical analysis of the under-explored Portuguese case, covering not only the quantification of the phenomena referred to in (a), but also the determinantsof health inequality in Portugal.
Our contribution in this study is essentially threefold: first we discuss and survey conceptual and methodological issues related to the measurement and analysis of public sector efficiency. Second we construct Public Sector Performance and Efficiency composite indicators for the ten new member states that acceeded to the European Union (EU) on 1 May 2004 as compared to emerging markets from different regions, future EU candidate countries and some current EU member countries that show features of emerging markets and/or are undergoing a catching up process. Third we use Data Envelopment Analysis to compute input and output efficiency scores and country rankings, which we combine with a Tobit analysis to see whether exogenous, non-discretionary factors play a role in explaining expenditure inefficiencies. To our kowledge, such an efficiency analysis has not been applied before to this set of countries.
The work was aimed to determine the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 0.6% to about 2.8% on the structure of cast iron treated with cerium mischmetal and subjected to graphitizing modification with 75% ferrosilicon. Four experimental melts were held during the investigation. The charge was composed of the specially prepared grey iron, containing the basic elements within the presumed limits. While determining the desirable quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron, two contradicting conditions were taken into account, i.e. that the purpose is to achieve the nodular cast iron (which means that the relatively large carbon amount would be demanded) and that introducing aluminium to the melt results in the decreased solubility of carbon in cast steel. Taking this into account, it was stated that the quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron should be maintained within the range of 3.2÷3.4%. It has been assumed that the silicon content in the charge material should fall within 0.7÷1.0%, as it was during the former investigations. Manganese content was restricted to 0.1% maximally in order to achieve the desired structure with ferrite fraction as high as possible. It has been also assumed that the content of both sulphur and phosphor should be at the possible lowest level.
The 1st National Conference on Food and Nutritional Security in 1994 emphasized “non-formu- lated” regional foods as the priority, together with subsidies and technical assistance for “small farm- ers” through incentives for the production of staple foods. The following year, the National Program to Strengthen Family Farming (PRONAF) was created to provide special credit conditions for family farming. As an important milestone from the legacy of policies to encourage family farming, the program is mentioned by Schwartzman et al., but only as a reference for defining the “target public” benefited by the linkage between the PNAE and family farming. However, PRONAF reshaped gov- ernment action in agriculture, since the Brazilian state now formally recognized a specific category of farmers. For the first time, PRONAF set the criteria for defining “family farmers”, with specific eligibility status for government programs and policies, as distinguished from “small” or “local” farm- ers. The definition was later adopted formally in Law 11,326 of July 24, 2006 5 .
Table 2 presents efficiency measures (with constant and variable returns) and descriptive statistics for milk-producing farms in the state of Minas Gerais. In all cases, production units with scores above 0.90 were considered efficient. The explanation for this flexibility, according to Ferreira (2005), is to avoid compromising the analysis through a DMU that stands out as being an outlier rather than for its true relative efficiency. Therefore, we sought not to compromise the re- sults, because it is common, when working with primary data, that some mistake may occur during data recording, or even the inclusion of a DMU that diverges, by non-observed conditions, from the reality to be studied.
Buildings are the complex system and multiple items have to be considered. Hence at the planning stage itself, architects and structural engineers must work together to ensure that the unfavourable features are avoided and good building configuration is chosen. If we have a poor configuration to start with, all that engineers can do is to provide a band-aid i.e. improve a basically poor solution as best as he can. . Conversely, if we start off with a good configuration and reasonable framing system, even a poor engineer cannot harm its ultimate performance too much. But constructions can suffer diverse damages when they put under seismic excitations, although for same structural configuration, region, EQ damages in the systems are neither uneven nor homogenous. A desire to create an aesthetic and functionally efficient structure drives architects to conceive wonderful and imaginative structures. . Sometimes the shape of building catches the eye of visitor, sometimes the structural system appeals, and in other occasions both shape and structural system work together to make the structure a Marvel. However, each of these choices of shapes and structure has significant bearing on the performance of building during strong earthquake. So the symmetry and regularity are usually recommended for a sound design of earthquake resistant structure.
Here 1013.25 is the pressure at sea level in mil/bar, z is the altitude in meters. Knowing p 0 ( z ) and the relation for resistance to flow, the pressure variation on the human body have been computed by the following method. We have
Profitability of an enterprise is determined by obtaining low-cost inputs and using resources efficiently, while supplying their output at good market conditions. Efficiency is a widely used concept in economics, and can be defined as firms’ success in producing as large as possible an output from a given set of inputs (Farrel, 1957). Efficiency can be expressed by three components: technical, allocative, and economic efficiency. Technicalefficiency is the firms’ ability of producing maximal output from a given set of inputs, and measured by the ratio of outputs to inputs (Coelli, 1996). Allocative efficiency is the ability of the firm to use inputs in optimal proportions with given prices. Furthermore, economic efficiencyof the firm is the combination of both the technical and allocative efficiency (Yolalan, 1993). For this reason, knowing production efficiency level has a great importance. Running efficiency analysis allows knowing the efficiency level of input use, and to take various precautions in order to prevent inefficiency (Yeni, 2012). Ratio analysis estimates the relationship between one output and various inputs, and both parametric analysis and non-parametric analysis can be used for efficiency analyses. These analyses have various advantages and disadvantages. To begin with, ratio analysis is simple to apply; however, it can only evaluate each factor separately, which makes difficult to interpret the result. On the other hand, parametric analysis evaluates efficiency by considering several inputs and one output within the frame of an analytic function. The reference line provided by parametric analysis is the mean values of the considered enterprises which does not represent the most efficient enterprises. Finally, non-parametric analysis (DEA) enables researchers to benchmark the enterprises in terms of their input utilization or output production by including various inputs and various outputs. The frontier which is formed by enveloping the inputs and outputs of the best producing enterprises represents the most efficient firms (Yolalan, 1991).
The paper presents a statistical assessment of the effect of chemical composition on mechanical properties of hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies on the choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis of the reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have on the mechanical properties (HB, R m and A 5 ) of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after
On temperature and voltage curves from ATND method one can observe thermal and voltage effects present on the curves in form of characteristic „peaks”. Values of temperature and voltage read outs for those characteristic points have become the base to taking up regression analysis aimed at obtaining mathematical dependencies, illustrating impact of change of those values on mechanical properties of alloys .
Phosphorus, which can be introduced to metal bath in free form, as a master alloy or a salt, belong to well-known modifiers of hypereutectic silumins. It has been confirmed  that in such case the aluminum phosphide, AlP, becomes the nucleus of the crystallization. In the studies [11-12] is presented a new view on interaction of phosphorus in process of modification of hypereutectic silumins, which is an effect of local overcooling in micro-areas caused by evaporation and expansion of bubbles of phosphorus vapours. Indispensable quantity of phosphorus in the alloy was determined as interval of 0,01 ÷ 0,05 % [1-3].
Table 4 provides the development oftechnical eficiency. The development oftechnical eficiency is rather stochastic in many EU member countries. The average percentage change is positive for Austria, Belgium, Estonia, France, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia, Portugal, Slovenia, and Slovakia. However, positive but very weak trends were estimated only for Belgium, Bulgaria, Portugal, and Romania. Despite the rather stochastic development oftechnical eficiency, one common pattern for most countries can be observed. Technical eficiency experienced a drop in most EU member countries in the years 2008 and 2009 and an increase in the years after that. However, the decrease was stronger than the increase. That is, the majority of countries experienced a drop in technical eficiency between 2008 and 2011. Factors determining the development oftechnical eficiency were also rather speciic for each member country. The positive impact oftechnical change on the development oftechnical eficiency was pronounced in Spain, Great Britain, Greece,