The Portuguese Footwearindustry is one ofthe most active national business areas. Considering this industry demand for eco- andbio-products, thedevelopmentof novel composites, based on natural materials and by adopting green productive processes, represents an area of great interest. In this context, the work developed in the DD course is focused on the production of cork composites with enhanced physico-mechanical properties, having in view thedevelopmentof cork-based footwear components, e.g. insoles and soles. The first stage ofthe work correspond to the synthesis ofthe waterbased polyurethane adhesives according to a modified prepolymer process developed at the IPB research group. These adhesives are based on polypropylene glycol (PPG) polyol, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA) as internal emulsifier, trimethylamine (TEA) as neutralizing agent and ethylenediamine (EDA) as chain extender. Moreover, beyond the base adhesive, two modified formulations were produced through the incorporation of Melissa officinalis L. hydrophilic extract, in contents of 3 and 5% (w/w), in order to enhance properties such as adhesion strength and to impart functionalites such as antibacterial and antifungal activities . Afterwards, the adhesives were characterized in terms of solid content, pH and viscosity. The second stage of this study comprises thedevelopmentof composite materials using different adhesive:cork ratios (20:80, 30:70 and 40:80, w/w). The properties ofthe produced composites such as flex resitance, dimensional stability and water absorption/desorption are being evaluated in order to select the best adhesive and composite formulations. Then, based on these results, cork composites reinforced with biomass residues, namely sugarcane bagasse, malt bagasse, coconut fibers and chia seeds will be produced and characterized. Afterwards, the best formulation will be validated in the production offootwear insoles containing a superficial leather coating, traditionally applied in footwear construction. This work is being done in collaboration with the Portuguese Footwear Technological Center (CTCP).
Vance et al. (2015) states that metals and alloys are a class with highest presence in Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory and Nanodatabase. It incorporates gold (Au), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) alloy, copper (Cu) nanopowders, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) nanoparticles, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), lanthanum (La), lithium (Li), rhodium (Rh), Titanium (Ti), among others. Metallic nanoparticles describe nanosized metals with dimensions with a size range of 1 to 100 nm regarding thickness, width and length. The publications referring metallic nanoparticles increase every year, with the most interesting metals studied being: Au, with applications in biotechnology, catalysis, biomedicine, sensors and electronics (Hussain, Thu, Amiad, Ahmed, & Khan, 2017); Ag, applied in biology, medicine, electronics, textile, optical and solar cells, as identified in (Zhang, Tang, & Vlahovic, 2016); Pt, with the demonstration of potential usage in nano- catalysts, electrical conductivity, optics and nonlinear optics (Stepanov, Golubev, Nikitin, & Osin, 2014); Pd, focused in industry-required chemical processes (Saldan, Semenyuk, & Marchuk, 2015); Zn, in sensors, energy harvesting, electronics, biomedical, antiviral areas (Sirelkhatim et al., 2015); Cd, mainly dedicated to biological, cosmetic, microelectronic technology, counterfeiting and solar cells applications (Presland, 2010); Cu, applied in catalysis, gas sensors, magnetic storage media, batteries, solar energy transformer, semiconductors, biomedicine and field emission (Singh, Kaur, Mohit, & Rawat, 2016); and finally Fe, with applications in bioengineering, biomedical, and catalytic (Ali et al., 2016; Chariditis et al., 2014). They exhibit diversity on several characteristics, with special properties as large surface-area-to- volume ratio and surface energies, transition between molecular and metallic states with specific electronic structure, quantum confinement, plasmon excitation, short range ordering and ability of storing excess electrons.
Normally used for general marketing activities, Kotler and Keller (2012) strategic approach – Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) – can be applied also to green marketing. “Marketers should start by dividing the market into segments. They identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who might prefer or require varying product and service mixes by examining demographic, psychographic, and behavioural differences among buyers” (Kotler and Keller, 2012: 10). A company in the first place must segment the market and identify distinct groups of buyers who differ in their needs and wants (market segmentation) and then select the customer group or the business activity to which they want to enter (market targeting) (Kotler and Keller, 2012). Once the target segment is chosen, next step will be to establish and communicate distinctive benefits ofthe company’s market offering (market positioning) (Kotler and Keller, 2012). In order to get this, some companies prefer to promote their products through pro-environmental media to reach out to environmentally conscious groups of customers (Staib, 2009). The design of a product seems to be responsible for various environmental threats, so many of these customers are concerned with that part ofthe product. It is therefore imperative that companies make necessary alterations in the product design to be in harmony with environment. This may require not only investing in new product development, but also seeking ways of introducing new designs in products. Once this step is completed, the product can be positioned appropriately (Singh, 2004).
and Urry, in their influential ‘Economies of Signs and Space’ attempts to summarize the new culture–economy relationship under the notion of ‘reflexive accumulation’ process, by which they stress four relevant aspects of contemporary capitalism: (a) the extent to which socio-economies are currently based on services, (b) the extent to which information-intensive research anddevelopment processes has succeeded a material labour process, (c) the extent to which social and social-cultural processes enter as importantly in the moment of consumption as they do in that of production, and finally, (d) the extent to which culture has penetrated the economy itself (Lash and Urry, 1994, pp. 60–61). The two latter issues are particularly relevant to the central debate of this paper. We have seen over the last decades a serious developmentof industrial activities that in one way or another are related to the production of goods and services which marketable qualities are based on aesthetics or semiotics attributes. Lash and Urry named such process as the aestheticization of material objects. ‘Such aestheticization [they write] is instantiated, for example, in produc- tion, in which (…) the design component comprises an increasing component ofthe value of goods, while the labour process as such is less important in its contribution to value-added’ (Lash and Urry, 1994, pp. 34, 4). Addressing this issue, Crang and Malbon put forward a well accurate formulation, as they conceive the new culture emphasis of production as the ‘cultural materialization ofthe economic’ through which ‘the cultural does not just surround or rework economic imperatives [as] it is part of them’ (Crang and Malbon, 1996, p. 709).
Proper disposal of industrial waste, the need to conserve non-renewable resources and high CO2 emissions are the major environmental issues at the present time. A significant portion of emissions from Portland cement production is related to the energy required to maintain the clinker kiln at a temperature of approximately 1450ºC, which is necessary for alite formation. The alternative belite phase, however, requires lower temperatures for its formation (below 1250ºC). Although belite is less reactive than alite, it is equally efficient in higher hydration times. Thus, a belitic cement produced entirely with industrial waste (grits from the pulp and paper industry, steel slag, and quartzite mining tailings) is presented in this research. The raw meal was proportioned based on Bogue calculation andthe firing was performed in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 1250ºC. Also, a reference belitic cement was produced with limestone and clay under the same conditions. The results showed that both cements presented high belite contents and expected technological performances. The reference belitic cement revealed a higher reactivity, while the waste cement proved to be a technically feasible low impact alternative
In the last forty years in various regions of Mexico, Jalisco, has given impetus to thedevelopmentof industries known as "modern" as electronics and software, this is intended to increase growth and foster development, all this has been detrimental to those industries considered "traditional" (footwear, textile, jewelery), industries that have long been the basis for productive developmentof these regions. Policies that have followed in industrial countries has been to promote the first under the assumption that they are incorporating the technology, while the latter incorporates little technology in their production processes and generally do not innovate. However industrial behavior has demonstrated that the above is a fallacy.
Finally, in the third part, the proposals to decrease the product’s impact should be projected. In this last stage, students should rethink the product to decrease the resource use intensity, giving priority to the use of renewable materials, including recyclable and/or bio-based materials, and with less hazard and risk (for humans andthe environment) and reuse of materials. “Modularization” ofthe components, allowing easy disassembly, recovery, reuse, and end-of-life screening (standard components) may be considered, as well as the definition of recycling, reuse, and life-cycle extension criteria, considering possible useful applications of by-products and waste. Groups should pursue ways to attain more efficient and cleaner production models, producing more, at lower prices, with fewer resources, less waste, and less of an impact on the environment. The use of RETScreen ( https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/software-tools/7465 ), a clean energy management software, is given as an example of a tool to use to assist in the pursuit of increased ecoefficiency production. Proposals to convert the business model to a circular economy business model are also encouraged.
Concrete is the most accepted construction material in the field of Infrastructural Development on our Mother Earth with more than 11.4 billion tons of Concrete consumed annually worldwide. It was estimated that each ton of Cement produced generates an equal amount of Carbon Dioxide, a major contributor for Green House Effect and Global Warming. Ordinary Portland Cement, though costly and energy intensive is the most widely used ingredient in the production of Concrete mixes. Unfortunately, production of Cement itself involves emission of large amounts of Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, it is inevitable either to search for another material or partly replace it by an alternate material. Any such material which can be used as an alternate or as a supplementary to Portland Cement would lead to a sustainable construction. ECC with High Volume Fly Ash along with PVA fibers has recently gaining popularity as an efficient, durable and sustainable option for a variety of Concrete applications.
60 Although the answer is negative, the pleasantness towards Portugal differs according to the variables in question. As we have seen in Chapter 3, Portugal is regarded abroad as being a country of traditions and with a great history, but with low developmentand innovation levels regarding its industries/products. Also, the Portuguese origin is believed to decrease the value of products. According to the results, concerning factors related to the country’s inherent history such as culture, heritage, people and even tourism, Portuguese nationals have more positive perceptions than foreign nationals andthe latter even evaluate it negatively. The same happens when talking about the success of Portuguese industries andthe quality of Portuguese products, although here the differences are much more evident. Portuguese nationals clearly present higher levels of agreement with this variable, which means that they, more than foreign nationals, consider the Portuguese industries and products to be strong. Regarding the effect that the Portuguese origin has on the value of products, this is the only aspect in which both Portuguese and foreign nationals agree by saying that there is no such effect. Even though, as seen in Chapter 3, the Portuguese origin is believed to hinder the performance ofthe products in the market, respondents think it is indifferent.
acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and 10 ‒ 20 parts per hundred rubber (phr) of waste. Several physical and mechanical properties ofthecomposites were further determined according to the requirements ofthefootwear sector. Rheometry and aging tests were also performed. The effects observed on the crosslinking formation during vulcanization of each composite were negligible. The flexion, density, hardness and abrasion of all composites, produced at a laboratory (10 ‒ 20 phr) and industrial scale (20 phr), were not significantly affected by the addition of waste. The tear strength andthe tensile strength were the most affected properties, namely for the Natural Rubber/Waste – EVA composites, where EVA acted as filler (tear strength> 13 N mm -1 , breaking load > 15 MPa). The study confirms the possibility of a sustainable application of EVA– waste in thefootwearindustry through the production ofeco-composites.
The direct benefits for the innovator consist of: operational advantages such as cost savings from greater resource productivity and better logistics; Sales from commercialisation. The indirect benefits for the innovating company consist of: better image, better relations with suppliers, customers and authorities, an enhanced innovation capability overall - thanks to contacts with knowledge holders, Health and safety benefits, greater worker satisfaction. These benefits must be weighed against costs for the company. Surveys show that the majority of companies know very little of either the costs or benefits of their environmental activities. Of course, eco-innovations should be valued from a societal point of view, not just a business point of view. From a social welfare point of view, eco- innovations are desirable if it contributes to overall welfare in the sense of wellbeing (not economic growth). An Eco-innovation is ‘‘any form of innovation resulting in or aiming at significant and demonstrable progress towards the goal of sustainable development’’ through reducing environmental impacts, enhancing resilience to environmental pressures or achieving a more efficient and responsible use of natural resource. The European Commission estimates the annual turnover of ‘‘European eco-industries’’ at 319 billion euro. This corresponds to 2.5% of EU gross domestic product (GDP). In the past two years, 45% ofthe European companies operating in manufacturing, agriculture, water and food services have eco-innovated. Apart from in the energy and climate protection sectors, eco-innovation has been promoted ‘‘relatively slowly’’. According to the Commission, eco-innovation needs to be accelerated in order to boost resource productivity, efficiency and environmental protection. Eco- innovations can benefit both the producers andthe consumers in different manner.
Abstract – In the last decades companies aligned with the concepts and principles of sustainable development have been seeking to minimize the environmental and social impacts caused by their operations. Typically, the primary environmental concerns in theindustry were related to water consumption, wastewater production, waste generation, energy consumption and mainly CO 2 emission - which is one ofthe causes ofthe greenhouse effect. However, the environmental eco-efficiency is not clearly seen when the evaluations of these eco-indicators are individually used and, therefore, it becomes necessary to implement a methodology that enables a joint assessment involving various aspects. In this paper we have developed an environmental index, called Eco-efficiency Comparison Index (ECI), applied to evaluate in real time a petrochemical facility. Throughout a study-case based on experimental data, the results have evidenced that the ECI is a useful tool for eco-efficiency analysis for process monitoring.
The importance of upgrading, intrinsic to this discussion, acquires a crucial relevance for a country, since it plays a central role in raising standards of living (Grossman and Helpman, 1991). Amiti and Khandelwal (2013) extend a bit further this argument, claiming that the production of high-quality goods is a pre-condition for export success and, ultimately, for economic development (Amiti and Khandelwal, 2013). Similarly, Kwaramba (2013) suggests that product quality is one ofthe key determinants for exports’ success and thus for a country’s economic development (Grossman and Helpman, 1991; Kwaramba, 2013). Alongside with upgrading, innovation (more precisely, quality improving innovation) seems to have a relevant effect on growth and welfare (Grossman and Helpman, 1991; Aghion and Howitt, 2004). The accomplishment of such upgrading goes hand in hand with the accumulation of human capital, since this factor is a key component to technology change and product quality upgrading (Cohen and Levinthal, 1989). Furthermore, upgrading can also be seen as the only long-run viable option for a country. In many cases, failure to upgrade will leave no option but to continually search for low-cost labour, which will probably lead to a relocation of production sites. Alternatively, it is possible to “go informal”, which entails informal
The sugar and alcohol industry generates direct consumption products such as sugar and ethanol and organic residues. The use of new techniques in management of sugarcane seedlings taking advantage ofthe by-products generated by theindustry is a profitable alternative to contribute in the productive potential, economy in the use of fertilizers, and reduction ofthe impacts these residues have in the environment. The objective of this study was to analyse the rate of sprouting and tillering of sugarcane cultivated under different types of residues. The research was developed in an experimental area in the municipality of Guariba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane was cultivated under soot and filter cake: in natura, tanned and enriched. Thedevelopment was influenced by the different residues, andthe treatment under enriched filter cake presented a higher sprouting rate and dry shoot mass, while 100% ofthe seedlings died in the treatment with filter cake in natura.
A new context has emerged when World Trade Organization (WTO) was founded in 1995. That new scenario has brought a fragmentation ofthe value chain, where facilities are spread worldwide. Nevertheless, this fragmentation needs linkages in order to give unity to the value chain, and maritime auxiliary services (MAS) at ports are part of those linkages. Our purpose was to define a framework, focusing on Port of Santos container’s terminals, and on thefootwearindustry from the São Paulo region (Brazil), where can be assessed the value contribution ofthe MAS, in order to integrate effectively and efficiently local-specific assets into global value chains. Methodology adopted applied an hypothetic-deductive approach; two propositions emerged from literature review; afterwards quantitative methods were conducted (principal components analysis, clusters analysis and bivariate statistics; random sample of 115 SMEs), and two latent variables have been extracted: MAS contribute to enhance local competiveness?; MAS are easily integrated into local companies operations?. Based on results a framework in order to classify MAS value contribution to local-specific assets was developed. Our conclusions have shown a negative perception about MAS at Port of Santos, which can be classified as ‘Poor and Operational Non-Adjusted Linkage’.
organisation’s policies. As for the public sector, choice ofthe procurement system is decided by the government, for example in 1990s where the system has been modified to respond to faster project completion. Thus, in some organization, changes and alterations on procurement routes have been made to suit the project requirements or to overcome the disadvantages of a particular procurement system such as side and additional agreement, leading to the evolution of hybrid or bespoke procurement systems. The identification ofthe procurement type used in one project may therefore be blurred and cannot be specified, as modifications will have been made to the procurement system that was initially chosen. For instance, the traditional procurement system that was decided at the early stage ofthe project may be changed into the design and build system and vice versa. The results of this research, supported by our interviewees, validate this view as it show that both sets of clients in the Malaysian construction industry popularly use both systems, either the traditional or the alternative procurement method.
buyers, should consider alternative strategies such as JI and CDM. In fact, the Portuguese Industry Confederation (CIP) defends in its position paper that these mechanisms are essential to cover the emission deficit estimated for 2008– 2012 ( CIP, 2003 ). CIP considers that, following the example from other EU countries, a ‘‘Carbon Fund’’ should be established allowing the country to cover the emission deficit in the most economic efficient way. The process would take place through direct investment in JI/CDM projects, which the Fund would finance. This fund would serve as an external policy instrument promoting also the sustainable development in developing countries.
This study aims to evaluate the effects of natural weathering in the city of Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil, on the morphology and mechanical properties ofeco-composites based on high-density green polyethylene, powdered cork and compatibilizer processed in a twin-screw extruder and injection molded. The analyses revealed that although weathering induced surface bleaching ofeco-compositesand cracking, these effects were not intense in the compatibilized samples. The tensile properties ofthe investigated materials were affected by abiotic degradation, which led to a reduction ofthe tensile strength and elastic deformation oftheeco-composites, however, the incorporation of PEgMA was fundamental for the maintenance of mechanical performance after natural aging. In general, the results obtained were satisfactory for external applications ofthe compatibilized eco-composite with 15% cork in the proposed weathering range, which indicates its possible use in temporary constructions.
Abstract. Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industrydevelopment has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for thedevelopmentof national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.
The panel didn’t show a clear common opinion on the implementation period, neither the main international competence (only a smaller majority pointed US). It is considered as very important the cooperation between companies and other institutions. The technological development in this sector is being more evident in the field of autonomous vehicles. Particularly, one can mention the experience in the field of aeronautics and aviation, and on the railway transport. In the sequence, the road transport can also apply these new driving automated systems, adapted from the other experiences. In such situation, this scenario topic assumes an almost usage of elements of these systems.