The improper disposal of industrial waste and exploration of natural resources by the productive sector bring, as a consequence, a shortage of natural resources and environmental degradation. Nowadays, the industries are responsible for the quality of their product, as well as attending the environmental legislation, being able to be fined by self-regulatory and inspecting organizations if they don’t respect the laws. The industrial sector has tried to reduce the generation of residues, adopting recycling technologies, such as using industrial waste for supplementary purposes, so they fulfill legal requirements and obtain environmental certifications. Trying to minimize environmental impacts, it is observed that proposed by Zamora et al. (2008), the enhancement of water treatment sludge as a raw material in the production of concrete and mortar and this sludge can be a supplementary cementing materials and sand substitute. The pulp and paper industry, by means of the Kraft process, processes pulp and generates large amounts of industrial waste, some of which is dregs and grits. To
This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of the compound dregs-grits, generated by the pulp and paper industry, which employs the Kraft process, in construction products. The use of composite construction materials can be economical and environmentally viable, but must be evaluated to ensure that products maintain quality and meet all regulatory standards and industry standards. Thus, after drying, grinding, screening and chemical characterization, tests were conducted to evaluate the potential of this compound as a substitute for fine aggregate mixed in mortarlining. The possible influence of the addition of the compound dregs-grits on the mechanical properties of the mortar tests were evaluated by compressive strength and tensile strength. The results showed that this compound has the potential to be used in the production ofmixedmortarliningof replacing up to 20% mass fraction of medium-fine sand. To use the entire medium-fine fraction of the compound dregs-grits generated monthly by the pulp and paper industry will be necessary to build 952 homes of 90.25 m 2 without loss in the application ofmixedmortarlining. The economic, social and environmental, by reducing the extraction of sand in the river and the proper disposal of these wastes are immeasurable.
This paper concerns about the durabilityof new material in construction. It is noteworthy the fact that increases increasingly searching for alternative materials that do not depend only of natural resources and at the same time be an alternative for reuse of industrial waste. Since the construction materials have a long life and a high cost of civil works and maintenance, it is crucial to estimate the behavior of a new product. Thus , this work discuss the durabilityofmixedmortarlining , made with waste from the process Kraft pulp production , known as dregs and grits , in partial replacement of sand. Tests were conducted to simulate conditions as adverse environments of constant heat and fire, with the aim of analyzing the behavior ofmortarmixed matched the behavior of standard mortar.
Regression analysis did not indicate any effect (p > 0.05) of inclusion level of semipurified glycerin DFI for variables DWG and FC. Likewise, Dunnett test showed no difference (p > 0.05) between inclusion levels of glycerin and control diet (0% glycerol). The above suggested that the nutritional values used in the glycerin were real, since diets were isonutritional and glycerin did not have any detrimental components for pig performance.
The TPD of CO 2 characterization revealed that the Li addition to the catalysts increased the total density of basic sites and, which seems to be more important, the density of strong basic sites. This can explain the sharp conversion increase observed when the Li loading on the catalyst increased from 3 to 5 wt.% (Fig. 7). The 3 Li- MgAl presents mainly basic sites of medium strength, leading to negligible conversion. On the other hand, 5 Li- MgAl presents a lot of strong basic sites, which resulted in high activity. Table 3 presents the turnover frequencies for the catalysts, which were calculated based on the strong basic sites. Considering the fact that the MgAl catalyst does not present basic sites of high strength (Table 2), the TOF value for this catalyst was not calculated. As shown in Table 3, a value 45-fold greater was obtained for 5 Li- MgAl compared to the TOF value for 3 Li-MgAl, and these values are within the expected range for most reactions involving heterogeneous catalysis (i.e., from 10 -2 to 10 2 s -1 )
The method EN 84 is, indeed, a very aggressive leaching method. Nevertheless, in Europe, this leaching procedure represents the standard aging methodology prior to any biological resistance test for wood exposed in use classes 3 and 4 (outdoor exposure, above ground, and in-ground contact, EN 335 (2006)). This method strongly affects the network of the polymer located in the wood skeleton for two reasons. The first is that during the vacuum phase, the air trapped in the polymer network and in the wood cells exerts strains on the network. The second is that during the pressure phase, the water molecules almost completely replace the air that was trapped in the holes and exert a strong stress on the polymer; in this second phase, the molecules that were not polymerized are leached out and some of the most rigid polymer chains can break due to the swelling of wood. Moreover, with this method the contact surface between water and the polymer is highly increased and the leaching is much more effective.
Trabalhando com um solo residual maduro, classificado pedologicamente como Latossolo Vermelho- Amarelo e geotecnicamente como A-7-5 (20), e com dois solos residuais jovens, classificados geotecnicamente como A-6 (1) e A-2-4 (0), estabilizados com 6% de RBI Grade 81, para corpos-de-prova de misturas compactadas nas energias dos ensaios Proctor normal, intermediário e modificado e curadas durante sete dias em câmara úmida, Trindade et al. (2005) concluíram que, sob o aspecto durabilidade, elas apresentavam bom potencial para emprego como material de construção rodoviária. Empregando o mesmo Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e um dos solos residuais jovens (solo A-2-4 (0)) analisados por Trindade et al. (2005), mas estabilizados com os teores 5, 10 e 15% de uma escória de alto-forno granulada moída ativada com cal hidratada, para corpos-de-prova compactados na energia do ensaio Proctor intermediário e curados por sete dias em câmara úmida, Sant’ana (2003) também concluiu sobre o bom desempenho das misturas para fins rodoviários, sob o aspecto de durabilidade. that: (a) the soil -lime, soil-cement, soil-grits-lime and soil-grits-cement mixtures endured all cycles in the durability test; (b) the mixtures of soil 1, grits and lime compacted at the modified Proctor effort presented the best mechanical response in the durability tests, showing losses of approximately 7 %; regarding soil 2 mixtures, the best result was related to the grits and cement mixtures compacted at the modified Proctor effort, showing losses of approximately 9 %; (c) as for durability standard requirements, the mixtures of soil- grits presented potential for road engineering applications only in association with lime or cement.
The open porosity of the earth mortar presents similar values for different specimens of the same mortar analysed; the same results occurred for dry bulk density, presenting however, classes that vary between 1.8 and 2.2, defined by DIN 18947 . There is a percentage variation of only 1 % between the bulk density values obtained by the geometric method and the MIP. Although all the analysed specimens were made with the same mortar, there is a variation on the bulk density determined by MIP for each type of specimen. The plaster applied on rubble stone masonry presents a variation on bulk density of 13 % in comparison to the prismatic specimens and a variation on porosity of 10 %. These results were not expected, since the masonry stone does not present high water absorption. The mortar applied on to brick in laboratory, presents a variation of 12 % in comparison to the prismatic specimen while the plaster on brick masonry, in outdoor conditions, presents a variation of only 2 %. These differences of variation of the specimens of the same mortar applied on the same brick support can be justified by different drying conditions of the specimens (outdoors and in laboratory), which may also change the microstructure of the mortar specimens. Earth mortars usually have open porosity of 20 – 30 %, according to Röhlen and Ziegert . All the analysed specimens of the ready-mixed earth mortar present open porosity close to that range. Lima et al.  obtained, geometrically and with the same type of moulds, bulk densities of 1.84 – 1.96 kg/dm 3 of earth mortars with different volumetric ratios and without fibres (Table 1). The mortar
higher demand could cause the market for lime mortar to take off. The future of lime mortar is far better than Portland cements. The introduction of carbon tax, or legislation setting targets for recycling of buildings could make Portland cement impractical and therefore make lime mortar the better choice . “The future is green, lime green” as Prichett would put it. Limes are produced at a temperature of around 900 to 1100 °C, Portland cement is produced at 1200 to 1500 °C. That means that more energy is required to produce a metric ton of Portland cement than a metric ton of hydraulic lime, thereby increasing CO 2 emissions. Portland cement does not
gallons. Furthermore, a tire can produce about two gallons of oil when it is on fire. Tires are water repellent that leaves fire fighters powerless against large tire fires. In addition, cleanup of tire fire aftermaths is quite expensive and the water used to put out the fires usually becomes a way to carry oil from burning tires. This water mixed with oil can also be a source of contamination to ground water and soil. Tires disposal has become a challenging task and hence innovative solution has to be developed to meet these challenges. Although, very little raw chemical precursor material can be reclaimed for reuse from waste tires, researchers all over the world are constantly trying to find innovative methods to re-use them in different applications such as: Use of tire rubber in asphaltic concrete mixtures; incineration of tires for the production of steam; reuse of ground tire rubber in various plastic and rubber products; fuel for cement kiln, feedstock for making carbon black and as artificial reefs in marine environment. One strategy to utilize used tires is to mechanically reduce them to crumb and subsequently combine the crumb with other materials to form a composite. The idea of use of crumb rubber in asphalt binders was first implemented in 1950’s. Since then extensive research has been carried out in this area and currently has become a common practice in the asphalt industry. Fini et al. (2013) investigated the feasibility of the application of scrap tire and swine manure to produce a sustainable alternative for bituminous asphalt used in pavement construction. The biobinder, produced from swine manure, was blended with crumb rubber and asphalt binder (PG 64-22) to produce Biomodified Rubber (BMR) asphalt. Their study compares the rheological properties of BMR with a Crumb Rubber-Modified (CRM) binder
Abstract: At the exploitation of dies the defections that occur, due mainly to non operating rules of exploration, the improperly conditions of the machine (press) in terms of cinematic precision and the wearing elements in relative motion (ram displacement, wearing guides, etc) as the incorrect mounting of dies on the press. When installing dies must consider several aspects. Among the techniques used, especially for restoring the active elements in the work area are rectified frontal surfaces, hard chromating, hardening with electric sparks and charging welding. Were restored active profile and size of the work active elements so after reconditioning they corresponded in terms of dimensional precision and resistance to wear, like initial elements.
The drying capacity of the mortar was assessed after samples had been wetted by the capillary test, as described by EN 16322 (CEN, 2013), but without complete saturation of the samples and under controlled environmental conditions (Figure 2 (b)). The drying could only proceed by the top of the samples and it is expressed by the drying curve with absorbed water per drying area in ordinate (in kg/m 2 ) and time (in h) in abscissa (Figure 3 (b)).The drying rate (DR) represents the initial drying of the mortar and was determined by the slope of at least 5 successive points of the drying curve for each mortar. The drying index (DI) represents the difficulty of achieving complete drying, in equilibrium with environment, and was calculated for a period of 140 h. Table 3 presents the capillary coefficient, drying rate and drying index.
Abstract – The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of vegetable and mixed glycerin in the diet of broiler quail (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) on animal performance, yield of carcass and organs, and physical and sensory characteristics of the meat. A total of 432 quails aged 1–42 days were used in a completely randomized design with a 4×2+1 factorial arrangement (5, 10, 15, and 20% inclusion of vegetable or mixed glycerin, besides one treatment without glycerin) with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, yield (carcass, breast, thigh+drumstick, heart, liver, gizzard, and abdominal fat), and physical and sensory characteristics of the meat. The diet containingmixed glycerin resulted in higher feed intake and feed conversion. The yield of carcass, meat cuts, and organs, as well as the sensory characteristics of the meat, did not vary between the treatments. Abdominal fat content and shear strength were higher in birds fed diets containing vegetable glycerin. The tested glycerin and levels do not interfere with weight gain, yield, and sensory quality of the meat. However, weight gain and feed conversion are lower when mixed glycerin is used, although meat tenderness is higher when 15% vegetable glycerin is used. Index terms: Coturnix coturnix coturnix, carcass yield, meat quality, weight gain.
tration using 3-kD Molecular Weight Cut-Offs (MWCO) (Amicon Ultra 4, Millipore) spin con- centrators. The protein concentration was determined by a colorimetric assay (Pierce BCA Protein Assay Kit, Thermo Fisher) according to the manufacturer's protocol. The efﬁciency of Hb-depletion was conﬁrmed by analysing samples (10 μg/lane) on coomassie stained 4–12% SDS-PAGE mini gels (NuPAGE Novex Bis Tris, Invitrogen, USA) (data not shown). Samples were stored at 80 °C until further analysis.
The ultrastructural features of the principal cells of the epithelium lining the cauda epididymidis in the mongrel dogs are related with secretion and absorption, similar to the epithelial cells of the epididymis in other mammals (Hermo et al. 1991, Hermo 1995, Orsi et al. 1998, Schim- ming & Vicentini 2008). The principal cells contain mor- phological features, such as a well-developed Golgi complex and numerous profiles of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, that are suggestive of their ability to synthesize and secrete proteins/glycoproteins. Golgi apparatus asso- ciated with secretory vesicles, scattered mitochondria, and numerous dilated and flattened cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum (Hermo et al. 1991, Hermo 1995), are features evident in principal cells of the cauda epididymidis in the dog. The rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes observed are characteristics of protein synthesis (Hamil- ton 1975, Flickinger et al. 1978, Goyal 1985, Robaire & Her- mo 1988, Goyal & Williams 1991, Schimming & Vicentini 2001).
As porcentagens de dregs em argila foram estabelecidas com base em outros trabalhos de co- processamento de outros resíduos em argila para a produção de cerâmica vermelha. O patamar e a temperatura de queima de 3h e 950°C, respectivamente, foram estabelecidos de acordo com SANTOS (1989) que relata essas condições para a realização dos “Ensaios Pré- liminares para Fins Cerâmicos”. A temperatura de 850°C foi utilizada nos ensaios porque esta é utilizada nos fornos da Cerâmica Itabatan e da Cerâmica Scopel. O patamar de queima de 1h e a temperatura de 750°C foram utilizados para verificar se o co-processamento de dregs resultaria em corpos de prova que apresentassem resultados satisfatórios nos ensaios a uma menor temperatura e patamar de queima. O número de ensaios aos quais os corpos de prova serão submetidos são dez e apesar das repetições recomendadas para os corpos de prova serem quatro, foram realizadas seis repetições com o propósito de se obter uma média mais próxima da real. Inicialmente os ensaios foram realizados somente com uma das suas argilas coletadas, cuja escolha baseou-se nos resultados de caracterização química e mineralogica. Somente o melhor resultado obtido nos ensaios com a argila escolhida é que será repetido com a outra, para fins de confirmação dos resultados. A Tabela 4.1 mostra a identificação dada a cada uma das variáveis envolvidas nos ensaios.
The consumption ofmortar, that reaches approximately 100 million tons a year worldwide, associated with the consumption of its manufacturing materials (cement and aggregate (sand), for example), transportation costs and the environmental damage caused by the use of river sand in mortar. The composition highlight the importance of reusing waste products and materials in order to meet the sustainable development requirements of the 21st century (BARBOSA; SANTOS, 2013; SANTOS, 2011). Researchers have indicated that the incorporation of waste products in the production of materials can contribute to the reduction of: energy consumption and transport distances, depending on where the waste and its consumer market are located (ISAIA, 2011). Many authors corroborate that the insertion of waste as aggregate can lead to interesting characteristics in terms of strength of the concrete and/or mortar and contribute to sustainable development (KILBERT, 1995; ACCHAR; VIEIRA; HOTIZA, 2006; BINICI et al., 2008; TAM et al., 2009; CORINALDESI; MORICOMI; NAIK, 2011).
OCBZ quantiication was performed on a dual beam UV-Visible spectrophotometer system from Cary 50 Probe (Varian, Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 190-1100 nm absorption spectrum, 1.5 nm ixed spectral bandwidth, iber optic reading probe and quartz regular cells of optical path equal to 1.0 cm. Dissolution tests were conducted in a dissolutor Mod 299 (Nova Ética, São Paulo, SP, Brazil). The equipment consists of (i) six cylindrical glass vessels with hemispherical bottoms, nominal capacity of 1 L, its sides are langed at the top, and a itted cover so that the evaporation of the dissolution media is retarded, (ii) a water bath that keeps the temperature inside the vessel at 37 ± 0.5 ºC during the test and (iii) a stainless steel drive shaft to which the dissolution apparatus can be attached and “positioned so that its axis is not more than 2 mm at any point from the vertical axis of the vessel and rotates smoothly and without signiicant wobble that could affect the results”, 10 (iv) a motor to rotate the
The waste fibers used in the present research work derive from waste fibrous materials collected from textile industries in the outskirt of Minho area, in the northern part of Portugal. The fiber mass consists of many unknown fibers, since it was collected from several textile industries producing a various range of textile qualities and consequently using many different fiber materials and fiber/fabric treatments (Figure 1. a)). The collected waste fibrous material was used for the production of nonwovens and the waste fibers used in this research work are manufacturing wastes of the nonwoven manufacturing process (Figure 1. b)) - microfibers.
Despite great difficulties in working with ionic porphyrins due to aggregation, we have synthesized, isolated and characterised a new series of porphyrins containingmixed substituents, nitro and carboxy, in the meso-phenyl rings, with estimated overall porphyrin yield as high as 60%. We have demonstrated that it is possible to optimise the benzaldehyde molar ratio in order to obtain fewer porphyrin isomers and higher concentrations of the desired porphyrins, which facilitates the purification process. These porphyrins are important as possible precursors of systems of the self- assembly type and they are potentially good catalysts due to the versatility of the carboxy and nitro groups which can be used to support them in different materials. Further studies are currently under way to explore the catalytic activities of these compounds in oxidation reactions.