In “with interventions situation (WI)”, actual field data resulting from the introduction of improvement management and disease control intervention of the second calving season were assigned to the model to calculate the discounted cash flow. In the intervention scenario, a total of 665 newborn Holstein Friesian calves were used in second calving season of similar time frames mentioned for the first calving season. Calves were raised under the improved management practices from the date of their birth to weaning at 90 days of age (Table 1). These practices included: isolation of late pregnant cows in clean maternity barns prior to their delivery, assisting cows during calving, cleaning/disinfecting navels of newborn calves, timely colostrum feeding, isolation of calves to the clean individual calf pens and providing heating/ cooling as needed. Treatment calves for scours, pneumonia and dehydration, feeding appropriate milk replacers as per NRC (2001) standards, weighing of calves at 90 days and isolating them for group feeding were also important elements of intervention measures.
farm). These ﬂocks presented high percentages ofmortality, between 6.6 and 11.9. The causes of mortalities on a farm can be multiple, but in our cases we suspect they were caused by infection with E. tenella. Onfarms with high mortalities, the lesion score in the caecum after infection with 5,000 oocysts of Eimeria spp. was between 2 and 3, and the NTP oocyst category were predominant. Moreover, after statistical analysis, mortality was associated with lesion score in the caecum and total lesion score (P = 0.02). E. tenella is one of the most pathogenetic species and causes bloody lesions, high morbidity, and mortalityin chickens (Morris et al., 2007; Iacob and Duma, 2009). On these farms, there were possibly some outbreaks of coccidiosis. Outbreaks of coccidiosis may result from drug-resistance of parasites to the prophylactic drug used, accidental underdosing, overdilution of medicated feed with whole wheat, excessive drug withdrawal period, or reduced feed intake (Williams, 1999). Many other factors can cause outbreaks of coccidiosis, such as environmental and management factors; lack of use of overalls by visitors; poor hygienic status; personnel who might also be working on other farms; feeding and drinking systems, which are more difﬁcult to clean; presence of other diseases on the farm; and Eimeria species found in the previous ﬂock, which increases the risk of coccidiosis (Graat et al., 1998). Otherwise, the increased FCR amounted to 50.8-65.2% of the total losses due to coccidiosis, and it was statistically associated with oocyst category AM, score lesion in the duodenum, and total lesion score. In India, losses due to increased FCR are estimated at 23.74% from total cost (Bera et al., 2010).
Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economicimpacton Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne’s disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc. The development of effective strategies for the assessment and control of infectious diseases requires a better understanding of pathogen biology, host immune response, and diseases pathogenesis as well as the identification of the associated biomarkers. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance in indigenous cattle is not well documented. The association studies of few of the genes associated with various diseases, namely, solute carrier family 11 member 1, Toll-like receptors 1, with TB; Caspase associated recruitment domain 15, SP110 with JD; CACNAβD1, CD14 with mastitis and interferon gamma, BoLA -DRBγ.β alleles with TTBDs, etc., are presented. Breeding for genetic resistance is one of the promising ways to control the infectious diseases. High host resistance is the most important method for controlling such diseases, but till today no breed is total immune. Therefore, work may be undertaken under the hypothesis that the different susceptibility to these diseases are exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle is due to breed-specific differences in the dealing of infected cells with other immune cel ls, which ultimately influence the immune response responded against infections. Achieving maximum resistance to these diseases is the ultimate goal, is technically possible to achieve, and is permanent. Progress could be enhanced through introgression of resistance genes to breeds with low resistance. The quest for knowledge of the genetic basis for infectious diseases in indigenous livestock is strongly warranted.
Milk production costs may be high because of sanitary management requirement, and R. (B.) microplus control can be highlighted in this regard. This is one of the most harmful ectoparasites towards susceptible cattle, especially those of Holstein descendent (UTECH et al., 1978). It causes economic damage, such as reducing the weight gain, meat and milk production, fertility and leather quality, and increasing the occurences of herd diseases, pathogen transmission, skin damage, animal stress, mortality, etc (PEREIRA et al., 2008). The economic losses may be more than U$ 3 billion per year in Brazil, according to Grisi et al. (2014). The expenditure on antiparasitic products is very high, although they do not always have effective results. As cited by Rocha et al. (2006), this situation is possibly worsening with the increasing size ofdairy herds, given that the epidemiological situation and degree of tick control have not improved over the last few years. Rodrigues & Leite (2013) studied a dairy herd in Minas Gerais and estimated that tick infestation gave rise to loss of milk production of 2.7%. However, the resistance to ticks presenting in Bos indicus cattle and their crosses can be used in production systems with less use of chemical products, without prejudice to milk production (MADALENA, 2008).
Empirically testing the HO model, Wassily Leontief (1953) observed an inconsistency with the theorem. Using data from the 1947 input-output (I-O) model of the United States economy, he concluded that the US was a capital-rich country and that it had a greater abundance of capital relative to labour than did its trading partners. Thus the theory predicted that the U.S. should have been exporting capital‐intensive goods and importing labour intensive goods, but instead it was doing the exact opposite. Its exports were more labour intensive than its import-competing goods (Dunn & Ingram, 1996). Leontief suggested that the paradox was caused by the greater efficiency of U.S. workers, however this explanation received little support among economists (“Country Similarity Theory”, n.d.). Other model such as the Linder (1961) model focuses on the differences in preferences as the main trade barrier between countries. The Preference Similarity Hypotheses, as it is known, holds that countries with similar income levels have similar tastes and, thus, trade more with one another (Dunn & Ingram, 1996). Both theories have been shown to be deﬁcient in explaining more recent patterns of international trade. For example, the 1960s witnessed signiﬁcant technological progress and the rise of the multinational enterprise, which resulted in a call for new theories of international trade to reﬂect changing commercial realities (Leontief, 1966) (Morgan & Katsikeas, 1997). One early response to the failure of the HO theory was Raymond Vernon’s product life-cycle theory. The hypothesis is that new products pass through a series of stages in the course of their development, and their comparative advantage position changes as they move through what is known as the Vernon product cycle (Dunn & Ingram, 1996). The theory suggests that early in their life cycle, new products are produced in and later exported from the country in which they were developed. As foreign demand grows and firms, foreign firms start to undertake production themselves, beginning to export to third-country markets. Finally, as production costs fall, they begin to export the product to the country of origin, which becomes a net importer, thus completing the cycle. Therefore, the location of production depends on the stage of the cycle (Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline). This model can be easily adapted and modified, so there is a great number of variations. Most of these, however, concentrate on the U.S. trade experience.
The global transformation of the world economy has a significant effect on the development of the agricultural sector of Ukraine in the 21st century. The perspectives and need for increased exports of agro-food products are caused by, firstly, the global demographics and food security challenges, and, secondly, the need for capitalisation of Ukrainian agricultural businesses. Over the recent years, foreign trade activities of the agricultural sector have shown surplus and increased rates of international trade, and later, provided that sound development strategy is implemented, export orientation can bring Ukraine a sustainable competitive position in international markets. Therefore, given the dynamics of the environment, there is a need for studying the newest factors, forms, conditions and parameters of export-led development of businesses to create the priority areas and mechanisms for efficient operation of the agricultural sector in the context of globalisation.
This study aimed to determine the dynamics of natural infection in the transmission of Babesia spp. to cattle in an enzootic instability area in Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 30 calves located on two dairyfarms to determine the packed cell volume (PCV) and the timing of the primo-infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their association with climatic factors and management practices. On Farm A, the determination of primo-infection was observed on average at 249.4 (±24.42) days of age for B. bigemina and at 252.6 (±17.07) days of age for B. bovis; there was no significant difference between the times of infection (P> 0.05). The infection coincided with a period of high rainfall in the region. On Farm B, primo-infection infection was not observed. There was no infection by Babesia spp. on Farm B due to the intensive use of acaricides that led to an absence of ticks. There was no significant difference between the average PCV of animals from Farms A and B (P> 0.05). The management practices on the properties, in addition to the weather conditions influenced the exposure of the animals to disease vectors and may have contributed to the maintenance of this enzootic area in Northeastern Brazil.
al., 2006; Bisig et al., 2007). As for cheeses, reports and reviews present results for individual varieties, often in the belief that CLA levels may vary due to different pro- cessing conditions. Herzallah et al., (2005) reported CLA decreases of 21 and 53 % in cheeses heated in a micro- wave oven for 5 and 10 min, respectively. These effects are likely to be small and variations in CLA levels are similar to the levels in raw milk (Gómez-Cortés et al., 2009). However, other studies detected new CLA isomers in ripened cheeses (Werner et al., 1992; Lavillonière et al., 1998; Sehat et al., 1998) and it was hypothesized that biohydrogenation of linolenic acid in cheese could lead to the formation of CLA isomers as intermediates. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the contents of total and individual CLA isomers of cow dairy products in Chile, both in raw milk received at commercial dairy plants and its derived products destined for human consumption. Additionally, the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products on the CLA content was also assessed.
Cytoplasmic inheritance influence on reproductive traits was investigated in the Brangus-Ibagé cattle (3/8 Nelore x 5/8 Aberdeen Angus). Additive genetic effects were responsible for 12% ± 11% of phenotypic variation observed in first calving interval, but their contribution dropped to zero when all calving intervals (CI) were considered. The heritability estimate for age at first calving (AFC, in days) was 0.19 ± 0.09. Mitochondrial lineage (MIT) had negligible effects on phenotypic variances of calving interval (0.0 ± 0.02), calf birth weight (0.0 ± 0.01), and cow weight at calving (0.0 ± 0.01). However, for the age at first calving, MIT accounted for 0.15 ± 0.07 of total variation. Cow weight at calving had a significant linear effect on CI and AFC. Three D-loop mtDNA mutations significantly affected either calving interval (T C at sites 16,113 and 16,119) or calf birth weight (T C at site 16,113). The C variants had decreased CI (29 and 32 days, respectively) and increased calf weight (0.6kg). Although the effects were small, direct selection for these mutation-carrier cows might improve the reproductive and developmental performance in this herd.
From a sustainability perspective, the existence of multifunc- tional agriculture that responds to the needs of society by provid- ing non-market goods and services justifies government intervention in a market economy through agricultural and sec- toral policies (Dos-Santos, 2016; Dos-Santos, 2018). In the Euro- pean Member States of the European Union, the agricultural policy that directly supports and contribute with funds to the agri- culture among the EMS, comes from the Common Agricultural Pol- icy (CAP), through its 1st and 2nd Pillars. In the first Pillar, the Single Farm Payments (CAP 2007–2014) have been replaced in the 2014–2020 CAP by a Multifunctional seven-component pay- ment system: (1) a ’basic payment’ per hectare, harmonized according to economic or administrative criteria, whether national or regional, and subject to a convergence process; (2) an’ ecological and environmental component’, as additional support to offset the costs of providing environmental public goods not remunerated by the market; (3) an additional payment to young farmers; (4) a ’re- distributive payment’ to strengthen support for the first hectares of a farm; (5) additional income in areas with natural handicaps; (6) undifferentiated production aid for certain areas or types of agri- culture, for economic and/or social reasons; (7) a simplified and voluntary scheme for small farmers with payments up to 1250 euros. The first three elements are mandatory for EMS, and the last four are optional (European Parliament, 2015a; European Parliament 2015b).
by Sniffen et al. (1992), NFC = 100 − (CP + EE + Ash + NDF). The ether extract (EE) was considered constant and equal to 3.2% for all samples, according to the NRC (2001). The in vitro dry matter (IVDMD) and NDF (NDFD) digestibilities were determined by the method proposed by Holden (1999) using the DAISY II apparatus (ANKOM Technology Corp, Fairport, NY, USA). The ruminal ﬂuid was collected via cannula, 2 h after the morning feed. Two Tabapuã heifers were given a diet containing 80% corn silage and 20% concentrate. Samples were digested for 48 h in quadruplicate. The total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance (TDN −1x ), net energy for lactation at
Our study had a number of limitations. First, previous studies have found identifiable bacterial pathogens in 24%–38% of HIV- infected patients with pneumonia [13,14]. As data on specific pathogens were not available, we do not know the percentage of pneumonia cases in our study population caused by bacteria and how this may have affected prognosis. Second, causes of death registered in DHCS were based on information extracted from medical records. Thus the exact cause of death may be uncertain or, in some cases, multifactorial. For this reason we chose to group causes of death into broader categories to determine whether HIV was the key factor. We were unable to adjust for use of opportunistic infection prophylaxis, smoking status, and/or pneumococcal vaccination status since these data were not available in DHCS database. Our results are restricted to inpatients. Finally, despite our efforts to control for potential confounders, it is possible that the observed protective effect of HAART was due to confounding by indication (i.e., patients on HAART had an a priori reduced risk of death for example due to a healthier lifestyle compared to HAART-naı¨ve patients).
empirical studies support the hypothesis that times of downturn and economic instability have a negative impacton people’s health status, increasing the overall mortality as well as mortality due to speciﬁ c causes such as cardiovascular disease, cirrhosis, suicides, homicides, among others. The author also suggests there is increased morbidity, for instance, measured by increased rates of diseases associated to the consumption and dependence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, such as stress and depression, or even due to external causes such as urban violence and trafﬁ c accidents.
In this study, the presence of STEC harboring the genes stx1 and stx2 in raw milk sample was detected. STEC harboring stx1 and stx2 genes were reported to be typical cattle colonizers (Brett et al., 2003; Vu-Khac & Cornick, 2008). Some authors have recently investigated 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c, stx1d, stx2, stx2b, stx2e, stx2g, E-hlyand eae), and they observed a significant association of stx1and stx2 genes with bovine meat and milk products. These authors compared the properties of foodborne STEC with published data on faecal STEC from food producing animals, and found that virulence profiles and serotypes of STEC from food showed remarkable similarities to those of faecal STEC that were from the same animal species. Based on these results, it has been pointed out that food-producing animals represent the most important source for the entry of STEC in the food chain (Martin & Beutin, 2011).
The paper structures as follows. First, we make a short description of the main features of the implementation of the inflation targeting in Mexico. Second, we model inflation outcomes in Mexico following the methodology proposed by George E. P. Box and Gwilym Jenkins (1976) for univariate series and Box and George C. Tiao (1975) for intervention analysis, which allows to analyze the impactof the im- plementation of IT and FFIT monetary strategies. Third section compares the infla- tion performance in Mexico and the United States, both in terms of the levels and variability of inflation rates. We also check whether IT has affected the performance in terms of the Mexican economic growth. The final section summarizes and con- cludes. The evidence shows that the introduction of FFIT occurred in a context of stabilized inflation and the key change came from the changes in Banco de Mexico’s laws with IT serving as nominal anchor once inflation was reduced.
The evolution of knowledge of how to identify potentially oil-bearing formations com- prises both advances in the theory of petroleum-bearing formations and ever-improving technology. In the early days of oil exploration, conspicuous targets were searched for oil, either without applying geology theory (e.g., surface pools in the form of natural oil seeps) or by using knowledge of geology (e.g., anticlines and salt domes). Investigation of the sur- face (topography) of a region could point to conspicuous areas of oil-bearing formations. In the 1920s and 1930s, aerial photography expanded the possibilities for mapping areas suitable for drilling. In the mid 1900s, seismic technology improved subsurface mapping for the location of potential petroleum-bearing formations. By and large, seismic activity produces sound waves that can be used to characterize subsurface formations, that is, sound waves are generated and recorded by receivers, and that information could be used to infer rock formations. The idea is to map the subsurface rock layers by using sound waves as different rock layers have different acoustical properties. The recorded sounds are processed and assembled for interpretation. Existing seismic and well information highlights the potential for exploration of large hydrocarbon resources. Computerization of seismic data provided a great leap forward for the extraction industry: A large body of data can be processed at high speed and precision. Another revolution in the oil industry
Recalling Resolutions CD26.R34 and CD30.R2 on analysis of the relation between economic development and health, as well as Resolutions WHA40.30,1 WHA42.3,2 and WHA42.43 concerning monitoring the impactofeconomic trends and policies on health, support for countries facing economic constraints, and the rationalization of health care financing;
The aim of present study was somatic cell count in milk samples collected from dairyfarms at Tabriz region, Northwest of Iran. Three flocks selected based on high productivity and similar characteristics (use of family labour, Holstein herds and average production between upper than 11 kg/cow/day). Milk samples obtained from three parity classes were collect individually from the cows in the second and fifth month of lactation in two seasons: autumn-winter and spring-summer. Results show higher SCC for dairy cattle with second or upper milking. Cows at fifth or upper lactation period had 1000- 5000 ×10 3 cells/ml commonly but at first lactation there was no any cow with 1000-2500 ×10 3 cells/ml. In conclusion, incidence of high SCC rate (1000-5000×10 3 ) is considerably high during fifth or upper parity but 250 to 750 ×10 3 SCC cows are considerably low in number compared with first parity cows. Cows at first lactation commonly had 250-500×10 3 SCC at Tabriz regional farms.
The reforming of patent systems in developing countries in the direction of establishing stronger patent laws after the TRIPS adoption have positive impacton technology import to these countries. In addition, there was a reduction of possibilities to imitate the patented technologies. That has meant a strengthen position of foreign firms but have not resulted in solving the problem of capacity building. K. Maskus, for example, stressed that empirical evidence show that enforceable patents can increase inward flows of international technology transfer in middle- income and large developing countries but probably have little impactin LDCs. This conclusion is similar to B. Hall's viewing in accordance with which stringent patent rights protection. Indeed, it is believed that it encourages FDI and technology transfer to developing countries with middle level of development, though, very little evidence exists to the effect that stronger patent protection can encourage indigenous innovation in developing countries . Accordingly, international technology transfer should lead not only to technologies influx but also to stimulate domestic innovation. Referring to previous quantitative researches, he reasoned that IPRs do not often contribute to economic growth and development of countries with threshold of GDP below US 3,400. Countries with low level of development have no possibility to make R&D, appropriate potential to imitate, absorb, assimilate foreign inventions in order to meet consumption needs and fulfil economic goals. Finally, the reinforcing of IPRs protection in accordance with global standards restricts free use of knowledge and technological public goods, as well as increases the cost of technology acquisition.
The two larger farms (PT_625_0 and ES_180_0) have big differences in their absolute costs. While both farms have almost the same amount of land, the Portuguese farm has almost six times the costs of the Spanish farm, even though it has only 3.5 times more cows. Thus, the diversified scale and structure of production influenced the costs and, consequently the income received by individual farms. Nevertheless, the main differences are due to rents paid and paid labor: in fact the values for land rents are much higher in Portugal; for these two farms (which as mentioned before almost have the same area, i.e., no scaling differences), the Portuguese rent/ha is 3 times the Spanish one. For labor, the Spanish farm has no hired labor, which introduces a big difference in the cost structure offarms. When comparing the costs without considering the origin of land and labor (i.e., the differences among countries for these two groups of factors) and the overhead costs, the costs per cow are very similar.