Top PDF ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE - THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE - THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE - THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

Globalisation, the spread of information and communication technologies, the construction of formal and informal networks, the acceleration of economic change, the evolution of relationships between the makers of finished products and their suppliers, the introduction of Customer Relationship Management, and the shortening of product life cycles, among other things, has lead to permanent changes in the day-to- day management of the enterprises. These challenges are the same for a large company as for an SME. The breadth of the fields of investigation are more or less the same and the responses must be the same. But for an SME - the resources are not. There are several orders of magnitude difference between the resources available to a large company and those of an SME in terms of finance, number and skills of people and equipment.
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Rev. CEFAC  vol.18 número1

Rev. CEFAC vol.18 número1

From this conception, speech language patholo- gists started to think about their work in school settings by means of actions which contemplate a partnership between them and the teachers, recognizing teachers’ social role and knowledge, and including themselves in the political-pedagogic project of schools, enabling a deeper, jointed relection on the involved educational aspects, specially the appropriation of oral and written language. Based on this second tendency, speech language pathologists quit the emphasis on clinical aspects in their actions in school settings, and propose activities for the socialization of practical and theoretical knowledge among speech language professionals and educators. Thus, new approaches contemplating the complexity of language processes have been developed, besides favorable conditions have been created so that school and families participate in the educational process in and out of the school context 2,9 .
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Tourism and international business: The theoretical approach and practical experiences

Tourism and international business: The theoretical approach and practical experiences

located in the like-named place, which is the Regional government of Wallonia ownership, and the above mentioned air company. This business partnership was based on the financial subvention approved to Ryanair by the Government of Wallonia, who in return decreased the air fare rates. Thus, the subject company opened new sources for income enhancement and market promotion of both regional authorities and economic entities in Wallonia. The increased number of passengers at the airport Charleroi brought to the growing sale of various items sold there. The passengers also boosted the regional economy, consuming services in local restaurants, buying goods in local shops and filling local and regional budgets (rise of tax income). Such and similar strategic decisions of ''low cost'' companies have an important role in the contemporary tourism as they affect modification of routine flows of tourists movements and promotion of new regions as tourist destinations (Papatheodorou A., 2006).
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Theoretical Aspects of Cross-border Integration-based Economic Cooperation

Theoretical Aspects of Cross-border Integration-based Economic Cooperation

According to another representative of the market-institutional school, K. Meyer, integration is a combination of a number of national economic mechanisms into a common economic entity with the transformation of their foreign economic relations into the domestic trade. Therefore, the role of go- vernment regulation should be limited to the elimination of the differences between the internal and external trade modes of the countries involved in integration. In addition to streamlining mutual consistency of trade regimes, K. Meyer points out the need for unification and other public relations at in- ternal and external levels, the differences in demand and supply elasticities, the specificity of relative costs and the differences in language and culture. In this context, he points to the differences in countries between their regions. For the first time, K. Meyer draws attention to the role of regions as key mediators and members of the border integration.
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STED nanoscopy with time-gated detection: theoretical and experimental aspects.

STED nanoscopy with time-gated detection: theoretical and experimental aspects.

Given the required pulsed lasers and wavelengths are available, the use of entirely pulsed (P-STED) systems currently still remain the methods of choice, especially if the fluorophore shows little photobleaching scaling with (higher orders of) the applied STED beam intensity. Yet, time-gated detection can alleviate the performance difference between the P- and CW- STED modalities remarkably well. We showed that in combination with gated detection, the moderate instantaneous light intensities realized with CW-STED sources can in many cases provide similar resolution as pulsed systems. The main practical limitation of the gCW-STED implementation is the inherent loss of ‘good’ signal stemming from the location of the zero and the concomitant compromise in signal- to-noise and signal-to-background ratios. It should be noted that applying the gate does not increase transmission of high spatial frequencies (which are already present in the conventional CW- STED image) but rather acts as a spatial frequency filter which is able to selectively reduce the low spatial frequency contribution, thus boosting the relative strength of high resolution signal. Even so, for customary imaging parameters, time-gated detection greatly improves the effective resolution in CW-STED imaging, and helps to reveal finer details in the sample.
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Organisational Learning: Theoretical Shortcomings and Practical Challenges

Organisational Learning: Theoretical Shortcomings and Practical Challenges

All learning is contextual, but does not always take place in a social environment. An important part of the environment is other people - the social context in which knowledge is communicated. Learning can also take place when, for instance, an individual reads a book. The pracical situaion also affects how knowledge is structured and thinking is shaped. Some researchers now talk about situa- ional cogniion to denote the relaionship between individual cogniion and social interacion. A shit has taken place from the psychological concept teaching to the pedagogical concept of learning, which implies that the acive and social dimensions are emphasised rather than what is taking place in- side the human brain. The term ‘situaional learn- ing’ has been developed in order to characterise the contextual aspects of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991). By adoping this approach, the differences between the cogniive and the social are dissolved. Individual understanding and individual thoughts match the requirements of the social situaion. Ac- cording to this standpoint individual cogniion and learning can be regarded as being a social phenom- enon and the context as part of the learning process. Again the metaphorical formulaion ‘can be regarded as being’ reappears.
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Social results and factors of economic growth (theoretical and practical questions)

Social results and factors of economic growth (theoretical and practical questions)

Они в таком случае поспособствуют улучше- нию социальной структуры, будут способство- вать формированию необходимой мотивации, но их общая результативность может оказаться [r]

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Difficulties and facilities pointed out by nurses of a university hospital when applying the nursing process

Difficulties and facilities pointed out by nurses of a university hospital when applying the nursing process

Table 5 shows easy aspects reported by the nurses for the execution of each phase of the nursing process, among them: “Having theoretical knowledge and practical experience” to execute diagnosis (60%), evolution (47.1%), prescription (41.2%) and assistance planning (33.4%); “Having received theoretical- practical training at the hospital”, for the execution of the phases: evolution (17.6%), data collection (14.4%), prescription (8.8%) and planning (8.3%); “Having learned and executed the phase during graduation”, related to the phases: data collection (17.1%), evolution (11.8%), planning (8.3%) and prescription (5.9%); “Having performed the previous phases of the nursing process”, for the execution of the phases: prescription (38.2%), planning (29.2%) and nursing evolution (5.9%); “Using books as reference sources” for the phases: diagnostics (30%) and planning (12.5%); “Being communicative” and “Being the fastest and most objective phase of the nursing process” were quoted as being easy aspects to execute data collection (17.1%); “Having a brochure that is suitable for the service” was also considered an easy aspect of data collection (22.9%), and “having enough time for the execution” was quoted when dealing with nursing diagnosis (10%).
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The transtheoretical model and substance dependence: theoretical and practical aspects

The transtheoretical model and substance dependence: theoretical and practical aspects

Objective: This paper aims to present and discuss the Transtheoretical Model and its importance for the treatment of substance abuse disorders. Method: A literature review was made based on articles from the last 10 years in substance use with human subjects found in PubMed (Medline) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online, as well as on the main books written by the creators of the model. From the initial collection of articles related to the Transtheoretical Model, the University of Rhode Island Assessment and substance abuse, those related to other health conditions were excluded. Although articles related to hospitalization were also excluded, as were those related to the Minnesota Model, treatment proposals were included. Results: Although the TTM has been studied for over 20 years, new concerns regarding the initial idea continue to arise. Such concerns include the cross-sectional design of studies employing the model, as well as the prescriptive versus descriptive point of view. Discussion: The review of the Transtheoretical Model brought intentional behavior change to light, which could broaden the understanding of addictive behaviors. Together with its concepts of processes and stages of change, the Transtheoretical Model provides professionals with the idea that the effectiveness of therapy is dependent upon the capability of the therapist to match the technique to the current motivational stage of the patient in the process of change. This demonstrates the importance of identifying the stage of change of the patient when they present for treatment. Here, we describe the principal elements of the Transtheoretical Model, as well as the instruments currently used to identify the stage of change. Finally, criticisms and limitations of the model are discussed.
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Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the ”Integration Process” Phenomenon

Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the ”Integration Process” Phenomenon

Some authors understand integration in an economic way, as formation of a structure, of an economic body, which comprises a group of separate states of the world economy, considered as an entity. Thus, for J. Tinbergen integration is creation of an optimal structure of the international economy by removing the artificial barriers of trade. Also this idea is supported by M. Allais, M. Halperin, D. Villaery, R. Courtin, T. Scitovsky but also by B. Blass (Dobrescu, 1996:11-12). Polish theorist Z.Kamencki understands this phenomenon as a creation of an economic structure which comprises a group of countries with high economic level of internal links, obtained as a result of integration (܇i܈kov, 1993:56).Other authors, such as for example Karl W Deitsch, characterizes the integration as achieving, in a given territory, a "sense of community" and of some institutions strong enough and widespread practices that provide for a secure long hope of "peaceful change" among the states concerned. For E. Haas integration is the process whereby political actors from different national structures are convinced to change leading, expectations and political activities toward a new center, whose institutions possess, or claim jurisdiction over pre-existing national states (Dobrescu, 1996:12).
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PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS ON TRANSFER PRICING

PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS ON TRANSFER PRICING

We emphasize that, by the same article, in order to establish the market price, the principle of using the most appropriate method is set up, considering the following elements: the method which most approaches the circumstances in which the prices subject to free competition on markets commercially comparable are established; the method for which data are available resulting from the actual operation of the affiliated persons involved in transactions subject to free competition; the degree of precision with which adjustments can ne made to obtain comparability; the circumstances of the individual case; the activities actually developed by the different affiliated persons; the used method must comply with the given circumstances of the market and the
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Einstein (São Paulo)  vol.12 número3

Einstein (São Paulo) vol.12 número3

were related to indirect BP measurement. Questions were concerned patient preparation (information that must be checked before measurement); preparation of the environment (ideal conditions for BP measurement); device checking (calibration, selection and choice of adequate cuff, according to patient’s arm, cuff placement and stethoscope); patient’s position (accommodation, position of the dorsum, legs and arms); values obtaining and recording (estimation of systolic by palpation, value record without rounding, presentation in mmHg, interval between the two measures, time between checking and recording, arm used in the measurement); and care with the device (assessment of extensions and connections, functionality and knowledge of deadlines for calibration date).
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PSEUDO ALGEBRAS BOOL APPLIED BL-ALGEBRAS

PSEUDO ALGEBRAS BOOL APPLIED BL-ALGEBRAS

The problem addressed is the current approach as fuzzy systems underlying artificial intelligence is implemented in the economic and industrial machines. REFERENCES[r]

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Practical aspects of the use of intrathecal chemotherapy

Practical aspects of the use of intrathecal chemotherapy

Results: The most widely used drugs in intrathecal therapy are methotrexate and cytarabine, at variable doses. One of the as- pects with higher variability among different studies is their potential combination with a glucocorticoid, the specific cor- ticoid selected and its dose. The efficacy and toxicity of the different combinations have not been compared. Regarding preparation, it is worth highlighting the recommendation to adjust pH and osmolarity to the physiological range, with the aim of improving tolerability. The volume of administration can influence distribution, and recommendated range is between 5 and 12 mL. Overall, it is recommended to extract a similar volume of cerebrospinal fluid before administration. The po- sition of the patient during and after administration can have an impact on distribution and toxicity; lateral decubitus or si- tting position is recommended in the first case, and prone and/ or supine position in the second one. Most publications don’t explain how the treatment has been prepared or administered, and the lack of standardization could affect results.
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Maintenance and methods of forming theoretical knowledge and methodical and practical abilities in area of physical culture for students, future specialists on social work

Maintenance and methods of forming theoretical knowledge and methodical and practical abilities in area of physical culture for students, future specialists on social work

Leyfa A.V. Maintenance and methods of forming theoretical knowledge and methodical and practical abilities in area of physical culture for students, future specialists on social work. The value of theoretical knowledge, methodi- cal, practical studies, skills in forming physical activity of students is rotined. The level of mastering of components of physical activity is closely associate with the basic blocks of professional prepara- tion of students and their future profes- sional activity. Theoretical knowledge on discipline the «Physical culture» assist the certain affecting depth and breadth of mastering of knowledge of professional preparation.
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Interface (Botucatu)  vol.9 número18 en a05v9n18

Interface (Botucatu) vol.9 número18 en a05v9n18

of the interdisciplinary relationship between Biology and Chemistry, giving rise to a new discipline. Some may suggest that Health Education is an area of knowledge which is organized in an interdisciplinary way, as it is based on the premises of Collective Health and Constructivist Education. These examples demonstrate the problem of the multifaceted nature of the category. Although we recognize the two examples presented above as interdisciplinary possibilities, based on the way they intersect with one another, we will deal with with a categorization that is a little more pragmatic, in terms of practices involving different professions in the area of health, and their consequences for the daily work of the Basic Health Units. Thus, we define interdisciplinarity as a two-way relationship between different health professionals. Using the epistemological categories of Fleck (1986), we seek to qualify the professions as different Thought-collectives, each rooted in its own Style of Thinking, i.e. in a stylized perspective which permeates a range of rules for addressing and resolving problems, based on specific and differentiated training as an identified conceptual milestone. What we mean to say is that the doctor, the nurse, the dentist, the psychologist, or any other health professional, comprise different Thought-collectives, and as a result, they contribute with new facts for resolving common problems.
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Einstein (São Paulo)  vol.9 número3

Einstein (São Paulo) vol.9 número3

This is in line with data reported by Cunha et al., who performed a prospective study with 78 pediatricians working in public healthcare units in Rio de Janeiro, and observed that 70% did not prescribe the use of spacers on a routine basis. Out of these, 8% did not prescribe inhaled medication at all, 18% considered that the use of spacers was too complicated, 29% considered them expensive, and 28% pointed out that spacers were not available for use the public healthcare services. But, the most alarming data is that 58% of these physicians mentioned poor understanding of the use and function of spacers (20) .
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Square wave voltammetry. Part I: theoretical aspects.

Square wave voltammetry. Part I: theoretical aspects.

SQUARE WAVE VOLTAMMETRY. PART I: THEORETICAL ASPECTS. The theoretical aspects of square wave voltammetry were discussed. Reversible, irreversible and quase-reversible electrode reactions were analyzed and the correlations between parameters like frequency, period, square wave potential and amplitude were showed. In this way, diagnostic relationships allow to characterize the electrode process. The analytical applications were discussed in base of the increment in the analytical response (current) due to the characteristics of the developed equations and the unique mode of collecting the electrode response, i.e., the direct and reverse signals. Finally, recent advances in the basic theory, as the applications to the hydrodynamic electrode and the ultramicroelectrode were also analyzed, and the multiple pulses square wave voltammetry was also introduced.
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A Review and study of the design technique of Microstrip Patch Antenna Technology

A Review and study of the design technique of Microstrip Patch Antenna Technology

wave is negligible for thin substrates. For thicker substrates, techniques are available to estimate the surface wave contribution [17],[14]. The Q factors may then be calculated assuming that energy stored in the fringing fields is negligible, and the field distribution within the cavity region does not depend on thickness. Formulas for the Q factors due to conductor loss and dielectric loss for circular microstrip antennas have been obtained [18], [19]. It can be shown that these relationships apply in general to thin microstrip antennas of arbitrary shape, i.e.,
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Esc. Anna Nery  vol.17 número3

Esc. Anna Nery vol.17 número3

A reflexive study was undertaken, based on a nar- rative bibliographic review, which admits the analysis of literature published in books, print and/or electronic maga- zine articles about a given theme, in order to describe and discuss it from a theoretical or contextual viewpoint. This category of papers plays a fundamental role in continuing education, as it permits knowledge updates on a specific theme within a short period of time 4 .

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