Top PDF Effect of adjuvants on the amount of air included in droplets generated by spray nozzles

Effect of adjuvants on the amount of air included in droplets generated by spray nozzles

Effect of adjuvants on the amount of air included in droplets generated by spray nozzles

In addition to the air induction, adjuvant has also been used to reduce the risk of drift. ANTUNIASSI & BAIO (2008) alerted for problems related to improper use of adjuvants by unawareness of their actions, which can harm the action of the plant health product, or even these adjuvants may not cause significant effects, making them unnecessary. The authors illustrate the process of formation of droplets by the spray tip may be changed according to the physical characteristics of the solution, so changes according to the used adjuvant. The surface tension of the solution is one of those characteristics, which according to CUNHA & BUENO (2010) is directly related to the process of droplet formation. According to CHRISTOFOLETTI (1999), solutions with low surface tension values have greater ease of forming droplets with reduced sizes. The use of some adjuvant have direct influence on the surface tension of the solution, as demonstrated in a study by IOST & RAETANO (2010) MONTÓRIO et al. (2005) and OLIVEIRA & ANTUNIASSI (2012), also FAGGION (2002) mentions that the addition of adjuvant in tip with air induction contributes to better stability of droplets generated, which maintains the structure of the droplets with air inside for a longer period. Moreover, MILLER & BUTLER ELLIS (2000) indicated that the behavior of adjuvant is quite variable, according to each spray tip, especially in air induction tip sensitive to which are more sensitive to changes caused by the spray adjuvant.
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MATERIAL AND MET HODS

MATERIAL AND MET HODS

have been due to the fact that the mixtu re of air and liquid inside the nozzle with air induction chamber causes to each droplet to have a different amount of air inside it, corroborating for greater variation in its diameter. The higher the RA is, the greater will be the variation of spray droplet sizes, and a ho mogeneous droplet spectrum has RA value tending to zero. The higher the relative amplitude value is the larger will be the droplet size range (Cunha et al., 2016). The spray nozzles with air induction, although they produced droplets of larger diameters, presented a greater variation of diameter than the droplets generated by the nozzles without air induction.
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Effect of nozzle angle and air-jet parameters in air-assisted sprayer on biological effect of soybean asian rust chemical protection

Effect of nozzle angle and air-jet parameters in air-assisted sprayer on biological effect of soybean asian rust chemical protection

Raetano and Merlin (2006) evaluated the effect of spray volumes, air assistance and nozzle angles on spray deposits and their efficiency in the control of soybean Asian rust. The authors found greater deposit levels in adaxial surface of the leaves, in the top part of the soy- bean plants (IAC-19 variety). This occurred when the spraying was performed with air assistance and hollow cone nozzles (JA-2) angled of 30° in relation to vertical line (in the same direction of the sprayer movement) and spray volume of 143 l/ha. These authors did not find air assistance effect on the yield parameters and productivity in the 2004/2005 crop harvest, to the same concentration of the cupric tracer and spray volume (142 l/ha) used in this research. Probably, the factors that could have influ- enced the spraying deposit in this experiment were: spray nozzles, in this case, AXI 110015, plant architecture (Con- quista variety), as well as the dynamics of the droplets when nozzles and air assistance were combined. The air assistance in spraying contributed to the increment of spray deposits in the top part of soybean plants. Howev- er, studies regarding the operational conditions (dynam- ics of the air volume in relation to air speeds produced by displacement of the equipment), are necessary to increase spray deposits in the bottom part of the plants.
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Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

Nanoparticles as a new generation of materials are used in many fields. The basic methods for their preparation are the top- down and bottom-up techniques. The essence of the top-down technique consists in grinding the material to particles with nano dimensions, while the bottom-up technique assumes making structures from molecules or single atoms [1,2]. According to a method recently developed, the nanoparticles of metal oxides are produced through anodic dissolution of metals [3]. There are also thermal methods of obtaining metal nanoxides [4-7].
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Review of theModern developments in Suction processes of IC  Engines

Review of theModern developments in Suction processes of IC Engines

position. Using these inputs, the ECU is programmed to switch from the low lift to the high lift cam lobes when the conditions mean that engine output will be improved. At the switch point a solenoid is actuated which allows oil pressure from a spool valve to operate a locking pin which binds the high RPM cam follower to the low RPM ones. From this point on, the valves open and close according to the high-lift profile, which opens the valve further and for a longer time. The switch-over point is variable, between a minimum and maximum point, and is determined by engine load. The switch-down back from high to low RPM cams is set to occur at a lower engine speed than the switch-up (representing a hysteresis cycle) to avoid a situation in which the engine is asked to operate continuously at or around the switch-over point.
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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism of the created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage of the non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because of the chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
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Effect of working parameters and nozzle wear rate onto the spray quality in use of different fan flat nozzle

Effect of working parameters and nozzle wear rate onto the spray quality in use of different fan flat nozzle

Table 1 shows tip numbers, materials, nominal flow rate, the number of hours the nozzles were subjected to wear tests, and percent flow rate increase at the end of the test. Generally, stainless steel was the most resistant to wear, followed in order of decreasing resistance to wear by polymer and brass. With the ends of the tests, the increase in flow rate with stainless steel tips was always less than polymer tips. For the same material, nozzle tips with lower flow capacities wore much faster than nozzles with higher capacities. For all nozzle capacities, the stainless steel tips had average use times 6.5 and 2.5 times longer than brass and polymer tips, respectively, before flow rates increased 10%. The percent increase in flow rates for all brass, polymer and stainless steel tips varied directly with approximately the square root of time of use.
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

The incorrect macrostructure is distinguished by very significant differences in the grain size, which is reflected in the quantitative analysis. The grain area distributions in the projection plane (Fig. 6) and of the grains with a non-planar surface (Fig. 7) are of a bimodal nature and the differences in the assessment of the average values and standard deviations (Table 1) do not exceed 12%. The quantitative evaluation is supplemented with distributions of the grain shape coefficient (Fig. 8 and 9) and elongation coefficient (Fig. 10 and Fig. 11). These distribution parameters juxtaposed in Tables 2 and 3 show high coincidence of the values calculated.
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Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

CuAl7Ni5Fe5W2Si2 bronze melted in a laboratory induction furnace crucible a capacity of 15 kg and frequency of 8 kHz. Each time charcoal was spread on the metallic charge, with the task of limiting access of oxygen to the liquid alloy. Alloy was withstand in a temperature of 1γ00°C ± 15°C. The slag covering and refining UNITOP BA-1 was dosed as follows: half of the slag was added to the so-called cold metallic charge, and the rest after melting the charge. After melting bronze and isothermal heating slag removed and refined N 2 for 5 min. Then added 0.6% of the
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Zimmerman (1999) in his article titled ―Mobile Computing: Characteristics, Benefits, and the Mobile fra mework‖ defined mobile computing as ―the use of computing devices, which usually interact in some way with a centralised information system while away from the normal fixed workplace‖. He went on to say that, Mobile computing technology enables the mobile person to create, access, process, store and communicate information without being constrained to a single location. It is on the above basis that this researcher views mobile computing as embracing a host of portable technologies the can access internet using wireless fidelity (WIFI). These range from notebook computers to tablets, to smartphones and e-book readers. Such devices have brought about Mobile learning (m-Learning) in Zimbabwe Polytechnics, enabling staff and students to share academic resources, be able to research and develop applications from wherever they are. Zimmerman (1999) went on to identify mobile computing hardware, software and communications in use then. He identified hardware as palmtops, clamshells, handheld Pen Keys, pen slates, and laptops. The characteristics of such devices in terms of screen size was small, processing capability was limited and supported a few mobile applications. Over the years mobile devices have improved in such characteristics to make mobile computing easy, fast and user friendly. Great improvements also came with the associated systems software, with the modern devices now running on Android, Symbian and windows 8 mobile, as compared to then when MS DOS, Windows 3.1, Pen DOS were used. In communications Zimmerman talked of internet speeds in kilobytes per second (Kbps), while today’s communications devices have speeds of gigabytes per second (Gbps
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Studies have proved that structure of the chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
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Effect of working pressure at different spray nozzles on drift quantification in wind tunnel

Effect of working pressure at different spray nozzles on drift quantification in wind tunnel

The stipulated air speed was 2.0 m s -1 , being measured before the application of each treatment, at five meters of distance from the spray boom and at one meter of height from the tunnel floor. The variations of the wind speed for adjustment were obtained varying the power take-off rotation of the truck connected to the ventilator by the variation of the engine rotation being the measures of the wind speed made by blower anemometer A892160 model, Extech brand. Temperature and relative humidity of the air readings were made at the same place of the anemometer installation, by a digital thermo-hygrometer, Minipa brand MT-241 model, with a precision of 0.1º C of temperature and 1% of relative humidity of the air. All the applications were conducted in ideal boundary conditions to spraying, over 55% of relative humidity of the air and under 30° C of temperature.
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

technique was employed in sample selection. In the first stage, the three agricultural zones in the state were purposively selected. Aba, Umuahia and Ohafia. In the second stage three local governments actively involved in agricultural production was purposively selected from each of the agricultural zone making it a total of nine blocks. While In the third stage two communities was randomly selected from each of the local government. Twelve respondents was randomly selected from two sampling group. six each for male and female giving twelve respondents from each cell. A total of 218 respondents was selected for the study. The research instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire and scheduled interview. The result of the objective of the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and mean inferential which involves the use of Z-test analysis. The formula used to compute the mean used in this study is specified below. The mean was computed by multiplying the frequency (f) of the responses under each response category by assigned value and dividing the (∑) of the product by the (N) no of respondents to the particular indicator as shown:
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On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

Here 1013.25 is the pressure at sea level in mil/bar, z is the altitude in meters. Knowing p 0 ( z ) and the relation for resistance to flow, the pressure variation on the human body have been computed by the following method. We have

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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
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Determination Of Longevity Of Teeth In Buckets Of Loading Equipment In Coal Mines - A Case Study

Determination Of Longevity Of Teeth In Buckets Of Loading Equipment In Coal Mines - A Case Study

device was studied. The study took into account the effects of machine scale, wear surface structure of the rolls, grinding pressures and rolls speed, gap settings, feed size distribution and moisture content for a range of ores. The authors proposed a prevailing wear mechanism and a methodology for minimising wear of the grinding rolls, specific to the high pressure grinding device only. An example of a direct method, Bond (1964) and Buchi (1995) developed testing apparatus that determine rock abrasiveness in a low abrasion/medium impact mode of wear where rock abrasiveness is measured as the amount of material lost by a standard steel paddle which rotates on a shaft in a sample of loose rock particles of a certain specified size range. As can be seen from the above examples, the indirect methods of rock abrasivity assessment have the advantage of using data which is either readily available or relatively straightforward to obtain. However, they do not take into account process variables for specific modes of wear. Hence, they are normally not used in isolation, but rather in combination with direct methods, or holistic approaches, to supplement or confirm other more relevant direct measures. However, there is no universally accepted one standard test to determine the rock abrasivity although a large number of different tests are in use. All the studies about rock abrasiveness are concentrated on the amount of quartz, grain size and cementation degree of quartz, the geometry of the abrasive mineral and mechanical strength of rock.
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Eutectic solidification as explained by the thermodynamics of irreversible processes

Eutectic solidification as explained by the thermodynamics of irreversible processes

There are some parts of the s / l interface of non-faceted phase lamellae where instability develops or vanishes and branching of faceted phase lamellae is observed. This phenomenon decides on the existence of a whole spectrum of interlamellar spacings, O . From the thermodynamic viewpoint some regions of the system are in stationary state while others in state of rotation around it. Stationary state changes continually its localization. Thus, some respective regions oscillate from rotation (marginal stability for which excess entropy production vanishes) to stationary state. This is the fundamental assumption in the current analysis.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers of the oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance of the oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias of the oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
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Effect of types of nozzles on spray deposition on two soybean varieties in stage V3

Effect of types of nozzles on spray deposition on two soybean varieties in stage V3

according to the modification of the description by Palladini et al. (2005). After spraying, from each treatment 25 plants per replicate were removed sequentially from the central row and placed in individual plastic bags. In the laboratory the samples were washed with 100 mL distilled water to remove the tracer. The solution of this wash was placed in 200 mL plastic containers and stored at room temperature without light until absorbancy reading in the spectrophotometer.

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Continuous Modification of Cast Iron by the FLOTRET Method

Continuous Modification of Cast Iron by the FLOTRET Method

Laboratory experiment was aimed to determine the appropriate hydraulic ratio between the important cross-sections of the modification device, and next to influence of the modifier amount and the pressure altitude on values of residual magnesium, as necessary conditions for the formation of spheroidal graphite. There are a large number of possible influences during modification process and to eliminate them these variables were determined for the measurement - change of amount of modifier, the change of pressure altitude modification. The variables set as unchanging were - cross-sectional areas of flow of modification device, chemical composition of the initial cast iron, the method of melting, overheating temperature of the initial cast iron, modifier - type, granulation, the amount of inoculants.
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