The results in the literature are highly variable with some studies reporting increased starch (Inborr et al., 1993) and nitrogen digestibilities (Bedford and Classen, 1992), while others reported no effectof exogenous enzyme supplementation (Jacob et al., 2000; Banerjee, 1992). Supplementationofenzymes might be incapable of reducing viscosity of intestinal contents. This is because of high intestinal viscosity associated with reduced nutrient availability (Bedford and Classen, 1992). Austin et al. (1999) reported that NSP leached from the grain might not be the dominant factor in low AME wheat phenomenon. The exact modes of exogenous enzymes are still not completely understood. Ravindran et al. (1999), Choct and Annison (1990) and Selle et al. (2003) reported that continuous use of exogenous enzymes might increase digestibility of amino acids to a synergistic extent. Furthermore, the present study showed that NSPDE supplementation did not affect the dressing percentage, weights of shank, gizzard and heart. However, liver weight was reduced significantly (P<0.05). Weights of shank, heart and gizzard in terms of percent of live weight basis of birds fed diets either supplemented or unsupplemented with NSPDE did not differ. Our traditional poultry diets contain different cereals with different kind of NSP that are not digested properly by broilers. That is why enzyme supplementation does not improve growthperformance.
of wheat’s NSP have a more deleterious impact on voluntary feed intake ofbroiler chickens than (1→3) (1→4)-β- glucans of barley’s NSP. Birds fed on wheat diet consumed lower feed than those on the barley, corn or enzyme supplemented diets throughout the trial (Table 4). Consequently, birds fed on wheat diet had lower body weight gain compared to those fed barley, corn or enzyme supplemented diets, primarily due to the differences in NSP structure, the size of molecules and the degree of digestion which can affect digesta viscosity and passage rate of gut content (Choct, 1997; 2006). The growthperformance data are consistent with the digesta viscosity and pancreatic enzyme activity as depicted in Table 7. The viscosity of intestinal digesta in birds fed on wheat showed the highest value, which was significantly (p<0.01) greater than the control group fed on corn. In fact, NSP of both wheat and barley increased digesta viscosity in the intestine. These observations indicated that every change in the gut environment due to different dietary NSP sources could affect the physicochemical properties of the intestine and consequently the performance and other physiological responses of the birds.
Liver and gizzard weights (Table 3), were significantly decreased in chicks fed low-CP diets. However, the finding of this study was not in agreement with Penz et al.  who found that liver weight was slightly increased by the addition of 5.4% L-leucine to the diet ofbroiler chickens. The negative-control, low CP diets in the experiment did not support weight gain similar to that of normal CP diets (control) despite meeting or exceeding the NRC recommendations. The ratio of essential and non-essential amino acids has also been suggested as a potential problem with low dietary CP in diets. However, studies evaluating the additions of L-leucine to low CP diets failed to show the same growthperformance as those fed the recommended CP levels in broiler grower chickens. Other studies also reported that supplementationofnon-essential amino acids to low CP diets have been unable to show equal growthperformanceofbroiler fed control diets [1,4,10-12,19,24,25] .
ings (Rostagno et al. 2005). Samadi & Liebert (2008) observed that a positive correlation between age and total Thr:Lys requirement (from 73% to 80% with age varying from 0 to 8 weeks in a total basis) in modelling Thr requirement of Ross 308 broilers. Non- starch poly- saccharide (NSP) in wheat is another factor which may have influenced our study results. In this experiment, basal diets contained 0.15% wheat, which have no en- zyme supplementation and also wheat contains about 11% total NSP, 80% of which is insoluble NSP (Smits & Annison, 1996). On the other hand, viscosity of di- gesta is a limitation in using wheat in poultry rations. In the two first weeks of age, the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine´s epithelium is not com- pletely matured (cellularity and enzymology), for this reason the chicks can’t face any inconvenient material such as NSP in their diets (Peterson et al. 1976; Mcnab & Smithard, 1992). Wheat contains variable amounts of NSP, such as arabinoxylans, which can interfere with nutrient digestibility.
the walls of buildings. It could be decorative niches (of spiral form in the Hall of Warriors), small rectangular "shelves" (in the Hall of Victories), rectangular niches with arched ends (Surkh-Kotal), arches of different contour (semicircular ones or pointed upwards). "An arch as a compositional basis for the image of Buddha was known in stone sculpture of Buddhist monuments in Northern Bactria [31, 597p]. For example, in Square Hall at Old Nisa (III-II centuries BC) the statues were placed on the top tier in intercolumniation Corinthian order, in special niches in one interval. In Buddhist sanctuary DT-1the wall sculpture in the "Hall of Kings" and joss-houses were placed over the socle of the stupa, in the temple of Ai-Khanum - on sufa, bending round the cella, in Ayrtam - on capital-like block, in the sanctuary of Dt-9 - on a low sufa "at the level of viewing by those who comes to worship [14, 214p]. In the monastery complex in Karatepa an arrangement of niche, which was previously the location of a statue of seated Buddha, was not accidental: "It seemed to be directing the attention of those who enter the monastery to the face of "Great teacher."Stone sculpture in ground monastery of Fayaztepa was a high relief with the image of Buddha surrounded by 2 monks arranged into keeled arch . In Khoresm, in the Hall of Kings, a special boxes were designed for the sculptures (23-24) at a height of 1.1 meters, separated by partitions, "the very architecture of the Hall of the Kings was largely subordinated to the necessity to position the sacred statue" [33, 120p]. In Toprak-Kala, in the "Hall of Dancing Masks", in addition to the three major niches in the walls of the room there were found smaller niches
Studies have proved that structure of the chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effecton the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
Chromium oxide was added to all the diets at 2 g/kg as an indigestible marker for determination of apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and gross energy (Ball and Aherne, 1987). On days 26, 27, and 28, faecal samples were collected from all pigs in each pen in the afternoon via rectal massage and pooled within pen. Faecal samples (four samples per treatment) and feed samples were stored in a freezer at –20 °C until further analysis. For chemical analysis, faecal and feed samples were freeze-dried and ground to pass through a 1-mm screen. Dietary DM, calcium, phosphorus, crude protein, lysine, and methionine were analysed according to the procedures described by AOAC (2000). Chromium was analysed by UV absorption spectrophotometry (Shimadzu, UV–1201, Kyoto, Japan) (Williams et al., 1962), and N was measured using a Kjeltec 2300 analyser (Foss Tecator AB, Hoeganaes, Sweden). Gross energy was determined using a Parr 6100 Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter (Parr Instrument Co., Moline, IL, USA). The apparent total tract digestibility of DM, N and gross energy were calculated using indirect methods as described by Zhao et al. (2012).
Knowledge about run of crystallization process of alloys constitutes a source of information on development of a new technology to prepare liquid metal and to control of preparation process of alloys within industry. Complicated shapes and big differences in wall thickness of castings made from Al.-Mg alloy and their behavior under changing loads require elaboration and implementation of a methods enabling determination of mechanical properties of the alloys on preparation stage before casting process. The paper presents application of simultaneous ATND method (thermal-voltage derivative analysis) in determination of mechanical properties of AG10 alloy. Investigated alloy was melted in electric resistance furnace, and next, one has performed registration of crystallization with use of ATND method and regression analysis aimed at elaboration of equations to determine mechanical properties of the investigated alloy. Obtained mathematical dependencies enable prompt check of the mechanical properties of the alloy as early as in stage of its preparation. The research performed in laboratory conditions needs verification in industry conditions with targeted production of automated control stand
In the quality assurance system for components cast using the lost wax method, the object of evaluation is the grain size on the surface of the casting. This paper describes a new method for evaluating the primary grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades. Effectiveness of the method has been tested on two macrostructures distinguished by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. The grounds for evaluating the grain parameters consist of geometric measurement of the turbine blade using a laser profilometer and of approximation of the measurement results using a polynomial of a proper degree. The so obtained analytical non-planar surface serves as a reference point for an assessment of the parameters of grains observed on the real blade surface of a variable curvature. The aspects subjected to evaluation included: the grain areas, shape and elongation coefficients of grains on a non-planar surface of the blade airfoil, using measurements taken on a perpendicular projection by means of a stereoscopic microscope and image analysis methods, and by making calculations using the Mathematica ® package.
The randomized experimental design was used, with 25 replicates for egg, embryo, proventriculus+gizzard, small intestine, liver, yolk sac and weight ofchicks at hatching. For enzymatic activity 5 replicates of each experimental unit of pancreas were utilized. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS (1998). A normality test was carried out to ensure that percentage values were similar in variance (p>0,05).
Literature on the biological efficacy of phytogenic feed additives presents a scattered picture. Data on swine reviewed by Rodehutscord and Kluth (2002) varied widely from depressions in production performance to improvements similar to those observed with common growth promoters, such as antibiotics, organic acids, and probiotics. The same applies to more recent investigations (e.g., Manzanilla et al,. 2004, 2006; Namkung et al., 2004; Straub et al., 2005; Hagmüller et al., 2006; Nofrarias et al., 2006; Schöne et al., 2006; Kroismayr et al., 2007; Lien et al., 2007). Recent studies with swine and poultry indicated stabilizing effects of phytogenic feed additives on the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota. Kroismayr et al. (2007) compared a blend of essential oils from oregano, anise, and citrus peels with an antibiotic growth promotant and reported a decrease in microbial activity in the terminal ileum, cecum, and colon for both feed additives, as was obvious from reduced bacterial colony counts and reduced chyme contents of VFA as well as of biogenic amines. Comparable observations for herbal essential oils and oleoresins on the activity of intestinal microbiota were also found in other studies with pigs and broilers (Jamroz et al., 2003, 2005; Manzanilla et al., 2004; Mitsch et al., 2004; Namkung et al., 2004; Castillo et al., 2006).
However, it is worth mentioning that phytase enzyme led to cholesterol and VLDL concentrations to remain low in all OC levels. As it is known and was previously mentioned, phytic acid compound is the target of phytase enzyme. Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6)) is a complex compound, which correlates with proteins and metal elements such as Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, Na and Cu (Coulibaly et al., 2011; Sebastian et al., 1998; Vohra et al., 1965). When phytase enzyme acts on phytic acid, the availability and the utilization of these nutrients for the chicken´s increases (Sebastain et al., 1998; Ceylan et al., 2012; Cowieson, 2010). Recently, it was reported that using organic elements such as Zn, Mn, Cu and Se in broiler breeders reduced plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL and VLDL (Qiujuan et al., 2012), and it was explained by the role of organic minerals in lipid metabolism by regulating lipoprotein synthesis. Moreover, it was shown that using phytase enzyme in laying hen´s diets resulted in less egg yolk cholesterol and better egg shell (Zyla et al., 2012); this was attributed to many factors such as phosphorus availability, Ca/P balance and the role of iron element in fatty acids absorption.
Indeed, women are not biologically inferior teachers of a for- eign language any more than Koreans are to Americans; something more significant is happening in the classroom. If native and female teachers are indeed “othered” by their students, how might that af- fect the ratings? Could it lead to the lower ratings native females re- ceived? One study found that “male students rated female professors more negatively than did female students in the same class.” (Basow, 2010). Other studies have not found a statistically significant differ- ence in the average course evaluations for male and [female] instruc- tors, but there are same-gender preferences, such that female stu- dents tend to give higher ratings to female instructors and non-native English speakers have significantly lower course evaluations. Other studies show that faculty of color receive lower course evaluations than their white peers and students rate Asian-American instructors as less credible and intelligible than white instructors. This strongly supports the concept of otherness as a major factor in student ratings (Huston, 2009).
Optimisation of the turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations of the sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques of the system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.
companies of any kind, including the banking industry is not enough to just rely on internal resources and capabilities they have and implement business functions are single fighter. The success gained competitive advantage depends on the ability of companies in perceived value to customers who exceed that offered by competitors. For an industry that includes the banking industry in the creation of value to the customer and achieving superior performance must be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the type and intensity of competitive forces in the industrial environment. Increasing the strength of competition in the industrial environment both of Rivalry Among Existing sellers and new entrants will result in price competition and tighter margins obtained which will ultimately affect the performanceof the company. Especially against the banking industry, including Islamic banking, competitive landscape facing now not only fellow Islamic banking in the country, but because the growth is very promising, also has attracted foreign banks to plunge also in the Islamic banking industry both full-pledged islamic banking and foreign commercial banks which have business units islamic window. Influential forces affecting the competitive environment on the performanceof Islamic banking in particular through the introduction of new entrants of foreign banks into Islamic banking industry is evidenced by the results of research conducted by Hassan et. al. 2013). The results of research by using econometric models and using 14 samples from 24 countries who have foreign Islamic banks and Islamic banks with domestic observation period financial statements (financial statements) of the 149 Islamic banks domestic and foreign Islamic banks during 1996 to 2010 concluded that: In general, foreign Islamic banks as new competitors enjoy more Linggi performance in the form of net profit margin in 7 countries of the 24 countries sampled, but instead get the net profit margin is very low in 5 other countries. Another finding is the rate of returns (in the form of ROE and ROA) plays an important role in the decisions of foreign Islamic banks to entry into the market of Islamic banking in the country, macroeconomic conditions only act as a supporting role, considered tax policy plays a role in the decision-hostile entry decision and the presence of foreign Islamic banks, the financial crisis did not significantly affect the entry decision. Meanwhile, the analysis of the influence of foreign Islamic bank entry on the performanceof the domestic Islamic banks, among others, show the profitability of the domestic Islamic
Treatments consisted of four Nutritional Programs (NP), in which diets were isocaloric with no minimal fixed CP value; however, they contained different concentrations of essential AA. The NP contained Low, Medium, High, or Mixed concentrations of AA. Mixed NP had high AA concentrations until birds were 21 days, followed by regular concentrations (Tables 1 and 2) until the end of the rearing period. The minimum digestible Met+Cys/Lys, Thr/Lys, Arg/Lys, Ile/Lys, and Val/Lys ratios in all NP were 0.74, 0.64, 1.05, 0.65 and 0.75, respectively. These are the ratios typically used by the Brazilian poultry industry. A multiphase feeding regime was applied for all NP, and it was split in five periods: pre-starter (1 to 10 days), starter (11 to 20 days), grower I (21 to 35 days), grower II (36 to 42 days), and finishing (43 to 47 days). Prior to diet formulation, feedstuff AA profile (by high performance liquid chromatography), crude energy and protein were analyzed (AOAC, 2002). The formulated diets were also submitted to the same analyses. Chicken performance was evaluated per period and for the total experimental period relative to body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR).
Different therapeutic agents are used to mimimize the harmful effects of heat stress on the performanceofbroilerchicks. These include ascorbic acid (Cier et al., 1992), vitamins B-complex (Bashir et al., 1998), vitamin E (Williams, 1996), acetylsalicylic acid (Stilborn et al., 1988), sodium chloride (Smith, 1994), potassium chloride, potassium carbonate, ammonium chloride (Teeter and Smith, 1986) and sodium bicarbonate (Branton et al., 1986).
Today’s industry aims at such situation, where number of defective products, so called defects shall approach to zero. Therefore, one introduces a various changes in technology of production, introduces improvements which would help in accomplishment of this objective. Another important factor is introduction of different type of testing, which shall help in assessment which factor has significant effecton quantity of rejects, and which one could be neglected. Existence of casting rejects is unavoidable; therefore a new ideas, technologies and innovations are necessary in the entire widely understood foundry branch, in order to minimize such adverse effect. Performanceof tests aimed at unequivocal determination of an effectof vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of the AlSi13Cu2 alloy was the objective of the present work. To do this, there were produced 36 castings from AlSi13Cu2 alloy. All the castings underwent machining operations. Half of the casting was destined to strength tests, the other half served to determination of an effectof vibrations on porosity of the alloy. The specimens were divided into 12 groups, depending on amplitude of vibrations and tilt angle of metal mould during pouring operation.
household, the program caused an increase of more than 11 percentage points in the probability of attending school. One possible reason for this increase in the estimated impact is the fact that his/her family is only receiving any transfers from the Bolsa Familia program because he/she is attending school. The fear of losing access to the program, which means that it may take time to come back to it in case of harder times ahead, may stimulate parents to monitor their kids’ school attendance more strongly. When these two features were combined — i.e. male youngsters who were the youngest child — the probability of attending school increased by 16.2 percentage points and it is statistically significant at the 1 per cent level.
diluted 500-fold with diluents. 100 µL of the diluted sera was added to 96-well microplates coated with either IBV or IBD (IDEXX Inc., Westbrook, USA). Then, they were covered and incubated at 22°C for 30 min. The microplates were aspirated and washed with 350 µL of sterile distilled water. Then, 100 µL of substrate was dispensed into the wells to develop a color reaction after incubation for 15 min at 22°C. The enzymatic reaction was ended by adding the stop solution. The plates were read on a microplate reader at 650 nm (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA 94089) to evaluate the antibody titer against IBV and IBD (Kidd et al. , 2001). The antibody titer against influenza, reovirus, and Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal (ORT) was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a commercial kit (IDEXX Inc., Westbrook, USA). The test procedure and analysis of the results were performed as recommended by the manufacturer.