Top PDF Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm

Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm

Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm

The effects of fertilizer application rates on leaf nutrient contents and yield of oil palm were inves- tigated at the Agricultural and Technological College Plantation in Trang province during May 1998 - June 2001. A five-year-old oil palm plantation, planted on the Na Tham soil series (Fine loamy, mixed, isohyper- thermic Oxic Plinthudults) with spacing 9x9x9 m, was selected for study. A randomized complete block de- sign with three replications with 20 palms/replication was used. The treatments included six different rates of fertilizer application. The rates of fertilizer were as follows: T1 (farmer practice), T2 (40% of application rate in T4), T3 (70% of application rate in T4), T4 (urea 2,750 g/plant; triple super phosphate 1,500 g/plant; potassium chloride 4,000 g/plant; kieserite 1,000 g/plant; borate 80 g/plant), T5 (130% of application rate in T4) and T6 (170% of application rate in T4). The high leaf nutrient contents of N, P and K at the range of 2.6-2.8%, 0.16-0.18% and 1.13-1.18%, respectively, were found in the high nutrient application rate treat- ments (T5, T6). However, the amounts of leaf Ca and Mg in T5 and T6 decreased from 0.75-0.80% and 0.33- 0.37% at the beginning of experiment to 0.65-0.70% and 0.22-0.24%, respectively, at the end of the experi- ment. Small increases of leaf sulphur and boron up to about 0.20-0.22% and 16-19 mg/kg were also found in the high rate of fertilizer treatments. Accumulated fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) increased according to
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

positively affected soil fertility [total organic carbon (TOC), Ca, P, Al, H+Al, and pH], at 0–10 cm soil depth, and it was the only factor with significant effect on yield. In the second year, the effect of biochar diminished or was overcome by the fertilizer. TOC moved down in the soil profile to the 0–20 cm depth, influencing K availability in this layer. In the second year, there was a significant interaction between biochar and the fertilizer on plant growth and biomass dry matter accumulation.

8 Ler mais

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS-ENRICHED FERTILIZERS ON BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY ON OIL PALM (<i>ELAEIS GUINEENSIS</i> JACQ.) SEEDLINGS

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS-ENRICHED FERTILIZERS ON BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY ON OIL PALM (<i>ELAEIS GUINEENSIS</i> JACQ.) SEEDLINGS

Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot (BSR) is the most devastating disease of oil palm (Ariffin et al., 2000; Idris, 2009; Susanto, 2009) and constitutes a permanent threat to oil palm in Southeast Asia (Pilotti, 2005; Utomo et al., 2005). Despite the slow progression of the disease, it can destroy thousands of hectares of oil palm. Serious yield reductions and death of palms due to Ganoderma attacks have been recorded especially in replanted areas, where the disease was endemic in the previous generation. Initially considered a disease of old palms and concentrated in coastal areas on peat soils (Singh, 1991), the BSR disease is now infecting oil palm at all ages starting from the first year of field planting. In Malaysia, a 3.7% incidence of BSR corresponding to 59,148 ha affected was reported in 2010 (Idris, 2011; Idris et al., 2011). It has spread rapidly to cover all oil palm cultivating areas and all types of soils (Idris, 1999; Khairudin and Tey, 2008), thereby becoming a great concern in Malaysia and all over the world (Turner and Gillbanks, 2003). In Sabah in the Kinabalu estate, about 30% of second generation under-planted palms were reported to be infected by Ganoderma with in one to two years after planting (Wan, 2007). In Sime Darby plantations, 1.4% BSR incidence, equivalent to about 580 ha, was recorded in 2007 (Khairudin and Tey, 2008). In Cameroon, losses as high as 53.2% of dead palms over 25 years old in a first generation plantation was estimated, mainly due to Ganoderma (Tengoua and Bakoume, 2005), while, 6.4% palm death was recorded in a 10-year-old replanting when palms were at their peak production age (Tengoua, 2005).
Mostrar mais

19 Ler mais

EFFECT OF FERTILIZER-N APPLICATION AND SEED COATING WITH RHIZOBIAL INOCULANTS ON SOYBEAN YIELD IN EASTERN PARAGUAY

EFFECT OF FERTILIZER-N APPLICATION AND SEED COATING WITH RHIZOBIAL INOCULANTS ON SOYBEAN YIELD IN EASTERN PARAGUAY

fixation, particularly if grain yields are as high as typically achieved on “Terra Rossa” soils of Eastern Paraguay. Applying N fertilizer or coating seeds with rhizobial inoculants that enhance nodulation may represent a way of balancing the N budget. However, the effects of such treatments appear to be highly site- specific. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of N application (N) and rhizobial inoculation (I) on nodulation, N accumulation and soybean yields in Eastern Paraguay. Field experiments were conducted in two consecutive soybean seasons. Dry conditions in the first year delayed sowing and reduced plant number m -2 and pod number plant -1 . Grain yields were generally below 2 t ha -1 but the
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

ABSTRACT: The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia) with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC–MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%). All other components were present in less than 1%.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Effect of vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer application on the various functioning of maize seeds

Effect of vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer application on the various functioning of maize seeds

At present the cultivation area for maize has been reached up to 140 million hectare and its yield is a bout 468 million tons which has third place in crop production after wheat and rice (Majnoon Hosseini, 2006). Maize needs different kinds of nourishment during its growth which can be obtained from the chemical fertilizers. Nitrogen is the one of the most important element which used for the maize cultivation and its deficiency can be limiting the nutritional elements of this crop (Khalid Berin & Islam zadeh 2001). Considering the environmental pollution related to excess use of nitrogen fertilizer, needs of an alternative approach based on biological origin, safe for use and less expensive generated for the management of nitrogen. Replacement of nitrogen fertilizer in the soil through application of vermicomost can caused re duction in the environmental pollution developed by washing nitrate from the soil. According to Amo Aghaee et al. (2003), this type of organic fertilizers are not only safe for environment but if it applied in higher does, unused nitrogen remained in soil in the form of organic nitrogen and it will eventually return to the plant at the times of its need by process of becoming mineral.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

GROWTH PERFORMANCE, CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS, MEAT QUALITY OF GROWING PIGS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH CRUDE GLYCERIN DERIVED FROM PALM OIL DESEMPENHO PRODUTIVO, CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA E QUALIDADE DA CARNE DE SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO ALIMENTADOS COM DIETA

GROWTH PERFORMANCE, CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS, MEAT QUALITY OF GROWING PIGS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH CRUDE GLYCERIN DERIVED FROM PALM OIL DESEMPENHO PRODUTIVO, CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA E QUALIDADE DA CARNE DE SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO ALIMENTADOS COM DIETA

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion level of crude glycerin from palm oil in the diet of growing pigs. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isoproteic, with a constant content of linoleic acid within the experimental diets. A total of 36 pigs (average BW 23.05± 2.86 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments: 1) 0% of crude glycerin; 2) 5% of crude glycerin; 3) 10% of crude glycerin. Pigs were housed in 12 pens; 4 replicates (pens) per treatment and three pigs/replicate. Data were analyzed as a complete block design using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS, with a random block effect for period. This study established that inclusion of crude glycerin from palm oil in the diet of growing pigs did not affect (P > 0.05) growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. We concluded that inclusion of crude glycerin from palm oil up to 10% of the diet did not adversely affect pig performance and the quality of the meat.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci.  vol.49 número2

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. vol.49 número2

Stress can have negative effects on health and plays an important role in the predisposition to many physical illnesses (Sapolsky, 1996; Wilder, 1995). Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to increase susceptibility to infection, raise the risk of ischemic heart disease, promote tumour growth, exacerbate autoimmune diseases and suppress many aspects of the immune system (Cohen et al., 2007). In addition, chronic stress affects some areas of the brain, particularly the hippocampus. Animal experimental investigations have revealed that exposure to chronic restraint stress results in atrophy of the apical dendrites in the CA3 region of the hippocampus (Magarinos, McEwen, 1995; Magarinos et al., 1997). Furthermore, exposure to such stress suppresses neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and influences synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus (Pham et al., 2003; Kim, Diamond, 2002). However, these stress-induced changes are dificult or impossible to investigate in humans; hence, the use of animal models is unavoidable and an important element of such investigations (Stefanski, 2001). Of the various experimental models of stress, restraint stress is the most widely used as it is easy to administer, reliable and induces both physical and psychological stress. A number of studies have shown that the effects of stress on the brain, particularly on the hippocampus, can be prevented or at least minimized by certain chemical substances and drugs (Watanabe et al., 1992; Wood et al., 2004).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The preparation of the casting process included heating the mould in 70°C, which caused water to evaporate. Next, the mould parts were joined together and filled with an aluminum alloy. After the alloy solidified, the mould was broken and the cast cooled (fig. 3).

4 Ler mais

PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and water soluble polyphenols.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Corn agronomic traits and recovery of nitrogen from fertilizer during crop season and off-season

Corn agronomic traits and recovery of nitrogen from fertilizer during crop season and off-season

Water deficits also decrease fertilizer-N recovery by corn (Fosu-Mensah & Mensah, 2016), and this can be an important constraint for grain yield, especially in the off-season crops. In Brazil, most corn cultivations are performed during the off-season (fall–winter), and N fertilizers are commonly avoided in this season due to their expensive cost and low efficiency. In order to improve the cost effectiveness of N fertilizer, corn agronomic performance under different N rates during the off-season should be more studied to improve N fertilizer recommendations. In this sense, the amount of N exported through harvest, the remaining N in the soil, and the expected grain yield should all be considered to improve the recovery of N from the fertilizer and avoid soil-N depletion over time.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand proper- ties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The work was aimed at finding optimal settings and models of the time-series analysis for that data as well as detection of possible periodicities appearing in the sand properties. It is concluded that although the time-series analysis requires individual approach to each particular problem, some general recommendations can be also formulated. It can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of outcomes of foundry processes.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes of the sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease of the temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process in the studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze in the furnace that, after heating the furnace and the sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature of the sample to about 996°C. Decrease of the temperature of the sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence of the following diffusion processes:
Mostrar mais

18 Ler mais

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

It is important to highlight that our results apply to a specific institutional framework, given that we studied the effects of oil discoveries on the local development of only one country. For instance, the U.S. has a more widespread ownership of resources than Brazil. There are thousands of oil companies in the U.S., in contrast to the historical monopoly of Petrobras in Brazil. Furthermore, results are likely to differ between developed and developing countries. Finally, we cannot rule out the possibility that oil discoveries positively affect local development of oil municipalities but have adverse effects at the national level (through, for example, a nominal appreciation and pork barrel politics). We show that at the local level, oil discoveries are not a curse per se, and the pure market effect (i.e., when fiscal windfalls are small) benefits development. In light of the results on fiscal windfalls in the literature, it appears that the impact of the windfall effect of resource wealth is strongly dependent on the institutional setting. While natural resource extraction can foster local growth, defining good policies and institutions for use of the associated fiscal windfalls thus remains a key policy challenge for developing countries.
Mostrar mais

50 Ler mais

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Optimisation of the turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations of the sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques of the system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.

4 Ler mais

Thermocatalytic cracking of fat from fat boxes with activated red mud / Rachamento termocatalítico de gordura de caixas de gordura com lama vermelha ativa

Thermocatalytic cracking of fat from fat boxes with activated red mud / Rachamento termocatalítico de gordura de caixas de gordura com lama vermelha ativa

Based on the development of this work and considering the analyzes contained in this study, it is possible to conclude that it is possible to use an environmental liability without added value, the residual fat from retention boxes, as a source of raw material in the thermocatalytic cracking reaction with 10% w/w of catalyst produced from red mud, confirmed by obtaining a good yield in PLO, reaching 65.5%. It is also necessary to ratify the potential of the catalyst in terms of providing the generation of hydrocarbon molecules of short and medium chains proven by the good yield in fuel fractions with up to 88.81% of products obtained in fractional distillation.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

APPLICATION OF NITROGEN SOURCES ON GRAPEVINES AND EFFECT ON YIELD AND MUST COMPOSITION

APPLICATION OF NITROGEN SOURCES ON GRAPEVINES AND EFFECT ON YIELD AND MUST COMPOSITION

formed, which is not stable and is decomposed into ammonia (NH 3 -N), CO 2 and water, with NH 3 -N being volatilized to the atmosphere (LORENSINI et al., 2012). To minimize N transfers, N organic forms have especially (though not exclusively) been used in vineyards, like organic compost obtained from aerobic composting of residues, such as juice sludge and other residues from the winemaking process, and sawdust. Organic compost applied on the soil surface and without incorporation is expected to have a smaller area of contact with the soil and, consequently, a lower rate of N release, which may minimize its transfer to the atmosphere through soil surface runoff and through leaching into the soil profile (LORENSINI et al., 2012), probably increasing the synchronism between N release and uptake by the plant (MELO et al., 2012).
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

In polycrystalline blades of aircraft engine turbines, the size and shape of the grain constitutes one of the most significant quality control criteria of the casts made. In industrial practice, the macrostructure of the airfoil and the blade root is evaluated in terms of the presence of equiaxed, columnar and frozen grains. The grain size has a significant influence on the mechanical properties, creep resistance as well as heat- and high-temperature creep resistance of the blades [10-14].
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

1) The first part, pelletized fuel was only produced by palm fiber with waste glycerol as adhesive. From prepared 3 particle sizes in 2.2, varied palm fiber ingredient for 4 values - 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%. The palm fiber was added with hot water for 0%, 10%, and 20%. Then, the mixture was added with the waste glycerol, adhesive, for 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% (All in mass ratio). All ingredients were mixed well in low round per minute mixer and pelletized by pellet press (Fig. 1). The finished pellets were dried in sunlight. Then, the physical characteristics and combustion efficiency of the pelletized fuel were analysed to find the optimum ratio of ingredients.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

Knowledge about run of crystallization process of alloys constitutes a source of information on development of a new technology to prepare liquid metal and to control of preparation process of alloys within industry. Complicated shapes and big differences in wall thickness of castings made from Al.-Mg alloy and their behavior under changing loads require elaboration and implementation of a methods enabling determination of mechanical properties of the alloys on preparation stage before casting process. The paper presents application of simultaneous ATND method (thermal-voltage derivative analysis) in determination of mechanical properties of AG10 alloy. Investigated alloy was melted in electric resistance furnace, and next, one has performed registration of crystallization with use of ATND method and regression analysis aimed at elaboration of equations to determine mechanical properties of the investigated alloy. Obtained mathematical dependencies enable prompt check of the mechanical properties of the alloy as early as in stage of its preparation. The research performed in laboratory conditions needs verification in industry conditions with targeted production of automated control stand
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...

temas relacionados