The results of this review indicate that the role ofginger in plateletaggregation is unclear and therefore, future clinical trials are needed to further investigate this area, particularly in at- risk populations such as chemotherapy patients. However, until these trials are undertaken, theeffectofgingeronplateletaggregation cannot be confidently dismissed. Previous research has indicated that patient use of dietary supplements is often not reported to treating physicians. For example, a reviewof surveys that investigated the rate of non-disclosure of complementary and alternative medicines in chemotherapy patients found that between 40–50% of patients did not discuss these therapies with their physician. Hence, where patients are at particular risk of bleeding, clinicians should ascertain patient consumption of dietary supplements and screen for any known potentiator of bleeding risk.
Objective: To carry out a systematicreviewoftheliteratureon physical therapy interventions and their effecton frail community-dwelling elders. Methods: Systematicreviewof studies published until June 2008 in the databases Medline, Embase, PEDro, SciELO, LILACS and Cochrane Library. We excluded studies with samples composed of institutionalized, hospitalized and non-frail participants, studies not aimed at treating frailty, and studies that were not specifically related to physical therapy. Results: In accordance with the exclusion criteria, out ofthe 152 Medline articles, only 15 were considered for analysis, out ofthe 71 PEDro articles only one was considered as the other ten had already been selected in Medline, and out ofthe 461 Embase articles only two that had not been selected in others databases were included in this study. A total of seven different types of interventions were verified: 1) muscle strengthening; 2) exercises for muscle strengthening, balance, coordination, flexibility, reaction time and aerobic training; 3) functional training; 4) physical therapy; 5) at-home physical therapy; 6) environment adaptation and prescription of assistive device; 7) water exercise. The results of some studies were contradictory even with similar interventions. The analyzed studies had different definitions for fragility, which made it difficult to compare the results. Conclusion: There is little evidence oftheeffectof physical therapy intervention on frail community-dwelling elders; thus, it is not possible to reach a consensus or conclusion onthe effectiveness ofthe therapeutic regimens proposed for this complex syndrome.
infiltration. As stated above, systemic antihistamines targeting H1R are used in acute AD flares against itch. In general, antihistamines are safe to use, also for a long period of time and the major advantage seems to be relief ofthe symptoms of co-morbidities such as allergic asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis, urticarial dermographism and urticaria (Werfel et al., 2014). Topical antihistamines have no effecton itch beyond that of their cooling vehicles (mostly as a gel) and are in contrast often times clinically not helpful since they exsiccate the skin via this galenic mechanism and even aggrevate itch that way. In summary there are limited data for the antipruritic effectof antihistamines (H1-antagonists) in AD and theeffectof both first and second generation antihistamines on pruritus, in patients suffering from AD. The first generation of sedative antihistamines, such as hydroxyzine, clemastine fumarate and dimetinden maleate, may allow a better sleep pattern in acute situations with exacerbations of eczema. Long-term use in children is not recommended. Ongoing studies concentrate onthe blockade of alternative histamine receptors such as H4R, which may be more important in AD.
The second study about smell 24 aimed to test its role and the trigeminal system in discriminating nicotine, differenti- ating smokers and nonsmokers. Thirty male volunteers with a mean age of 29.9 years participated. Of these, 15 were smoking at least 20 cigarettes a day for two years, and the others were non-smokers. During the study, the researchers applied 14 olfactory stimuli according to a list of random numbers. The subjects were instructed to group the stimuli into two categories (A and B). In addition, the subjects rated the pleasure ofthe 14 stimuli using a scale ranging from 0 (very unpleasant) to 100 (very pleasant). As a result, smokers considered nicotine less unpleasant than nonsmokers. The enantiomeric difference was statistically signiﬁcant for non- smokers (p < ¼ 0.001). They found no differences in thresh- olds and discriminative ability between the groups, indicat- ing that the connection between peripheral olfactory neurons and the trigeminal nerve are not affected by smoking history. Another study 29 could not ﬁnd signiﬁcant difference in identiﬁcation performance and odor threshold between smokers and nonsmokers, although it has shown that smok- ers have a signiﬁcant reduction in the volume ofthe olfactory bulb. This reduction occurs early on as a negative effectof smoking onthe olfactory system. Other researches, howev- er, 24 support the idea that smoking interferes with the olfactory sensation. The indices ofthe olfactory function in smokers were signiﬁcantly lower than non-smokers regard- ing identiﬁcation assessments, discrimination, and odor con- centration content 30 and results showed that smokers have lower sensory recognition capability when compared with non-smokers, 5 showing a positive correlation between de- creased olfactory sensitivity and smoking and a negative correlation between olfactory sensitivity and amount smoked. Thus, the use of tobacco appears to have long-term negative effects on olfactory function due to changes in the olfactory epithelium and increased apoptosis ofthe olfactory neurons.
Drury (2000) states that the ABC started to be applied originally in the manufacturing industry and only later was applied to the service industry. This system tends to be more sophisticated than a traditional costing system since it provides an extensive use of cause and effect cost allocations and tend to have a high level of accuracy. Activity based costing also evaluates whether management is currently serving its customers and how this service can be improved in the future. Through this costing system, resources are allocated to activities, then activities are assigned to cost objects based on their use (Raffisch & Turney, 1991). This contemporary cost system allows firms to have a more accurate costs and provide firms with relevant information for management decision- making process, although it is expensive to develop and to maintain.
The term business intelligence and analytics emerged in 1990 and has been gaining strength in the community of IT professionals and academia over the past decades. Since the last 20 years, we have seen a significant focus on technology but nothing like after the year 2000, where we have witnessed the genuinely transformative effectof communication technologies (Azevedo, Azevedo, & Romão, 2014). The importance of information and, as a consequence, business analytics has become latent and has gained focus in these recent years. Turban, Sharda, & Delen, (2011) states that business intelligence is an umbrella term that combines architectures, databases, analytical tools, methodologies, and applications to aid in decision-making processes.
The original theory of psychodrama proposed by Moreno in 1921 has been adjusted and re-interpreted by several authors over the last three decades. This resulted in the proliferation of techniques whose definitions and contexts of application are unclear and poorly documented in theliterature. The purpose of this review was three-fold: (1) to identify the psychodramatic techniques currently used for research and clinical purposes, (2) to extract and create a list of core techniques which are consensually used by psychodramatists, and which reflect the main principles ofthe Morenian theory of psychodrama, and (3) to propose an operationalised definition ofthe core psychodramatic techniques identified. To achieve this, a systematicreview was conducted, according to the PRISMA guidelines (Moher et al., 2009). The search was conducted between June and September of 2012 in the main electronic databases (e.g., PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO) and using the following keywords: “psychodrama,” “group psychotherapy,” “experiential psychotherapy,” “Moreno,” “intervention,” and “techniques.” Fifty-six techniques were extracted from the 21 papers selected for review. Of these, a preliminary list of 30 techniques was selected, which was reduced to a total of 11 core techniques: soliloquy, double, mirror, role reversal, resistance interpolation, sculpture, social atom, intermediate objects, games, sociometry, role training. The credibility of this final core list was first checked with an expert in Morenian psychodrama, and later discussed with a network of 22 European psychodramatists to ensure full consensus. Overall, this review provides a contemporary framework for psychodramatists that reconciles the current approaches to psychodrama with the core techniques proposed by Moreno, and updates the definitions of these techniques, by merging the interpretations of different experts in the field. To have a list of core techniques which is consensually accepted from an international point of view is paramount not only for future research, but also for training purposes. The implications of this review for clinical practice are also discussed.
Most studies emphasize the role of job satisfaction. We found that the variables related to satisfaction were: (a) the type of work (Sledge et al., 2008); (b) socialization (Gallardo et al., 2009; Pelit et al., 2011; Yang, 2008); (c) self-esteem, performance, independence, and initiative-taking (Gunlu et al., 2009); (d) ethical behaviour (Cheng et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2013); (e) commitment (Yeh, 2013); (f) personal satisfaction, social involvement, salaries, and benefits (Lam et al., 2001; Mazler & Renzl, 2007; Qu & Zhao, 2012); (g) directors entrepreneurial behaviour (Duygulu & Kurgan, 2009; Kim & Brymer, 2011); (h) training and support (Bilgin & Demirer, 2012; Kong, 2013; Gu & Siu, 2008); (i) openness to innovation (Lee et al., 2014); (j) competitiveness, self-efficacy, and effort (Karatepe et al., 2006); (k) organizational justice (Nadiri & Tanova, 2010); (l) empowerment (Pelit et al., 2011); (m) growth opportunities and security (Tian & Pu, 2008); (n) affective commitment, clear work roles, and autonomy (Yang, 2010; Zopiatis et al., 2014); (o) leadership (Arasli & Baradarani, 2014); (p) the organization itself (Ogaard et al., 2008); and (q) age and gender (Tian & Pu, 2008). Some ofthe factors that promote dissatisfaction were: (a) conflicts (Namasivayam & Zhao, 2007; O'Neil & Davis, 2011; Zhao et al., 2011; Zhao & Namasivayam, 2012); (b) absence of professional training (Lam et al., 2001); (c) policies, management, and security (Sledge et al., 2008); (d) turnover (Pelit et al., 2011); (e) low wages (Gallardo et al., 2009; Pelit et al., 2011; Sledge et al., 2008); and (f) high variability in labour demand (Chiang et al., 2014.). Based on these results we can conclude that several aspects promote satisfaction and
The analysis was carried out concerning the data gathered in Tables 4-7 and photographs presenting both the shape, the magnitude, and the distribution of graphite precipitates (Figs 1, 3, 5, 7), as well as those showing the microstucture of cast iron (Figs 2, 4, 6, 8). It allowed for the assessment ofthe influence of aluminium added in the quantity falling into the concerned range on both the graphitization of cast iron and its susceptibility to spheroidization with cerium mischmetal. The latter addition was used in the quantity of 0.11 wt% ofthe material subjected to the treatment.
Although, as we have already seen, the scientific production on mobile communication is very common, the study of mobile journalism has serious research gaps. Pearce (2013) found absences of knowledge in existing scientific production, alerting to the need to conduct studies with a higher theoretical commitment and rigorous methods. Works focused on this area address the technical characteristics of devices (Ahonen, 2008; Jokela & al., 2009) and the challenges of journalistic companies within the contexts ofthe mobile society, focused onthe need to adapt to the public segmentation and to the era ofthe permanent connectivity (Aguado & Martínez, 2006). Researchers agree that this new context facilitates the creation of innovative strategies as regards distribution and business models (Aguado, 2012) and facilitates the creation of new expressive modalities (Sánchez & Aguado, 2010). Cebrián and Flores-Vivar (2011) affirm that news contents disseminated through mobile devices went through three main phases: adaptation, autonomy, and emancipation. The main published articles in this field focus onthe use of mobile devices and its social impact, referring to, for instance, changes in structuring, communication methods and mutation in traditional values such as space and time, public and private, identity, and security and solitude, among others. However, these are descriptive works with a low degree of theoretical research. In this sense, there is a lack of analytical and practical studies about mobile journalism from its three main branches: broad- casting, dissemination, and reception of contents.
his systematicreview was conducted with 31 studies that pre- sented data regarding the association between anthropomet- ric measurements and clustered CMRF in children and ado- lescents. Most studies were cross-sectional, and only six were cohort analyses. BMI was the most investigated anthropometric measurement, present in 28 studies; and SF was the least inves- tigated measurement – included in only one study. MS was used by most studies as an outcome measurement. According to the cross-sectional studies, anthropometric measurements were associated with clustered CMRF both in boys and girls. According to the indings in longitudinal analyses, changes in adiposity in childhood predict changes in levels of clustered CMRF in adolescence.
The aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in balance and increases risk of falls. Pilates has been used for balance training. The purpose of this research was to systematize studies regarding the ef- fects of Pilates exercise interventions on static and dynamic balance of elderly people. A survey was conducted in three indexed databases: Medline/Pubmed, Scopus and Science Direct, using the de- scriptors “balance” or “equilibrium” with the term “Pilates”. Fifteen articles were selected and used in this systematicreview. Based onthe results, we observed that the practice of Pilates with a minimum frequency of two sessions per week for an hour lasting for a period of at least five weeks or three times per week for 12 sessions or more showed improvement on static and dynamic balance of elderly. Keywords: Physical activity; Balance; Elderly; Exercise movement techniques.
Our previous study indicated that burrito leaves are a very good source of phenylpropanoid glycosides, principally verbascoside and that its aqueous extract possessess in vitro antioxidant activity suggesting that it may be useful for the prevention of those pathologic events associated with oxidative stress (Piccinelli et al., 2004). From W. calycina leaves, a standardized, water- soluble extract (WSE) rich in phenylpropanoid glycosides has been developed on an industrial scale to be used as a food supplement, cosmetic, phytomedicine, and ingredient of different formulations. The extract is prepared by a standardized procedure that includes ultrasonic extraction with aqueous EtOH (60% v/v), followed by a spray- drying using maltodextrin as excipient. WSE represents a concentrate of phenolic compounds and its main constituents are phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs), principally verbascoside (7.5 %) and isoverbascoside (1.1 %). This product also contains various benzoic acid derivatives as minor constituents. A recent study has shown the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vitro and in vivo by water-soluble extract of W. calycina (WSE) (Marzocco et al., 2007). This work was aimed to assess the in vitro effectof WSE on human plateletaggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine (EPN), collagen (COL) or arachidonic acid (AA).
BRZYCKI, M. Strength testing—predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, v. 64, n. 1, p. 88-90, 1993. ISSN 0730-3084. BUYSSE, D. J. et al. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry research, v. 28, n. 2, p. 193-213, 1989. ISSN 0165-1781. CADMUS, L. A. et al. Exercise and quality of life during and after treatment for breast cancer: results of two randomized controlled trials. Psycho ‐Oncology, v. 18, n. 4, p. 343-352, 2009. ISSN 1099-1611.
control of blood products is used in blood therapy centers to assess the hemostatic potential of PCs and correct possible complications. In Brazil, quality control is regulated by resolutions and by laws which standardize blood therapy services throughout the country. Each service must have written protocols defining the type of control and minimum parameters for each blood component. Thus, PCs obtained from whole blood should have at least 5.5 x 10 10 platelets/U. It is known that the metabolic activity of
The inclusion criteria were: studies published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish; cross-sectional and longitudinal studies aimed at evaluating ACC ofthe head and neck region and its perineural invasion capacity; articles published from January of 2000 onward. The exclusion criteria were: review articles, population that did not match the research stan- dards, clinical cases, and articles published before the year 2000 or in a different language from those selected for this systematicreview.
This paper results from a research developed on archival appraisal, which the problem of define the background and investigating the approaches used in the national panorama. The objective was to identify and demonstrate the scientific production on document appraisal in Archival Science and in its interdisciplinary relationships. As grounded in theliteratureofthe area, the appraisal process is fundamental for an effective and efficient record and information management, aiming at both the rationalization and the formation of an organizational memory, and it is from this premise that the research proceeds. The methodological procedures adopted were do systematicreview with the brazilian literatureon archival appraisal and also when related to document management, listing the scientific productions, under peer review, indexed in the Base de Dados em Ciência da Informação (BRAPCI) ofthe last 10 years (2007-2016). It presents the research results, identifying the articles that deal with the theme, categorizing the methodologies and describing its characteristics, parameters and adopted criteria. It concludes that the methodology of Schellenberg's Theory of Values, despite anachronism in contemporary studies ofthe area, is still predominant in the theoretical framework of research and is represented in the national legislation that involves information evaluation. It also concludes that in view ofthe paradigmatic, technological and administrative structuring changes ofthe contemporary Institutions, it is possible to identify which more recent methodologies have begun to receive prominence, as is the case of Macroappraisal and Evaluation of Information Flow. Keywords: Archival Appraisal. Appraisal Methodologies. SystematicReview.
This systematicreview has some limitations. First, we did not judge regarding the quality of each trials and risk of bias due to the limit number of retrieved trials; however, we used the Cochrane risk assessment tool to demonstrate any risk of bias at each domain. Second, due to the considerable heterogeneity between studies, we could not perform meta-analysis to evaluate statistically the efficacy of DEX over the other analgesic agents. Third, due to the lack of reported data in some ofthe trials, difference in DEX doses, and different times of administration, we could not synthesis the results based onthe subgroups. Forth, the outcome of pain was incompletely measured and reported in some trials; hence, we could not critically appraise the outcome of those trials. Fifth, we cannot compare the DEX group with control group regarding the POP scores based onthe type of surgery because the number of patients in subcategories of cardiac surgery was reported incompletely.
The study results showed wide variation. Part ofthe surveys revealed an association between language development and family and school environments. With regard to family environment, the following aspects presented a relationship with language development: quality of parental stimulation, socioeconomic status, parental education, number of people cohabiting with the child, and health problems of parents. It can also be noted that the qualiication of teachers to guide the parents regarding interaction with the children proved to be effective in promoting language development.
The results showed a cognitive impairment of 11- -50% in SLE patients (depending on stringency of clas- sification rules) when compared with locally recruited healthy controls. However this frequency was compa- rable with the 9-61% calculated frequency in RA pa- tients and lower than that calculated for MS patients, 20-75%. The frequency difference between SLE pa- tients and patients with stable MS disease is expected but the observed comparability of frequencies between SLE patients and patients with a disease that does not affect primarily the CNS, as RA, raised questions about the presumed etiology of deficits detected by ANAM. The authors suggested that the measures evaluated by the ANAM battery do not distinguish between impai- red mental processing and speed sensoriomotor defi- ciencies and can instead represent CNS immunosup- pressive toxicity. These findings lead to the conclusion that ANAM cannot be used to assess dysfunction on specific cognitive domains and it was not designed as a substitute for formal neuropsychological asse ss - ment 31 .