Top PDF The Effect of the Isolated Aorticopulmonary Lymph Node on Survival in Lung Cancer

The Effect of the Isolated  Aorticopulmonary Lymph Node on Survival in Lung Cancer

The Effect of the Isolated Aorticopulmonary Lymph Node on Survival in Lung Cancer

In the treatment of lung cancer, surgical resection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is performed on the cases at early sta- ges or cases with local advanced stages. In NSCLC cases, at the time of the diagnosis, generally a rate of about 30-38% of mediastinal lymph node (LN) involvement is detected [1]. While surgical treatment comes first in the early stages of lung can- cer, in the presence of N2 disease, three-modality approaches come to the forefront in which surgical treatment is performed following induction chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy [2]. In N2 disease, the metastatic LN station number and deg- ree of invasion are important in terms of surgical evaluation. Today, resectable NSCLC patients who do not have bulky and multi-station LN metastasis and who have same side N2 posi- tivity not showing capsule invasion undergo the surgical app- roach at well-recognized centers following neoadjuvant treat- ment [3,4]. There are some studies evaluating the survival ra- tes of N2 disease on the let upper lobe tumors that have iso- lated station 5 and/or 6th involvements on which surgical ope- ration have been applied among mediastinal lymph node in- volvements, and studies evaluating the survival rates of sing- le station N2 disease. These studies illustrate that survival rate for let upper lobe tumors where there is 5 and/or 6th station lymph node involvement is higher compared to other mediasti- nal lymph node involvements [5-9].
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J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.)  vol.31 número4

J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.) vol.31 número4

AbStrAct: Lymph node metastases are a major prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Inadequate lymph node resection is related to shorter survival. the lymph nodes ratio (LNr) has been used as a prognostic factor in patients with colon cancer. Few studies have evaluated the impact of LNr on the 5-year survival of patients with rectal cancer. Objective: to evaluate the impact of LNr on the survival of patients with rectal cancer not submitted to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. methods: Ninety patients with rectal cancer excluding colon tumors, synchronous tumors, hereditary colorectal cancer and those undergoing preoperative chemoradiation. the patients were divided into three groups according to the LNr: LNr-0, no lymph nodes; LNr-1, 1 to 20% of compromised lymph nodes; and LNR-2, more than 21% of compromised lymph nodes. The cutoff identiication for the selected sample was obtained from the curve of receiver operating characteristics (rOc). Survival was assessed by Kaplan-meier test, the difference among groups by Cox-Mantel test and the correlation among variables by Pearson’s test, adopting a signiicance level of 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Results: The 5-year survival was related to the Dukes classiication, TNM, number of metastatic lymph nodes and
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Int. braz j urol.  vol.42 número4

Int. braz j urol. vol.42 número4

In the present study, the number of lym- ph nodes removed in the ELRC group was signifi- cantly lower than the TLRC group. The extent of pelvic lymph nodes dissection (PLND) in the ELRC group was unlikely to reach the same level in the TLRC group due to the existence of peritoneum, which is the limitation of this technique. Althou- gh there was evidence which indicated that more extended PLND is associated with survival benefit (14), Jensen et al. found that the prognosis after RC and extended PLND in patients with T1–T2 di- sease was not significantly better than those follo- wing RC and limited PLND (15). A meta-analysis study also indicated that compared with non- -extended PLND, extended PLND was associated with a better RFS rate for patients with pT3–pT4 disease, but not for patients with ≤pT2 disease (16). For patients with different age and comorbi- dity status, the beneficial effect of PLND was also different. Larcher et al. (17) found that RC with PLND is associated with improved cancer specific survival relative to RC alone, in younger and he- althier RC candidates but not in older and sicker patients. From our study, although the number of PLND was less in the ELRC group, the lymph node status and the survival rate were similar in the two groups. Therefore, the observed benefit of PLND may not be universally applicable to all RC patients. However, we must admit that the debate of the extended PLND in radical cystectomy still goes on and for the selected elderly bladder pa- tients with ≤T2 disease, ELRC with PLND might
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A Case of Cryptococcal Lymphadenitis in HIV: A Chance Diagnosis by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

A Case of Cryptococcal Lymphadenitis in HIV: A Chance Diagnosis by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

A 15 years old boy was presented with inguinal lymph- adenopathy. The fine needle aspiration of lymph node revealed budding yeast cells and Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated on culture of the aspirate. On further investigations, patient was found to be Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive with low CD4 count of 207cells/µl. Patient showed good response with antifungal and antiretroviral treatment. Cryptococcosis is the most common, life threatening, opportunistic, fungal disease in HIV infected individu- als. Lung, meninges and skin involvement have been described. Lymph node involvement in cryptococcosis is considered to be rare. Therefore a prompt diagnosis is mandatory for early initiation of specific treatment. We report here a case of cryptococcosis presenting as inguinal lymphadenopathy and diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology.
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Effect of implant vs. tissue reconstruction on cancer specific survival varies by axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients.

Effect of implant vs. tissue reconstruction on cancer specific survival varies by axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients.

3. After adjustment for the family income, T-stage, ER status, PR status, tumor grade, surgery type, race and age, we still observed that implant-reconstruction was associated with an im- proved BCSS (Table 2, Fig. 1) in this subgroup of patients. Jiang et al[6] also analyzed the SEER database and showed that after adjusting for the family income in the multivariate analysis, the BCSS differences were limited between patients who underwent tissue and im- plant reconstructions. However, the authors did not report a significant interaction between the N-stage and reconstruction methods. In our study, the reconstruction method was sig- nificantly associated with BCSS in N2-3 patients, even after adjusting for the family income. 4. The association was still significant even after propensity score matching (S3 Table).
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Int. braz j urol.  vol.42 número3

Int. braz j urol. vol.42 número3

The boundaries of extensive LND for blad- der cancer include the ones from the limited LND and the cephalad dissection extended to the cros- sing of the ureters with common iliac arteries and tissue along the lateral and medial portion of inter- nal vessels (25). This LDN approach was important for increasing the survival in node positive and negative patient groups. In the Stein et al. series, despite cancer node involvement, 31% and 23% of the patients were alive 5 and 10 years after RC with extensive LND, respectively. For patients with node negative disease, it also showed a positive effect on survival, suggesting a role in removing occult mi- croscopic metastasis (15, 26, 27). Furthermore, in a retrospective study comparing limited to exten-
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Int. braz j urol.  vol.37 número5

Int. braz j urol. vol.37 número5

The authors’ use data from two large population based cancer registries in order to determine the impact of lymph node sampling on overall survival for pediatric Wilms tumor patients. Adequate data was found on 1340 patients. Patients were divided into groups on the basis of their lymph node sampling. 22% of patients had no lymph nodes sampled; 52% had 1-5 lymph nodes; 16% had 6-10 lymph nodes; and 10% had greater than 10 lymph nodes sampled. On multivariate analysis they found statistically signiicant survival advantage for those patients who had lymph nodes sampled versus those who did not. This advantage increased among groups with greater numbers of lymph nodes sampled.
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PDF EN Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 3 1 english

PDF EN Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 3 1 english

Dissemination to locoregional lymph nodes is a deter- mining factor in the prognosis of lung cancer. It is known that patients with pathological stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and undetected lymph node metastases can develop early recurrence, even after the complete surgical resection of the tumor. In such patients, the estimated 5-year survival rate ranges from 64 to 75%, (2) suggesting

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J. bras. pneumol.  vol.34 número3 en v34n3a01

J. bras. pneumol. vol.34 número3 en v34n3a01

Dissemination to locoregional lymph nodes is a deter- mining factor in the prognosis of lung cancer. It is known that patients with pathological stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and undetected lymph node metastases can develop early recurrence, even after the complete surgical resection of the tumor. In such patients, the estimated 5-year survival rate ranges from 64 to 75%, (2) suggesting

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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device use and support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology and the results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

The Malaysia government is proactive in supporting and promoting ICT usage just like its Singapore counterpart. Internet usage has been found to be relatively mature in a consumer satisfactory survey conducted by the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (2004a). Four out of ten Internet users access e- government services for registration and information purposes. Further more, the World Bank has classified Malaysia as an upper-middle-income country (ITU, MCMC, 2004a). Malaysia’s Personal Computer (PC) penetration rate stood at 16.6 percent (ITU, 2004a). The cost of dial-up Internet access has been kept relatively low with subscribers being able to connect to a dial-up point of presence at local call rates (see table 2). Commercial broadband services were first launched by Time dotcom (TIME) in June 2001. At the end of 2003, there were a total of 110,247 subscribers. According to ITU 2004a, this translates to subscriber penetration rate of 0.44 percent or a household broadband penetration rate of 1.98 percent. Around 98 percent of all broadband connections are over direct exchange line (DSL).
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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location of the producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state of the economy and the potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent of the field. Every well drilled inside the known extent of the field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
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Estadiamentos pré-operatório e patológico do CPNPC: análise retrospectiva de 291 casos.

Estadiamentos pré-operatório e patológico do CPNPC: análise retrospectiva de 291 casos.

Extensive involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes, as well as the detection of pleural effusion and/or pleural implants or distant metastatic disease, usually precludes radical surgical proce- dures. Therefore, all efforts must be made for the correct selection of patients that are candidates for radical surgery. Preoperative staging is routinely carried out through chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT), bone scan, magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the brain, bronchoscopy and mediastinoscopy. Recently, Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-CT has been used to stage patients with lung cancer. Despite the recent advances in clinical staging, there is no absolute concordance between clinical and pathological stage. The latter is more accurate, but can be only determined after surgery. Santos et al. (2007) published a Brazilian series of 92 patients, submitted to surgical resection (clinical stages from Ia to IIb), comparing clinical and pathological stages. It was observed that the concordance between clinical and pathological stage was low (approximately 60%), and patients were more often downstaged at preoperative evaluation. 8 The dificulty in predicting lymph node metastases
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Ronald Enrique Delgado-Bocanegra, Eduardo Camargo Millen, Cristina Moreira do Nascimento, Karine de Aguiar Bruno

Ronald Enrique Delgado-Bocanegra, Eduardo Camargo Millen, Cristina Moreira do Nascimento, Karine de Aguiar Bruno

Breast cancer management has undergone many changes in recent years, particularly where treatment is concerned, with the objective of improving the effectiveness and tole- rance of treatment. Axillary status is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer and may be a determinant indicating whether systemic adjuvant therapy should be administered (12). Axillary management in patients with breast cancer has improved significantly over recent decades, with SLNB hav- ing become the standard procedure for axillary staging in patients without clinically detectable lymph nodes (cN0) (11). The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and ACOSOG have proposed that axillary lymphadenect- omy be restricted to specific situations, based on the failure of the ACOSOG Z0011 trial to find any differences in disease- free survival or overall survival between the groups rando- mized to axillary lymphadenectomy and SLNB alone groups (15). Accordingly, axillary lymphadenectomy could be ruled out for patients subjected to conservative surgery, those with Table 1 - Baseline clinical characteristics of the study sample
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The friction influence on stress in micro extrusion

The friction influence on stress in micro extrusion

Axisymmetric geometry of the investigated processes, allows considering one half of the billet, reducing calculation time this way. To carry out the simulation processes, DEFORM software was used. The billet material was considered as a plastic with the strain hardening defined on fig. 4. The mesh of the billet was fine enough to take into account all the asperities of the interface. As well as die, container and punch were treated as a rigid.

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Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet.  vol.35 número11

Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet. vol.35 número11

On the other hand, metastasis in the SLN parenchyma (68%), was 5-times greater associated to the risk of additional NSLN involvement in univariate analyses and 1.5-times greater after multivariate analyses. Extranodal extension of the disease in the SLN was associated to a 4.2-time risk in univariate analysis. Consequently, it may be inferred that the metastasis situated in the capsule represent an initial stage of disease within the SLN, while the parenchymal and extranodal metastases represent an advanced stage of the disease, with bigger metastatic deposits and greater risk of additional involvement of NSLN. Metastasis above 6.0 mm together with the presence of PVI were the most powerful predictors of additional metastasis. There are some doubts about histological localization of metastasis within the SLN, as a tentative of identiication of more aggressive cases and as an explanation about neoplastic involvement of SLN restricted to the capsule could be considered a real metastasis or it could correspond to mechanical transport of cells from the primary tumor.
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The Effects of Tumour Thickness and Size on  Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Tongue Cancer

The Effects of Tumour Thickness and Size on Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Tongue Cancer

Oral dil kanserlerinde kullanılan TNM evrelemesine göre tümö- rün çapı, tümör büyüklüğünü ve tümör yükünü belirlemede tek prognostik belirleyici olmaktadır. Ancak son yıllarda yapılan ça- lışmalarda, özellikle oral skuamöz hücreli dil kanserlerinde TNM evrelemesinin yeterli olmadığı yönünde görüşler artmaktadır. Bazı çalışmalarda tümörün çapının yanında vertikal planda yap- tığı yayılma miktarının bir diğer değişle üç boyutlu yapısının göz önüne alınması gerektiği üzerinde durulmaktadırlar. Bu yazarlar, tümörün kalınlığı ve derin dokulara yaptığı invazyon miktarının toplam tümör hacmi, tümör hücre yükü ve prognozun belirlen- mesi açısından daha önemli olduğunu savunmaktadırlar [3,5-7]. Üst aerodigestif sistem traktus kanserlerinde diğer önemli bir prognostik parametre ise servikal lenfatik metastazların varlı- ğı ve sayısıdır. Son yıllarda yapılan bazı çalışmalar, oral dil kan- serlerinde tümör kalınlığının servikal lenf nodu metastazı ge- lişmesi konusunda tümörün çapından daha kritik olduğunu sa- vunmaktadır. Bu yazarlar tümör kalınlığı ve invazyon derinliği arttıkça servikal metastaz oranının giderek arttığını ve belirli bir eşik değerin üzerinde invazyon derinliğine ulaşan tümörler- de elektif boyun diseksiyonunun şart olduğunu bildirmektedir- ler [8-10]. Ancak bazı yazarlar ise erken evre dil kanserlerinde tümör evresi ve tümör derinliğinin tedavi yanıtını etkilemediği- ni ve başarızlığı belirleyen tek anlamlı değişkenin diferansias- yon olduğunu raporlamıştır [11]. Günümüze kadar bu konuda ya- pılan birçok yayına rağmen, tümör invazyon derinliği ve servikal metastaz ilişkisi açısından bir cut-of değeri belirlenememiştir. Ülkemizde, dil kanserlerinde TNM evrelemesi, histopatolojik de- ğişkenlerin ve invazyon derinliğinin prognozla ilişkisi konusunda kısıtlı sayıda çalışma bulunmaktadır [12-14].
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A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

Thus if we prove that ΔL/ΔF =(r+a)/(r-a) then the theorem is proved. Now let us consider a circle with centre at origin and radius ‘r’. Thus the equation of circle is x²+y²=r².The equation of the chord at ‘a’ distance from center is ax-ry- ar=0 or Y= a/r(x-r).

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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Based on the objectives to be achieved and problems that have been formulated, the method used is juridical- sociological. The juridical approach is intended to explore and study the legislation as a basis for a research, while the sociological approach is intended to explore the factors and impacts incurred from the occurrence of border-area dispute and solution by the government. The specifications of this research are normative law called also as doctrinal research. A site was chosen by researcher to conduct a research is a government agency that includes the Navy (Department of Hydro-Oceanographic) related to the sea boundaries of the Republic of Indonesia and neighboring countries, local governments, especially in the leading islands border to the Republic of Indonesia related to culture, security, politics and thinking about the area/island they occupy, as a part of the Unitary of the Republic of Indonesia. The population is all research objects to be researched. In this research, the population is Navy and the relevant agencies involved in the security of sea area. The samples were chosen to be a material of research is the bearer of the security function in marine areas through the random system and interviews with relevant parties, such as Bakorkamla and community.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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