Top PDF The effect of lanthanides on color properties of the (Bi2O3)0.7(Ln2O3)0.3 compounds

The effect of lanthanides on color properties of the (Bi2O3)0.7(Ln2O3)0.3 compounds

The effect of lanthanides on color properties of the (Bi2O3)0.7(Ln2O3)0.3 compounds

The compounds (Bi2O3)0.7(Ln2O3)0.3 , where Ln = Eu, Gd, Tm, Yb and Lu, were synthesized. The presence of these rare earth cations makes interesting hue of prepared samples and at the same time contributes to increase of their thermal stability. Compounds containing Yb, Lu and Tm provide intensive orange colour hue. Pigments with Eu and Gd possesses orange- yellow and intensive yellow colour. The X- ray analysis of powdered material containing Yb, Lu and Tm revealed single phase, whereas systems doped Eu and Gd are heterogeneous. The mean particle size of the prepared samples is in the range from 3.4 µm to 7.5 µm. These pigments are resistant to heat and represent potential alternative of inorganic pigments containing chromium and lead (chromate yellows). New coloured compounds could contribute to the basic assortment of orange and yellow inorganic pigments.
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Modern development of steel grades for responsible engineering castings consists mainly in systematic increase of the imposed requirements. This is the reason why the low-alloy structural steels of high mechanical and plastic properties are gaining importance in both technology and economy. When shaping with microadditions the properties of castings made from low-alloy steel, it is very important to extensively use the impact of heat treatment and various mechanisms of microstructure hardening at a given chemical composition. The greatest possibilities in this field lie in the mechanisms based on microalloying (V, Nb, Ti), grain refining and dispersion hardening [1-3]. The combined effect of microadditives and properly selected heat treatment regime may lead to great changes in the properties of ready casting [4,5]. This is specially true if we remember that dispersion hardening takes place in alloys in which the volume fraction of dispersed phases does not exceed 0.1%, and the size of respective particles is 1-100nm [6]. The data offered by technical literature and the results of own investigations [6-8] indicate that there exist vast possibilities for the use of microadditions in cast steels, having considered the,
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Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

The unmodified water glass shows inadequate wetting of the surface of the quartz grains (Fig. 3). Changes of contact angle in time are characterised by high values of both the initial contact angle θ 0 (about 45 deg.) a nd the equilibrium angle θ r (about 33

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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Phosphorus, which can be introduced to metal bath in free form, as a master alloy or a salt, belong to well-known modifiers of hypereutectic silumins. It has been confirmed [2] that in such case the aluminum phosphide, AlP, becomes the nucleus of the crystallization. In the studies [11-12] is presented a new view on interaction of phosphorus in process of modification of hypereutectic silumins, which is an effect of local overcooling in micro-areas caused by evaporation and expansion of bubbles of phosphorus vapours. Indispensable quantity of phosphorus in the alloy was determined as interval of 0,01 ÷ 0,05 % [1-3].
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Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

The above mentioned alloys were fabricated from the following starting materials (Table 1): aluminium in grade AR1 (99,96% Al), silicon of 98,5% purity (rest Fe and other elements), copper (99, 98% Cu), nickel (99, 98% Ni) and cast AG10 alloy (about 10 wt.% Mg). Melts were conducted in a Leybold-Heraeus IS5/III induction furnace with crucible of 0,7kg capacity made from magnesite refractory material. A protective coating of 2NaF and KCl was used. When the furnace temperature of ~ 820 o C had been reached, the melt was subjected to refining treatment with Rafglin-3 in an amount of 0,3 wt.%, followed by modification with Cu-P (~9,95%P). The temperature of pouring was controlled by a NiCr-NiAl TP-202K-800-1 thermocouple immersed in the bath of molten metal.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Richardson with SOR, Chebyshev with Gauss-Seidel and Chebyshev with SOR. The iterative schemes were applied to Banded system, Tridiagonal systems and SPD system with varying dimensions. The Krylov subspace methods: GMRES, QMR, MINRES and BiCGSTAB converged to an approximate solutions less than or equal to the dimension of the coefficient matrix for each identified systems of linear equations. Again, Chebyshev and Richardson acceleration methods were the fastest convergence methods in terms of number of iterations. Again, Residual smoothing and the accelerated gradient schemes should be used for large and sparse systems of linear equations. The acceleration processes were very efficient when solving large and sparse systems of linear equation and therefore useful especially for systems resulting from the solution of partial differential equations.
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The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations of the share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect of the data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One of the main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation of the segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
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Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

Knowledge about run of crystallization process of alloys constitutes a source of information on development of a new technology to prepare liquid metal and to control of preparation process of alloys within industry. Complicated shapes and big differences in wall thickness of castings made from Al.-Mg alloy and their behavior under changing loads require elaboration and implementation of a methods enabling determination of mechanical properties of the alloys on preparation stage before casting process. The paper presents application of simultaneous ATND method (thermal-voltage derivative analysis) in determination of mechanical properties of AG10 alloy. Investigated alloy was melted in electric resistance furnace, and next, one has performed registration of crystallization with use of ATND method and regression analysis aimed at elaboration of equations to determine mechanical properties of the investigated alloy. Obtained mathematical dependencies enable prompt check of the mechanical properties of the alloy as early as in stage of its preparation. The research performed in laboratory conditions needs verification in industry conditions with targeted production of automated control stand
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The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

on overall company evaluations‖. Murray and Vogel (1997) have investigated the effect of associated CSR practices on consumers and presented similar findings. The CSR activities mentioned in the research are, for instance, environmental protection practices (energy conservation), engagement in acts to promote human welfare, corporate social marketing (electric safety education for schoolchildren), contribution to the economic development of the region, and consumer protection program. Their research found that CSR programs lead to improved customer attitudes towards the firm, including beliefs about the company‘s honesty, consumer responses, and increased support for the firm in labor or government disputes. Mohr et al. (2001) conducted a consumer interview project for investigating the impact of firms‘ CSR on consumer behavior. How well are consumers aware of the CSR level of individual firms? Are the purchase decisions of consumers affected by a firm‘s CSR, and how much? How do consumers think about firms‘ motivation for being socially responsible? Mohr et al. (2001) found that consumers are positive to business in general. It is not wrong to pursue economic interests. Consumers expect firms to be socially responsible. The attitudes of consumers toward socially responsible firms are more positive than toward irresponsible firms. Consumers are aware that socially responsible firms are helping themselves by practicing CSR. But this perception of consumers does not harm the positive consumer evaluations toward socially responsible firms. The study of Mohr et al. (2001) is enlightening for researchers, managers and policy makers. For managers specifically, it is clear that consumers do care about a firm‘s CSR and act accordingly. Some consumers are highly ethical in
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Effect Of Shape And Plan Configuration On Seismic Response Of Structure

Effect Of Shape And Plan Configuration On Seismic Response Of Structure

Abstract: Earthquake is a very important aspect to be considered while designing structures. Lot of work has been reported by many researchers who worked to study the effect of structures with irregular plan and shape. Being inspired from the work contributed in the study on effects of earthquake on irregular shaped building in plan, this paper presents effects of plan and shape configuration on irregular shaped structures. Buildings with irregular geometry respond differently against seismic action. Plan geometry is the parameter which decides its performance against different loading conditions. The effect of irregularity (plan and shape) on structure have been carried out by using structural analysis software STAAD Pro. V8i. There are several factors which affect the behavior of building from which storey drift and lateral displacement play an important role in understanding the behaviour of structure. Results are expressed in form of graphs and bar charts. It has been observed from the research that simple plan and configuration must be adopted at the planning stage to minimize the effect of earthquake.
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The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

Although iron is characterised by relatively high melting point, its oxides formed in oxidising environments cannot provide an adequate protection at temperatures above 600 ºC [1]. Therefore, the alloy composition is enriched with additives of chromium, aluminium and silicon that are expected to improve the protective properties of the scale. In the case of oxide scales, the scale composed of Cr 2 O 3 is generally thought to be the best

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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

We find a large positive impact of onshore discoveries on local economic development but no impact of offshore discoveries. In fact, for offshore discoveries the coefficients are estimated to be equal to zero with some precision in Columns (6)–(10). For manufacturing GDP per capita the estimated coefficient is positive but not significantly. For onshore discoveries, services GDP per capita increases by 36%, the urbanization rate increases by over 8 percentage points, while the fraction of services workers in the local economy increases by over 5 percentage points. Additionally, the fraction of public sector workers increases by roughly 1 percentage point. We interpret these results as support for the hypothesis that a structural shift towards the services sectors is caused by a local demand shock in municipalities with onshore discoveries. Since this demand shock is absent after offshore discoveries there is no effect there. The impact on public sector employment might be due to two factors: first, there was a (very) small impact on government revenues even before 1997 due to royalties. In 1995, the first year for which we have data on royalties at the municipal level, they made up 2.84 percent of government revenue for onshore municipalities. Second, the increase in local activity generated additional local revenues via local tax collection. Property taxes, for example, are collected locally and could have benefited from the increased urbanization. 26
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Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

In the paper the numerical solution of the inverse problem consisting in the identification of the heat flux on the continuous casting surface is presented. The additional information results from the measured surface or interior temperature histories. In particular the sequential function specification method using future time steps is applied. On the stage of numerical computations the 1st scheme of the boundary element method for parabolic equations is used. Because the problem is strongly non-linear the additional procedure 'linearizing' the task discussed is introduced. This procedure is called the artificial heat source method. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.
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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism of the created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage of the non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because of the chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
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The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The possibility of increasing the hardness of the copper- containing alloy by ageing has made it reasonable to choose cast steels with copper addition for castings working under corrosive-erosive conditions, such as elements of pump casing, impellers, connector pipes, guide vanes, etc [3]. But the quantity of defected castings (due to hot cracking) and the difficulty with the copper-containing scrap management at piece production have resulted in the fact that Polish power industry still uses imported elements [4].
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

www.ijstr.org can support the management of coastal areas, so it can be arranged on the setting, management, utilization, preservation and protection and security of marine areas and determination of Indonesia‘s borders area. To be comprehend the existence of territory of a country that called as maritime country in which it consists of securing a territorial waters, leading islands and natural resources outcomes such as fishing become rights and obligations of all government and relevant agencies to handle the management of coastal areas and leading small islands of various foreign ships or parties that violate a cross-border waters the other party‘s interests that can threaten the state‘s sovereignty.
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

describe and understanding the evaluated of customer and customer behavior (Tuu & Olsen, 2011:29). Consumer behavior involves risk in the sense that any action of a consumer will produce consequences which he cannot anticipate with anything approximating certainty, and some of which at least are likely to be unpleasant (Bauer, 1960) and sacrifice to obtain a product (Zeithaml, 1988). Value of risk often in empirical study on customer behavior in foods (Knight et al., 2007:794), considering food is basic needs of customer every day. Perceived risk is not only related to consumers’ information acquisition and processing activity but to post- decision processes as well, where people will seek out information that confirms the wisdom of their decision (Horvat & Dosen, 2013:273). Consumer risk perception and its impacts on purchasing behavior are a critical component of the management of food safety (Yeung et al., 2010:306), perceived risk can be explained as consumers’ doubt on the results of their buying decisions (Arslan et al., 2013). It can be interpreted that perception of risk is sacrificed value of customer when buying products as result from selection until interpretation from alternative product. Described of organic product can be measure with financial risk, performance risk, physical risk and social risk (Yee et al., 2011:54). Research on the same years is delivered of measure of risk, especially food include health risk, performance risk, psychosocial risk, and financial risk (Tuu et al., 2011:368). Perception of risk have negative relationship with perception of quality (Kim & Lennon, 2013:33), and on last research found that perception of quality have negative relationship with perception of risk received by customer (Chen & Chang, 2005:521). Based on theoretical study which has been discussed, next determined research hypothesis.
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Influence of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of AlSi13Cu2 alloy

Influence of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of AlSi13Cu2 alloy

Today’s industry aims at such situation, where number of defective products, so called defects shall approach to zero. Therefore, one introduces a various changes in technology of production, introduces improvements which would help in accomplishment of this objective. Another important factor is introduction of different type of testing, which shall help in assessment which factor has significant effect on quantity of rejects, and which one could be neglected. Existence of casting rejects is unavoidable; therefore a new ideas, technologies and innovations are necessary in the entire widely understood foundry branch, in order to minimize such adverse effect. Performance of tests aimed at unequivocal determination of an effect of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of the AlSi13Cu2 alloy was the objective of the present work. To do this, there were produced 36 castings from AlSi13Cu2 alloy. All the castings underwent machining operations. Half of the casting was destined to strength tests, the other half served to determination of an effect of vibrations on porosity of the alloy. The specimens were divided into 12 groups, depending on amplitude of vibrations and tilt angle of metal mould during pouring operation.
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Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

This model, preached by any teacher of electrical engineering to his students on the various levels, was given like postulate. This article proposes an analytical justification to the equivalent diagram elements of single-phase transformer current, particularly to those of the central branch. The article is organized in three main sections. Section II begins by the calculation of active power consumed in a parallelepiped electromagnetic domain subjected to a variable flow. The result is applied to a shell form single-phase transformer. With open load test, the power consumption linked to the leakage inductance and resistance of the transformer winding is neglected in front of the consumption of the central branch [11]. But it is not the case for a loaded transformer. The methods to determine resistances of the reels are indisputable. This article gives the expressions of the elements of the central branch in the model of Steinmetz starting from the powers and their site. It studies also the variation relation of the iron resistance and the iron reactance compared to the computed values with 220 V. Section 2 is dedicated to this calculation. Discussions and a comparison of results are described in Section 3. The final section is devoted to the article conclusion.
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