Abstract: - This paper presents the results of an investigation which was about influence of non -ground Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) and Non-Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (NGBFS) as fineaggregateon rapid chloridepermeabilityofconcrete. Series of Rapid ChloridePermeability Test (RCPT) were conducted with concrete specimens containing NGBFSandCBA in varying percentages from 10 to 50% with the step of 10% offineaggregate by weight. Two basic series concrete specimens were prepared in laboratory. The first series (G) was contained NGBFS, the second series (B) was contained CBA as fineaggregate. Test results indicated that NGBFS or CBA improves the resistance to chloride ion penetration to some extent. 30% and 10% replacement ratios were selected as optimum replacement ratios for G and B series. It was concluded that GBFS was more impressive then CBA for blocking chloride ion movements.
concrete have better performance than natural sand concrete because for equal mortar compressive strength, theconcrete with crushed granite sand has higher compressive strength than concrete with natural river sand. The shape and texture of crushed granite sand particles have an important effectonthe interlocking of paste andaggregate particles. They also explored theeffectof replacement of natural river sand with three types of mineral aggregates. They found that all mixtures ofconcrete with granite, limestone and dolomite as crushed fineaggregate, displayed considerable workability loss after 20 minutes. To achieve required workability they used super plasticizer. From the experimental investigations they concluded that, concrete with granite crushed sand has higher compressive strength, at all ages, than concrete with river sand. The increase in compressive strength was related to strong paste-fineaggregate interface andthe intrinsic strength of granite particles. Flexural strength of granite crushed sand mix showed higher strength values than concrete with river sand mix at equivalent test ages. The improvement ofthe paste-fineaggregate transition zone was attributed to the rough texture of granite crushed sand, which increases the mechanical interlocking with cement paste. Concrete with granite crushed sand showed lower split tensile strength at 28 days and 14% higher value than concrete with river sand at one year. Modulus of elasticity of river sand concrete was always higher than concrete with granite crushed sand.
Portland cement of 53 grade manufactured by Birla Company confirming to IS 12269 was used in this investigation. The specific gravity ofthe cement was 3.06. The initial and final setting times were found as 40 minutes and 360 minutes respectively. Locally available river sand passing through 4.75 mm IS. Sieve was used. The specific gravity ofthe sand is found to be 2.68.Crushed granite aggregate available from local sources has been used. To obtain a reasonably good grading, 50% oftheaggregate passing through 12.5mm I.S.sieve and retained on 10 mm I.S.sieve and 50% oftheaggregate passing through 10 mm I.S.sieve and retained on 6 mm I.S.sieve was used in the production of HPC. In the production of M20 grade concrete, 20mm maximum size coarse aggregate has been used. The specific gravity of coarse aggregate is 2.75. Potable fresh water available from local sources was used for mixing and curing of both HPC mixes and M20 grade concrete. To improve the workability ofthe HPC mixes, a high range water-reducing agent COMPLAST SP-337 has been used in the present work. The mineral admixture Metakaolin is obtained from the 20 MICRON LIMITED company at Vadodara in Gujarat. The specific gravity of Metakaolin is 2.54. The Metakaolin is in conformity with the general requirements of pozzolana. Various properties of Metakaolin as supplied by the manufacturer are presented in Table 1.
A recycled concrete with 50% replacement of natural coarse aggregate by CDW aggregate (RAC - recycled aggregateconcrete) and a similar recycled concrete in which, additionally, the Portland cement was replaced by recycled cement (with 25% ceramic waste) (RACC - recycled aggregateand cement concrete) were prepared to assess the protection and consolidation effectof an eco-friendly healing biotreatment on water absorption. A commercially available Portland blended cement CEM III/A 42.5 N/SR was conformed to the Spanish [8-9] and European  standards. In RACC, this Portland cement was replacement by recycled cement with 25% waste ceramic fraction. Table 1 shows the chemical composition of both types of cement. Natural aggregates presented a siliceous nature and complied with the requirements ofthe EHE-08  and EN 12620+A1 . Recycled mixed aggregates (RMA) were obtained through a mechanical treatment of CDW in a recycling plant located in the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain). The composition ofthe RMA, determined according to EN 933-11 , is presented
Finally, this study suffers from a number of limitations. First, our sample was composed of university students. It is possible that their perceptions of e-loyalty and site value are different from other populations because they are younger and have less experience as consumers. For that, it is relevant to test the model with a real population of buyers via Internet. Second, in our study, the measurement ofthe perceived value was restricted to the consumer context, and dealt only with Holbrook’s (1994) “self-oriented” dimensions of value. The social dimension of value, referred to by Holbrook (1994) as the “other oriented” dimension remains unexplored. In both online and off-line retail service experiences; this element of value is likely to be a significant factor in shaping perceptions ofthe consumption experience. Future researches are encouraged to extend this work to incorporate this added dimension that includes status, ethics, esteem and spirituality in order to capture Holbrook’s full typology.
Mahesh V. Patil was born 1979, graduated in Civil engineering from Shivaji University, Kolhapur, in 2005. He is pursuing his Ph.D. in the area of civil -structures at S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India. He is working in the field of civil engineering for last couple of years. He has more than 10 research papers in various nations and international journals and conferences.
Aluminum industry has a great contribution to world-wide economy. Nowadays, aluminum is the second (after steel) the most popular andthe most often used metal in the world . For a few last decades its production has grown nearly ten times and is still growing. The aluminum owes its popularity to properties like corrosion resistance or thermal and electric conductivity. However, ratio ofthe strength to mass is the main property. Except advantages, the aluminum also features a disadvantage like the price is. Alloys of aluminum with silicon (so called silumins), which are characterized by good mechanical properties, find broad applications in electro-engineering, automotive, aircraft, precise, household equipment industry, and in many other industrial branches [2, 4]. Contemporary tendencies striving after minimization of mass of structures should increase field ofthe application.
Abstract: Mathematical model for the impact of pressure drop onthe human body has been investigated in the present studies. The studies has been aimed at personnel (army and mountaineer) who would be prone for higher altitude effectonthe body and to suggest them appropriate measures (as a precautionary or advisory purpose) who either will be getting inducted onto higher altitudes venturing onto higher peaks. The model accounts for heights of altitudes ranging from 4000-6000 meters and accounting for all the possible cardiovascular diseases
The results of calculations ofthe areas of non-planar grain surfaces andthe grain areas onthe projection plane for correct and incorrect macrostructures are presented as distributions with a logarithmic width of classes in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. 7. Parameters ofthe grain size distributions in 3D and 2D spaces are presented in Table 1. A supplementary evaluation ofthe grain size consists of a calculation ofthe shape and elongation coefficients. The results ofthe calculations are presented as distributions these values in Figures 8, 9, 10 and 11, respectively, while statistical parameters are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
Progressive materials with high-speed development in wide range of commercial applications are aluminum alloys Al – Si. Future of their further use is connected with their unique characteristic, resp. advantageous relation between mechanical properties and density. Largest use of these alloys is in the transport industry – automobile and aerial industry. Also often used in engineering industry and special role in army industry. Desirable mechanical properties may be considered one ofthe main reason for wide spectrum efficiency of aluminum alloys, therefore is very important to understand the factors, which have major impact on this properties. Main goal of this work was to execute group of experiments, to prove impact of filtration elements on morphology of eutectical silicon. Shape, deployment and scale of eutectical silicon are one ofthe factors, that have
In this paper, the impact toughness, autogenous shrinkage, chloride penetration resistance, permeability resistance and abrasion resistance performance of prepared concrete reinforced with Polyacrylonitrile iber (PAN iber) were researched. The PAN iber volume concentration percentages of cement were 0, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of PAN iber, the toughness and durability performance were improved. Compared to the reference sample, the impact energy was signiicantly improved. The absorbed energy prevent specimens from deterioration by the mechanisms of matrix cracking, PAN iber/matrix interface debonding, iber pull-out and iber rupture. Meanwhile, the autogenous shrinkage, chloride penetration resistance, permeability resistance and abrasion resistance performance were improved. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) technique found that concrete with PAN iber has a better pore characterization. Among these specimens, the maximum improvement was obtained with 1.0 vol.% PAN iber.
an inert steel aggregate for construction (ISAC), processed from electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, with the aim to evaluate the technical feasibility of their recycling in the drainage layers of transport infrastructures. The durability of recycled materials was studied using the slake-durability test (SDT) proposed by International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM). In order to test the behaviour ofthe material in mechanical conditions more adverse than those specified in the ISRM method, more 600 rotation cycles than those foreseen in the original method were applied. As a complement to SDT tests, macro- and micropetrographic observations as well as physical characterizations of two recycled materials, both before and after SDT tests, were performed. Regarding the hydraulic behaviour ofthe recycled materials, constant-head permeability tests were carried out on specimens prepared from grain-size fractions in the ranges 0.25-2.0 mm and 2.0-20.0 mm. In the study was compared the behaviour of two recycled materials with two reference natural materials, a basalt and a limestone. The results obtained show, for the conditions tested, the technical feasibility of their recycling in the mentioned applications.
Theeffectof chemical composition and process history applied in manufacture ofthe Al-Si-Me alloys with Cu, Ni and Mg was traced using Weibull distribution function, the values of this distribution, andthe values ofthe, so called, reliability index. The analysis ofthe technological process history included type of foundry mould and processes of modification and heat treatment. An additional argument for undertaking the investigation was the lack (so far) of a domestic counterpart of these alloys, widely used in West European countries and USA for, among others, cast pistons and cylinder heads operating in I.C. engines. Using the results of own investigations carried out on a wide scale , it has
www.ijstr.org can support the management of coastal areas, so it can be arranged onthe setting, management, utilization, preservation and protection and security of marine areas and determination of Indonesia‘s borders area. To be comprehend the existence of territory of a country that called as maritime country in which it consists of securing a territorial waters, leading islands and natural resources outcomes such as fishing become rights and obligations of all government and relevant agencies to handle the management of coastal areas and leading small islands of various foreign ships or parties that violate a cross-border waters the other party‘s interests that can threaten the state‘s sovereignty.
dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth ofthe contraction cavity with the growth ofthe temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions ofthe atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease ofthe depth ofthe contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing ofthe content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition ofthe bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation onthe surface ofthe solidifica- tion bronze ofthe layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as andthe oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth ofthe temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
on overall company evaluations‖. Murray and Vogel (1997) have investigated theeffectof associated CSR practices on consumers and presented similar findings. The CSR activities mentioned in the research are, for instance, environmental protection practices (energy conservation), engagement in acts to promote human welfare, corporate social marketing (electric safety education for schoolchildren), contribution to the economic development ofthe region, and consumer protection program. Their research found that CSR programs lead to improved customer attitudes towards the firm, including beliefs about the company‘s honesty, consumer responses, and increased support for the firm in labor or government disputes. Mohr et al. (2001) conducted a consumer interview project for investigating the impact of firms‘ CSR on consumer behavior. How well are consumers aware ofthe CSR level of individual firms? Are the purchase decisions of consumers affected by a firm‘s CSR, and how much? How do consumers think about firms‘ motivation for being socially responsible? Mohr et al. (2001) found that consumers are positive to business in general. It is not wrong to pursue economic interests. Consumers expect firms to be socially responsible. The attitudes of consumers toward socially responsible firms are more positive than toward irresponsible firms. Consumers are aware that socially responsible firms are helping themselves by practicing CSR. But this perception of consumers does not harm the positive consumer evaluations toward socially responsible firms. The study of Mohr et al. (2001) is enlightening for researchers, managers and policy makers. For managers specifically, it is clear that consumers do care about a firm‘s CSR and act accordingly. Some consumers are highly ethical in
To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages andonthe characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations ofthe share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect ofthe data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One ofthe main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation ofthe segregation effects of interest onthe gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
describe and understanding the evaluated of customer and customer behavior (Tuu & Olsen, 2011:29). Consumer behavior involves risk in the sense that any action of a consumer will produce consequences which he cannot anticipate with anything approximating certainty, and some of which at least are likely to be unpleasant (Bauer, 1960) and sacrifice to obtain a product (Zeithaml, 1988). Value of risk often in empirical study on customer behavior in foods (Knight et al., 2007:794), considering food is basic needs of customer every day. Perceived risk is not only related to consumers’ information acquisition and processing activity but to post- decision processes as well, where people will seek out information that confirms the wisdom of their decision (Horvat & Dosen, 2013:273). Consumer risk perception and its impacts on purchasing behavior are a critical component ofthe management of food safety (Yeung et al., 2010:306), perceived risk can be explained as consumers’ doubt onthe results of their buying decisions (Arslan et al., 2013). It can be interpreted that perception of risk is sacrificed value of customer when buying products as result from selection until interpretation from alternative product. Described of organic product can be measure with financial risk, performance risk, physical risk and social risk (Yee et al., 2011:54). Research onthe same years is delivered of measure of risk, especially food include health risk, performance risk, psychosocial risk, and financial risk (Tuu et al., 2011:368). Perception of risk have negative relationship with perception of quality (Kim & Lennon, 2013:33), andon last research found that perception of quality have negative relationship with perception of risk received by customer (Chen & Chang, 2005:521). Based on theoretical study which has been discussed, next determined research hypothesis.
Fire brick is the product made of highly purified clays generally fired at 1300 - 1400 0 C used as one ofthe construction materials for metallurgical based industries such as manufacturing and processing of Iron and steel, Alloy castings etc. Ex. Rastreeya Ispath Nigam Limited, Visakhapanam. There are number of such industries processing steel and allied products in India. The quantum of Fire bricks usage per annum is very high and depends on capacity ofthe industry.
The development of fisheries sector was expected to keep the economy growth stable, to absorb more labor forces, to produce high foreign exchange, andthe most important thing is to increase the income per capita as well as to give a muliplier effects to the society. Theeffectof economy from an economy activity is usually performed with input-output analysis approach (I-O) and Computable Geberal Equlibrium (CGE) to know the direct, indirect and induced impacts . The impact of economy in a productive activity, for example fisheries can be grouped into three catergories, i.e. direct advantage, indirect advantage, and induced advantage . Direct advantage is triggered from the fishing activity that needs input like labor force/ ship’s crew, fuel, Ice, clean water, supplies/ ration etc. That input can be obtained from other sector. This can cause indirect advantage. If ship’s crew is from local area, the expense ofthe crew can create induced benefit in that area. Not all the benefits or the impact can be felt by local society. Does the input come from the other area or imported one, the rotation of money can cause indirect benefit then. This is a leakage of benefit. The flow ofthe money from the fisheries activity to the local society at last creates the impact of economy and economy leakage. Even though it is a little, the empirical studies that try to count the downstream and upstream linkage in small scale fishing in a developing country tend to show that the number of added work is created through the downstream and upstream linkage that is significant enought . Downstream and upstream linkage is stated in Table 1. Generally, the international value chain for economic commodities is important for sellers, such as, tuna, salmon, skipjack tuna, shrimp and tilapia, which consist of some nodal with a product that passes over longer to achieve consumers. Whereas some species that is not economically important is important to the sustainability for local food which is part ofthe shorter value chain . Small scale fishing is very important as a source of livelihood, earning, production and world fish supply. Besides that, small scale fishing provides fish that directly gives contribution to increase the food and nutrition sustainability .