Top PDF Effect of season and irrigation on the chemical composition of Aloysia triphylla essential oil

Effect of season and irrigation on the chemical composition of Aloysia triphylla essential oil

Effect of season and irrigation on the chemical composition of Aloysia triphylla essential oil

Aloysia triphylla is an aromatic plant used in several industrial sectors, owing to the chemical properties of its essential oil. Biosynthesis of organic compounds is influenced by the growth conditions. As such, temporal and spatial variation affect the chemical composition of essential oils. We hypothesized that: i) the chemical composition of A. triphylla essential oil is influenced by differences in irrigation and season; and ii) the major components of A. triphylla essential oil do not vary between treatment conditions. To test these hypotheses, we determined the chemical composition of A. triphylla essential oil as a function of four seasons crossed with four irrigation levels. A completely randomized experimental design with a randomized block in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme, representing the four seasons of the year (summer, autumn, winter, and spring) and four irrigation levels (50%, 75%, 100%, and 125% of the reference evapotranspiration), was used with four replicates. Our results show that the chemical composition of A. triphylla essential oil varied with the two study factors, of which season was the major factor. The highest concentrations of constituents classified as monoterpene and sesquiterpene were observed in the summer season, and the highest constituents of the other group of compounds were observed in winter. In addition, the major components of the essential oil were α -citral, limonene, and β -citral, and their levels were the highest during winter.
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Anesthesia of Epinephelus marginatus with essential oil of Aloysia polystachya : an approach on blood parameters

Anesthesia of Epinephelus marginatus with essential oil of Aloysia polystachya : an approach on blood parameters

The present study demonstrated that A. polystachya EO has an anesthetic effect on grouper juveniles. This EO induced sedation at all concentrations tested and anesthetized animals within 3 and 1.5 min (300 and 400 µL L −1 , respectively). Recovery time for both concentrations was about 8 min and 5 min, respectively, and no mortality was observed as a result of anesthesia induction. These findings are in accordance with literature criteria (Marking and Meyer 1985, Gilderhus and Marking 1987, Keene et al. 1998, Park et al. 2009). Parodi et al. (2014) tested the anesthetic effect of the EO obtained from another species of Aloysia, namely A. triphylla, in concentrations ranging between 20 and 800 µL L −1 on two strains (albino and gray) of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), and 200 µL L −1 EO was the best concentration to induce anesthesia in the albino strain, while for the gray strain it was 400 µL L −1 EO. An emulsified mixture composed of Mentha spicata EO and methyl salicylate oil (containing 28.4% L-carvone) anesthetized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) within the recommended time at 395 µL L −1 (Roohi and Imanpoor 2014) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 257 µL L −1 (Danner et al. 2011), but M. spicata EO alone induced anesthesia in less than 3 min only at 5000 µL L −1 (Roohi and Imanpoor 2015). Interestingly, increased EO concentration promoted recovery time decrease. Other EOs produced higher recovery times as the EO concentration increased (Cunha et al. 2010, Heldwein et al. 2012, Silva et al. 2012, 2013, Parodi et al. 2014). Since EOs are complex mixtures of compounds, a particular biological activity such as induction and recovery times from anesthesia depends on the specific chemical characteristics of each EO, including the qualitative composition and
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Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks

Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks

The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.
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Chemical composition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil Ocimum sanctum L.

Chemical composition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil Ocimum sanctum L.

Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) sin. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or Tulsi basil is a plant originating from the tropical and subtropical areas of India. It is used in both the traditional and official medicine in India. Tulsi is a type of basil that is insuffi- ciently explored and studied in Europe. The goal of this paper is to determine the chemical composition, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil Ocimum sanctum L. grown in Serbia. The quantity of essential oil in 100 g of herb (v/w) is 0.68%, with 41 components identified in the tested essential oil. The most represented chemical group were sesquiturpene hydrocarbonates with 80.47%. Other groups were much less represented. Sesquiturpene hydrocarbonate β -car- iophyllene is a predominant component in the essential oil with 63.80%. The quantity of tested essential oil needed to achieve 50% of inhibition of DPPH radi- cals is 0.35 μg/ml, and it has high potential to neutralize free radicals. The essen- tial oil exhibited antibacterial activity to all tested strains of bacteria, both Gram- positive and Gram-negative. It affected all strains in an inhibitory way in the inter- val 0.34–41.50 μl/ml, and in a bactericide way within the range 22.50–124.5 μl/ml. The most sensitive strains of bacteria were Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, while Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococus faecalis showed greatest resistance. The essential oil exhibited antifungal activity on all tested fungi. It affected all tested fungi in an inhibitory way in the interval 4.42–8.83 μl/ml, and in a microbicide way within the range 10.00–50.00 μl/ml. The most sensitive fungi are: Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicilium funiculosum, while the most resistant one is Aspergillus niger. The tested basil essential oil Oci- mum sanctum demonstrated significant antioxidative and antimicrobial effect and may be used as a raw material in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
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Oxidative stability during frozen storage of fillets from silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) sedated with the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla during transport

Oxidative stability during frozen storage of fillets from silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) sedated with the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla during transport

related to the antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation shown by EOAT when used as an anesthetic in vivo in silver catfish (GRESSLER et al., 2012). Exposure in vivo to EOAT immediately before slaughter reduced stress in the catfish by suppressing cortisol release and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione S-transferase (GRESSLER et al., 2012). In addition, the antioxidant effect of EOAT may also be related to the removal of free radicals by antioxidant compounds present in the oil, since, in vitro, the oil presented moderate capacity to remove the DPPH radical when compared to BHA (ALI et al., 2011). Despite presenting a promising antioxidant effect on the frozen fillets and even though EOAT is a natural compound extracted from a plant that is widely used in tea and for spice in the human diet, it is still necessary to evaluate its toxicological safety before it can be used in foods.
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Evaluation of the effect of irrigation on biometric growth, physiological response and essential oil of Mentha spicata (L.)

Evaluation of the effect of irrigation on biometric growth, physiological response and essential oil of Mentha spicata (L.)

As expected, the few studies on mint irrigation report that plant growth and essential oil yield and composition were influenced by different levels of irrigation regimes, following various water deficit stress levels [56]. Okwany et al. [24] reported unchanged yield across apparently different irrigation treatments at the first cutting but a decrease at the driest plots during the second harvest due to the loss of leaf area index, as the biomass (hay) production is highly sensitive to water stress. Our data confirm their results on an increasing effect of irrigation on hay and oil yield per hectare, while our findings are different for the harvest dates, lower in our case for the second harvest. Our data also confirm the results of Nakawuka et al. [60] at Washington State University’s Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (IAREC), although hay and oil produced are lower here than in the IAREC study. Our results are also parallel to the results obtained by Khorasaninejad et al. [61], who indicated that drought stress motivated a significant reduction in all of the growth parameters and essential oil yield and percentage. The highest values of growth parameters and essential oil percent and yield were observed under full irrigation. In contrast, Hassanpour et al. [62] claims that the seedlings at moderate stress (treatment named 75 % FC) showed maximum growth and it was the threshold of drought-initiated negative effects on seedling growth. Oil yields of different M. longifolia L. genotypes were higher when mint was fully irrigated, in comparison with the stress treatment, named 60% FC.
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Harvest time and plant age on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Alpinia zerumbet

Harvest time and plant age on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Alpinia zerumbet

Factors related to medicinal plant growing like plant spacing, cutting height, seson, age and harvest time may influence directly in the essential oil production and, therefore, in its pharmacological properties. Some studies state the influence of these factors in aromatic species like Cymbopogon citratus (Nascimento et al., 2003), Lippia alba (Santos et al., 2004), Cymbopogon winterianus (Blank et al., 2007) and Aloysia triphylla (Brant et al., 2009). However, studies on plants of Zingiberaceae family are still rare. Phytochemical studies have advanced considerably, but the same is not true for agronomic studies. That is why the researches related to the agronomic aspects became essential (Innecco et al., 2003) to guarantee a regular supply of a great amount and quality of raw material for industries.
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Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves

The decrease in the absorption at 560 nm suggested superoxide radicals’ scavenging, being most significant when the essential oil was added to the reaction mixture – 95.93 %. Superoxyde dismutase 100 U/mL with inhibiting effect 77.8 % was used as a standard. The results achieved in the study revealed two ways of influence of essential oil and eugenol on xanthine-xanthine oxidase function – they acted as xanthine oxidase inhibitors and superoxide scavengers, thus confirming the interpretation of (Jubert et al., 2004).The evaluation of antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid model system was as follows: For the task of evaluating the inhibitory effect of essential oil on lipid peroxidation, a model system of linoleic acid emulsion was applied. The antioxidant capacity was estimated both at the early stages of linoleic acid autoxidation and later, after the emergence of secondary oxidation products, expressed as malonic aldehyde content. Two indicators were referred to, corresponding to a different degree of lipid peroxidation – conjugated diene formation and TBARS. The effect of the essential Murraya koenigii leaf oil on lipid peroxidation was assayed at body temperature, 37°C.
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Essential oil of Lithraea molleoides (Vell.): chemical composition and antimicrobial activity

Essential oil of Lithraea molleoides (Vell.): chemical composition and antimicrobial activity

Aloysia triphylla (12) and Cordia verbenacea DC (5), have been obtained and studied, this study had not yet been carried out on Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engler. The aims of the present study were: (i) the extraction of the essential oil of the mature fruits, leaves and aerial parts of the plant and quantification of the yield thereof; (ii) the identification and quantification of the principal components of the essential oil and (iii) the determination of its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast.
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Effect of salt stress on the growth of Lippia gracilis Schauer and on the quality of its essential oil

Effect of salt stress on the growth of Lippia gracilis Schauer and on the quality of its essential oil

This study evaluated the effect of salt stress on the growth of Lippia gracilis Schauer, a species native to the caatinga (shrublands) of Brazil and rich in essential oils, as well as on the quality of its oil. We exposed individuals of L. gracilis to NaCl, in the following concentrations, for a period of 40 days: 25 mM; 50 mM; 75 mM; and 100 mM. An additional group of plants was not exposed to NaCl (controls). Data were collected on days 20 and 40. We evaluated relative growth rate; shoot and root dry weight; relative water content; proline concentration in leaves; and chemical composition of the essential oil. At all concentrations, NaCl reduced the relative growth rate in comparison with that observed for the controls. No significant difference in relative water content was observed among treatments. In all treatments, the proline concentration in leaves was highest on day 40. Salt stress did not affect the yield or the concentrations of the constituents of the essential oil of L. gracilis, carvacrol and thymol showing the highest concentrations in all treatments.
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Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Aloysia triphylla (L’Hérit) Britton Extracts Obtained by Pressurized

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Aloysia triphylla (L’Hérit) Britton Extracts Obtained by Pressurized

Antimicrobial susceptibility tests with plant extracts using the microdilution plate may have drawbacks such as precipitation of some components in the extract and adherence of some microorganisms to the bottom of the hole making it difficult to analyze (Ostrosky et al. 2008). However, liquid medium was considered the best medium for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity using the natural compounds (Skandamis et al. 2000). Methanol was used to facilitate the dissolution of the extracts in a liquid culture medium and assess its minimum bactericidal activity (data not shown). In the present work, methanol showed no antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas. The lack of antimicrobial activity of methanol had also been found in Gram-negative bacteria (Pinto et al. 2001). Celiktas et al (2007) found low antimicrobial activity of methanol for the genus Staphylococcus and this activity was considered insignificant when compared to the essential oil tested.
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Anesthetic induction and recovery time of Centropomus parallelus exposed to the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla

Anesthetic induction and recovery time of Centropomus parallelus exposed to the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla

The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (L’Herit) Britton (EOA) presented anesthetic efficacy in the freshwater silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (PARODI et al., 2014), but no studies in other fish species have been performed. The fat snook, Centropomus parallelus, is an inshore tropical euryhaline species with high flesh quality and market value, as well as significant aquaculture potential (BOUCHEREAU et al., 2000). Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the anesthetic induction and recovery times of the EOA, its efficacy as a stress-reducing agent during the transport of fat snook and the influence of salinity on the effect of EOA.
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Antinociceptive effects, acute toxicity and chemical composition of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil

Antinociceptive effects, acute toxicity and chemical composition of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil

EOVAC showed a rapid analgesic effect in the tail immersion test. The analgesic effect of EOVAC was started from 15 min after administration. This result suggested that EOVAC had a rapid analgesic effect. This rapid effect of EOVAC may be due to its lipophilic nature. Because of this lipophilic character, the EOVAC allowed to rapidly absorb from injection site and also rapidly penetrated the blood brain barrier and reached the central nervous system (Buchbauer et al., 1993). Some of constituents of essential oils such as linalool, eugenol, menthol, and thymol can act on the central and peripheral nervous system as ion channel modulators (De Araújo et al., 2011).
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Effect of drying-air temperature on content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata.

Effect of drying-air temperature on content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata.

EFFECT OF DRYING-AIR TEMPERATURE ON CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Pectis brevipedunculata. Leaves and lower heads of P. brevipedunculata were submitted to four drying-air temperatures (room temperature, 40, 50 and 60 °C). Room temperature (approximately 30 °C) and higher temperature drying (50 and 60 °C) had a deleterious effect on the essential oil content. The recommended drying-air temperature for the species is 40 °C for it results in the same amount of essential oil observed in fresh cut plants. Overall, 13 components accounting for more than 92% of the total composition were identiied. Citral was the major component, followed by α-pinene and limonene. The essential oil showed high toxicity against Artemia salina larvae.
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Histochemistry, content and chemical composition of essential oil in different organs of Alpinia zerumbet

Histochemistry, content and chemical composition of essential oil in different organs of Alpinia zerumbet

Alpinia zerumbet is a medicinal plant from Asian origin used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, which effect is attributed to terpinen-4-ol, the major component of the essential oil. The objective of this work was to identify the essential oil secretory structures in the leaf, fl ower, root and rhizome of this plant, and analyze the content and the chemical composition of the oil in the different organs of the plant. Sections were subjected to histochemical test with Nadi reagent for in situ localization of secretion. The essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identifi ed in CG-EM/FID. The histochemical test was positive for terpenoids, confi rming the presence of essential oil stored in secretory structures named oils cells present in all analyzed organs. The higher essential oil content was found on the leaf (0.30%), while the petal and the rhizome presented content of 0.10% and 0.06%, respectively. It was not possible to determine essential oil content of the root due to the low amount of biomass produced. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the chemical composition of the essential oil in the different plant organs, but the major constituent in all of them was the terpinen-4- ol, followed by 1,8 cineol in the leaf and by the -terpineol in the fl ower and rhizome.
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In vitro antiparasitic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves (Burceraceae)

In vitro antiparasitic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves (Burceraceae)

To sum up, results of this study showed that the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves found in the Brazilian Cerrado, which is located in the country’s central-west region, has promising antiparasitic potential with moderate cytotoxicity towards LLCMK 2 adherent epithelial cells. The chemical composition of the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves had a mixture of mono and sesquiterpenes and its major constituents were spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide, β-caryophyllene and myrcene. Since diseases caused by the parasites under investigation affect millions of people worldwide, results of this study are relevant because the chemical composition of the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves was described for the first time. It is noteworthy that, in the face of medical advances, plants are still considered promising sources and bioactive compounds found in essential oils from plants of the genus Protium may serve as prototypes for the development of new antiparasitic drugs.
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Content and composition of the essential oil of five accesses of mentrasto.

Content and composition of the essential oil of five accesses of mentrasto.

CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF FIVE ACCESSES OF MENTRASTO. This study aimed to analyse the content and the composition of the essential oil of five accesses of mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides). Five accesses of mentrasto with three repetitions were used. The accesses were obtained in Mariana-MG (AMA), Piranga-MG (API), Visconde do Rio Branco (ARB) and Viçosa-MG (AVB and AVP). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and the identification of the oil components by CG and GC/MS. The ARB access presented the higher essential oil content, that is 0.70% (P < 0.05). Eleven chemical compounds were identified. The precocene I was the main constituent in the access API, and the precocene II was the main constituent in the accesses AMA, ARB, AVB and AVP.
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Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of the Essential Oil of Thymus haussknechtii Velen.

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of the Essential Oil of Thymus haussknechtii Velen.

GC analysis of the essential oil was carried out on Agilent 5975 GC-MSD system and Agilent 6890N GC system with flame ionization detector (FID) and a HP-Innowax FSC column (60 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 m film thickness). Helium was used as a carrier gas at 0.8 mL/min. The injector and detector temperatures were 250°C and 300°C, respectively. GC oven temperature was at 60°C for 10 min, then programmed to 220°C at a rate of 4°C/min and kept in this temperature for 10 min and finally programmed to 240°C at a rate of 1°C/min with a final hold time of 80 min. The split ratio was 40:1. Mass spectrums were taken at 70 eV and mass range was from m/z 35 to 450. In order to obtain same elution order with GC-MS, simultaneous injection was done by using the same column and appropriate operational conditions.
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Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Organic Extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Organic Extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

total oil from leaves. The identified compounds are listed in Table 1, according to their elution order on a VF-5 capillary column. The oil contains a complex mixture consisting of mainly oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The major compounds detected in the leaves oil were phytol (27.25%), a- humulene (14.21%), spathulenol (12.12%), 1- octen-3-ol (8.21%), eugenol (6.69%), phenylethyl alcohol (5.81%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.6%), as shown in Table 1. Several papers reported that all these compounds possess significant antioxidant activity in several model systems [ 16,17 ]. It is also
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Chemical composition, antioxidant and biological activity of Ocotea bicolor Vattimo-Gil (LAURACEAE) essential oil

Chemical composition, antioxidant and biological activity of Ocotea bicolor Vattimo-Gil (LAURACEAE) essential oil

T h e a n t i o x i d a n t a c t i v i t y t h r o u g h t h e phosphomolybdenum complex reduction method was performed using the standard solutions of ascorbic acid and rutin, that were prepared at the concentration of 200 μg / mL in methanol and 0.5% DMSO, as well as the samples (Prieto, Pineda, Aguilar, 1999). Aliquots of 0.3 mL were added to 3 mL of the phosphomolybdenum reagent (0.1 M tribasic sodium phosphate (28 mL), 0.03 M ammonium tetrahydrate molybdate solution (12 mL), 3 M sulfuric acid (20 mL) and water until complete 100 mL). The tubes were closed and brought to the thermostated bath at 95 ºC for 90 min. After cooling, the absorbances were obtained in 96-well microplates with round bottoms by reading in the Multiskan FC spectrophotometer, Thermo Scientific® at wavelength 695 nm. The antioxidant capacity of the samples was expressed in relative antioxidant activity (AAR%), in relation to the standards, using the equation: AAR% = [(Sample Absorbance - Absorbance of White)/ (Absorbance of Standard - Absorbance of White)] X 100 The variance of the obtained results was evaluated by the ANOVA test and the difference between the means verified by the test (t) by Scott and Knott (p <0.05).
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